How It's Made (2001–…): Season 3, Episode 7 - Mustard/Violins/Nuts and Bolts/Toilet Paper - full transcript


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

>> Narrator: TODAY, ON
"HOW IT'S MADE"...
PREPARED MUSTARD...

"HOW IT'S MADE"...
PREPARED MUSTARD...
VIOLINS...

PREPARED MUSTARD...
VIOLINS...
NUTS AND BOLTS...

VIOLINS...
NUTS AND BOLTS...
AND TOILET PAPER.

WE EAT IT ON HOT DOGS AND
HAMBURGERS, ON SAUSAGES AND
SANDWICHES.

HAMBURGERS, ON SAUSAGES AND
SANDWICHES.
NO CONDIMENT CUTS THE MUSTARD

SANDWICHES.
NO CONDIMENT CUTS THE MUSTARD
QUITE LIKE MUSTARD.

NO CONDIMENT CUTS THE MUSTARD
QUITE LIKE MUSTARD.
THE ANCIENT ROMANS TOOK THE

QUITE LIKE MUSTARD.
THE ANCIENT ROMANS TOOK THE
MUSTARD SEED TO WHAT IS NOW

THE ANCIENT ROMANS TOOK THE
MUSTARD SEED TO WHAT IS NOW
FRANCE, AND BY THE 9th CENTURY,

MUSTARD SEED TO WHAT IS NOW
FRANCE, AND BY THE 9th CENTURY,
BIG-TIME MUSTARD PRODUCTION WAS

FRANCE, AND BY THE 9th CENTURY,
BIG-TIME MUSTARD PRODUCTION WAS
UNDER WAY.

BIG-TIME MUSTARD PRODUCTION WAS
UNDER WAY.
YELLOW MUSTARD AND DIJON MUSTARD

UNDER WAY.
YELLOW MUSTARD AND DIJON MUSTARD
HAVE A FEW INGREDIENTS IN

YELLOW MUSTARD AND DIJON MUSTARD
HAVE A FEW INGREDIENTS IN
COMMON, BUT THAT'S WHERE THE

HAVE A FEW INGREDIENTS IN
COMMON, BUT THAT'S WHERE THE
SIMILARITY ENDS.

COMMON, BUT THAT'S WHERE THE
SIMILARITY ENDS.
NOT ONLY ARE THEY PREPARED QUITE

SIMILARITY ENDS.
NOT ONLY ARE THEY PREPARED QUITE
DIFFERENTLY -- THEY'RE DERIVED

NOT ONLY ARE THEY PREPARED QUITE
DIFFERENTLY -- THEY'RE DERIVED
FROM DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF

DIFFERENTLY -- THEY'RE DERIVED
FROM DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF
MUSTARD SEED.

FROM DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF
MUSTARD SEED.
YELLOW MUSTARD IS MADE FROM THE

MUSTARD SEED.
YELLOW MUSTARD IS MADE FROM THE
SEEDS OF THE WHITE MUSTARD

YELLOW MUSTARD IS MADE FROM THE
SEEDS OF THE WHITE MUSTARD
PLANT.

SEEDS OF THE WHITE MUSTARD
PLANT.
TURMERIC AND PAPRIKA PROVIDE THE

PLANT.
TURMERIC AND PAPRIKA PROVIDE THE
YELLOW COLOR AND SHARP FLAVOR.

TURMERIC AND PAPRIKA PROVIDE THE
YELLOW COLOR AND SHARP FLAVOR.
THE OTHER INGREDIENTS ARE SALT,

YELLOW COLOR AND SHARP FLAVOR.
THE OTHER INGREDIENTS ARE SALT,
WATER, AND WHITE VINEGAR.

THE OTHER INGREDIENTS ARE SALT,
WATER, AND WHITE VINEGAR.
THE POWDERED INGREDIENTS GO DOWN

WATER, AND WHITE VINEGAR.
THE POWDERED INGREDIENTS GO DOWN
A SHAFT TO A MIXING TANK

THE POWDERED INGREDIENTS GO DOWN
A SHAFT TO A MIXING TANK
CONTAINING THE WATER AND

A SHAFT TO A MIXING TANK
CONTAINING THE WATER AND
VINEGAR.

CONTAINING THE WATER AND
VINEGAR.
YELLOW MUSTARD'S PROPORTIONS ARE

VINEGAR.
YELLOW MUSTARD'S PROPORTIONS ARE
ROUGHLY 60% WATER, 20% VINEGAR,

YELLOW MUSTARD'S PROPORTIONS ARE
ROUGHLY 60% WATER, 20% VINEGAR,
15% SEEDS, AND 5% SALT AND

ROUGHLY 60% WATER, 20% VINEGAR,
15% SEEDS, AND 5% SALT AND
SPICES.

15% SEEDS, AND 5% SALT AND
SPICES.
THE LAST INGREDIENT TO GO IN IS

SPICES.
THE LAST INGREDIENT TO GO IN IS
THE MUSTARD SEED -- HULL, BRAN,

THE LAST INGREDIENT TO GO IN IS
THE MUSTARD SEED -- HULL, BRAN,
AND ALL.

THE MUSTARD SEED -- HULL, BRAN,
AND ALL.
THE TANK'S ROTATING MIXERS

AND ALL.
THE TANK'S ROTATING MIXERS
BLENDS THE INGREDIENTS FOR ABOUT

THE TANK'S ROTATING MIXERS
BLENDS THE INGREDIENTS FOR ABOUT
AN HOUR AT SEED-CRUSHING SPEEDS

BLENDS THE INGREDIENTS FOR ABOUT
AN HOUR AT SEED-CRUSHING SPEEDS
REACHING 165 MILES PER HOUR.

AN HOUR AT SEED-CRUSHING SPEEDS
REACHING 165 MILES PER HOUR.
THE TANK'S CONTENTS EMPTY INTO

REACHING 165 MILES PER HOUR.
THE TANK'S CONTENTS EMPTY INTO
SEVERAL STAINLESS-STEEL MILLS.

THE TANK'S CONTENTS EMPTY INTO
SEVERAL STAINLESS-STEEL MILLS.
INSIDE EACH ONE, A PAIR OF

SEVERAL STAINLESS-STEEL MILLS.
INSIDE EACH ONE, A PAIR OF
SYNTHETIC STONES GRINDS THE

INSIDE EACH ONE, A PAIR OF
SYNTHETIC STONES GRINDS THE
SEEDS, A PROCESS KNOWN AS STONE

SYNTHETIC STONES GRINDS THE
SEEDS, A PROCESS KNOWN AS STONE
MILLING.

SEEDS, A PROCESS KNOWN AS STONE
MILLING.
THAT GRINDING ACTION HEATS THE

MILLING.
THAT GRINDING ACTION HEATS THE
MIXTURE TO ABOUT 140 DEGREES

THAT GRINDING ACTION HEATS THE
MIXTURE TO ABOUT 140 DEGREES
FAHRENHEIT.

MIXTURE TO ABOUT 140 DEGREES
FAHRENHEIT.
THE LIQUID THICKENS INTO CREAMY,

FAHRENHEIT.
THE LIQUID THICKENS INTO CREAMY,
BRIGHT YELLOW MUSTARD.

THE LIQUID THICKENS INTO CREAMY,
BRIGHT YELLOW MUSTARD.
BEFORE BOTTLING, THEY PERFORM

BRIGHT YELLOW MUSTARD.
BEFORE BOTTLING, THEY PERFORM
WHAT IS CALLED A FINESSE TEST.

BEFORE BOTTLING, THEY PERFORM
WHAT IS CALLED A FINESSE TEST.
THIS ENSURES THE MUSTARD IS

WHAT IS CALLED A FINESSE TEST.
THIS ENSURES THE MUSTARD IS
SMOOTH ENOUGH.

THIS ENSURES THE MUSTARD IS
SMOOTH ENOUGH.
IF ITS PARTICLES ARE LARGER THAN

SMOOTH ENOUGH.
IF ITS PARTICLES ARE LARGER THAN
9/1000 OF AN INCH, THE FACTORY

IF ITS PARTICLES ARE LARGER THAN
9/1000 OF AN INCH, THE FACTORY
ADJUSTS THE MILLING STONES

9/1000 OF AN INCH, THE FACTORY
ADJUSTS THE MILLING STONES
CLOSER TOGETHER TO PRODUCE A

ADJUSTS THE MILLING STONES
CLOSER TOGETHER TO PRODUCE A
FINER GRIND.

CLOSER TOGETHER TO PRODUCE A
FINER GRIND.
THEY MAKE DIJON MUSTARD FROM

FINER GRIND.
THEY MAKE DIJON MUSTARD FROM
BROWN MUSTARD SEEDS, SOMETIMES

THEY MAKE DIJON MUSTARD FROM
BROWN MUSTARD SEEDS, SOMETIMES
MIXED WITH OTHER VARIETIES, AND

BROWN MUSTARD SEEDS, SOMETIMES
MIXED WITH OTHER VARIETIES, AND
THEY USUALLY USE TWO TYPES OF

MIXED WITH OTHER VARIETIES, AND
THEY USUALLY USE TWO TYPES OF
VINEGAR -- CIDER AND WHITE.

THEY USUALLY USE TWO TYPES OF
VINEGAR -- CIDER AND WHITE.
THE INGREDIENTS FERMENT IN A

VINEGAR -- CIDER AND WHITE.
THE INGREDIENTS FERMENT IN A
TANK FOR 12 HOURS BEFORE MIXING.

THE INGREDIENTS FERMENT IN A
TANK FOR 12 HOURS BEFORE MIXING.
THAT'S WHAT GIVES DIJON MUSTARD

TANK FOR 12 HOURS BEFORE MIXING.
THAT'S WHAT GIVES DIJON MUSTARD
ITS STRONG FLAVOR.

THAT'S WHAT GIVES DIJON MUSTARD
ITS STRONG FLAVOR.
AFTER MIXING, IT'S THE SAME

ITS STRONG FLAVOR.
AFTER MIXING, IT'S THE SAME
STONE-MILLING PROCESS WE SAW

AFTER MIXING, IT'S THE SAME
STONE-MILLING PROCESS WE SAW
BEFORE.

STONE-MILLING PROCESS WE SAW
BEFORE.
HERE'S WHAT THE INSIDE OF THOSE

BEFORE.
HERE'S WHAT THE INSIDE OF THOSE
MILLS LOOK LIKE -- A ROTATING

HERE'S WHAT THE INSIDE OF THOSE
MILLS LOOK LIKE -- A ROTATING
STONE RUBBING SEEDS AGAINST A

MILLS LOOK LIKE -- A ROTATING
STONE RUBBING SEEDS AGAINST A
STATIONARY STONE -- THE SAME

STONE RUBBING SEEDS AGAINST A
STATIONARY STONE -- THE SAME
PRINCIPLE AS AN OLD-FASHIONED

STATIONARY STONE -- THE SAME
PRINCIPLE AS AN OLD-FASHIONED
MORTAR AND PESTLE.

PRINCIPLE AS AN OLD-FASHIONED
MORTAR AND PESTLE.
DIJON IS MADE WITH TWICE AS MANY

MORTAR AND PESTLE.
DIJON IS MADE WITH TWICE AS MANY
SEEDS AS YELLOW MUSTARD AND 20%

DIJON IS MADE WITH TWICE AS MANY
SEEDS AS YELLOW MUSTARD AND 20%
LESS WATER, WHICH IS WHY IT

SEEDS AS YELLOW MUSTARD AND 20%
LESS WATER, WHICH IS WHY IT
COMES OUT THICKER AND DENSER AND

LESS WATER, WHICH IS WHY IT
COMES OUT THICKER AND DENSER AND
NEEDS THE OCCASIONAL STIR.

COMES OUT THICKER AND DENSER AND
NEEDS THE OCCASIONAL STIR.
FILTERS SCREEN OUT ANY PARTICLES

NEEDS THE OCCASIONAL STIR.
FILTERS SCREEN OUT ANY PARTICLES
LARGER THAN 9/100 OF AN INCH.

THE FACTORY SAVES THESE COARSE
PIECES TO PUT INTO SPECIALTY
MUSTARDS.

PIECES TO PUT INTO SPECIALTY
MUSTARDS.
NOW THE CREAMY, SMOOTH DIJON

MUSTARDS.
NOW THE CREAMY, SMOOTH DIJON
MUSTARD GOES INTO A

NOW THE CREAMY, SMOOTH DIJON
MUSTARD GOES INTO A
STAINLESS-STEEL TANK.

MUSTARD GOES INTO A
STAINLESS-STEEL TANK.
A SLOW-SPEED REVOLVING MIXER

STAINLESS-STEEL TANK.
A SLOW-SPEED REVOLVING MIXER
REMOVES THE AIR, WHICH WOULD

A SLOW-SPEED REVOLVING MIXER
REMOVES THE AIR, WHICH WOULD
OTHERWISE TURN IT BROWN AND DULL

REMOVES THE AIR, WHICH WOULD
OTHERWISE TURN IT BROWN AND DULL
ITS FLAVOR.

OTHERWISE TURN IT BROWN AND DULL
ITS FLAVOR.
THE YELLOW MUSTARD TANKS ALSO

ITS FLAVOR.
THE YELLOW MUSTARD TANKS ALSO
HAVE MIXERS TO REMOVE AIR AND TO

THE YELLOW MUSTARD TANKS ALSO
HAVE MIXERS TO REMOVE AIR AND TO
KEEP THE CONDIMENT WELL-BLENDED.

HAVE MIXERS TO REMOVE AIR AND TO
KEEP THE CONDIMENT WELL-BLENDED.
BOTH DIJON AND YELLOW MUSTARD

KEEP THE CONDIMENT WELL-BLENDED.
BOTH DIJON AND YELLOW MUSTARD
HAVE TO COOL OVERNIGHT BEFORE

BOTH DIJON AND YELLOW MUSTARD
HAVE TO COOL OVERNIGHT BEFORE
BOTTLING.

HAVE TO COOL OVERNIGHT BEFORE
BOTTLING.
FROM START TO FINISH, IT TAKES

BOTTLING.
FROM START TO FINISH, IT TAKES
ABOUT 20 HOURS TO PRODUCE YELLOW

FROM START TO FINISH, IT TAKES
ABOUT 20 HOURS TO PRODUCE YELLOW
MUSTARD, AND ABOUT 32 HOURS FOR

ABOUT 20 HOURS TO PRODUCE YELLOW
MUSTARD, AND ABOUT 32 HOURS FOR
DIJON BECAUSE OF ITS

MUSTARD, AND ABOUT 32 HOURS FOR
DIJON BECAUSE OF ITS
FERMENTATION PERIOD.

DIJON BECAUSE OF ITS
FERMENTATION PERIOD.
YELLOW MUSTARD HAS A 15-MONTH

FERMENTATION PERIOD.
YELLOW MUSTARD HAS A 15-MONTH
SHELF LIFE, WHILE DIJON STAYS

YELLOW MUSTARD HAS A 15-MONTH
SHELF LIFE, WHILE DIJON STAYS
FRESH FOR A YEAR.

SHELF LIFE, WHILE DIJON STAYS
FRESH FOR A YEAR.
BOTH SHOULD BE REFRIGERATED

FRESH FOR A YEAR.
BOTH SHOULD BE REFRIGERATED
AFTER OPENING TO PRESERVE THEIR

BOTH SHOULD BE REFRIGERATED
AFTER OPENING TO PRESERVE THEIR
FLAVOR.

AFTER OPENING TO PRESERVE THEIR
FLAVOR.
MUSTARD IS A CONDIMENT THAT EVEN

FLAVOR.
MUSTARD IS A CONDIMENT THAT EVEN
HEALTH-CONSCIOUS EATERS CAN

MUSTARD IS A CONDIMENT THAT EVEN
HEALTH-CONSCIOUS EATERS CAN
ENJOY.

HEALTH-CONSCIOUS EATERS CAN
ENJOY.
IT PACKS A LOT OF FLAVOR IN JUST

ENJOY.
IT PACKS A LOT OF FLAVOR IN JUST
A FEW CALORIES.

IT PACKS A LOT OF FLAVOR IN JUST
A FEW CALORIES.
MUSTARD CONTAINS A SMALL AMOUNT

A FEW CALORIES.
MUSTARD CONTAINS A SMALL AMOUNT
OF FAT, SOMEWHAT MORE IF THE

MUSTARD CONTAINS A SMALL AMOUNT
OF FAT, SOMEWHAT MORE IF THE
MANUFACTURER USES OIL IN THE

OF FAT, SOMEWHAT MORE IF THE
MANUFACTURER USES OIL IN THE
RECIPE, BUT IT'S STILL A

MANUFACTURER USES OIL IN THE
RECIPE, BUT IT'S STILL A
CHOLESTEROL-FREE FOOD.

>> Narrator: THE VIOLIN WAS
DEVELOPED IN THE 1500s, EVOLVING
FROM A SERIES OF GUITAR-LIKE

DEVELOPED IN THE 1500s, EVOLVING
FROM A SERIES OF GUITAR-LIKE
INSTRUMENTS THAT MUSICIANS

FROM A SERIES OF GUITAR-LIKE
INSTRUMENTS THAT MUSICIANS
PLAYED WITH A BOW.

INSTRUMENTS THAT MUSICIANS
PLAYED WITH A BOW.
WHILE THE VIOLIN IS BEST KNOWN

PLAYED WITH A BOW.
WHILE THE VIOLIN IS BEST KNOWN
FOR CLASSICAL AND GYPSY MUSIC,

WHILE THE VIOLIN IS BEST KNOWN
FOR CLASSICAL AND GYPSY MUSIC,
TODAY YOU HEAR IT IN POP,

FOR CLASSICAL AND GYPSY MUSIC,
TODAY YOU HEAR IT IN POP,
COUNTRY, BLUEGRASS, EVEN JAZZ.

TODAY YOU HEAR IT IN POP,
COUNTRY, BLUEGRASS, EVEN JAZZ.
FIRST THEY CUT A PIECE OF MAPLE,

COUNTRY, BLUEGRASS, EVEN JAZZ.
FIRST THEY CUT A PIECE OF MAPLE,
THEN SPLIT IT IN HALF TO EXPOSE

FIRST THEY CUT A PIECE OF MAPLE,
THEN SPLIT IT IN HALF TO EXPOSE
THE GRAIN IN MIRROR IMAGE.

THEN SPLIT IT IN HALF TO EXPOSE
THE GRAIN IN MIRROR IMAGE.
THEY MELT DOWN GLUE FLAKES MADE

THE GRAIN IN MIRROR IMAGE.
THEY MELT DOWN GLUE FLAKES MADE
FROM ANIMAL HIDE, THEN BOND THE

THEY MELT DOWN GLUE FLAKES MADE
FROM ANIMAL HIDE, THEN BOND THE
PIECES TOGETHER.

FROM ANIMAL HIDE, THEN BOND THE
PIECES TOGETHER.
VIOLIN MAKERS ONLY USE GLUE,

PIECES TOGETHER.
VIOLIN MAKERS ONLY USE GLUE,
NEVER NAILS OR SCREWS.

VIOLIN MAKERS ONLY USE GLUE,
NEVER NAILS OR SCREWS.
THESE PIECES OF WOOD WILL FORM

NEVER NAILS OR SCREWS.
THESE PIECES OF WOOD WILL FORM
THE BACK OF THE VIOLIN.

THESE PIECES OF WOOD WILL FORM
THE BACK OF THE VIOLIN.
AFTER FOUR HOURS, THE GLUE

THE BACK OF THE VIOLIN.
AFTER FOUR HOURS, THE GLUE
IS DRY, AND THEY CAN REMOVE THE

AFTER FOUR HOURS, THE GLUE
IS DRY, AND THEY CAN REMOVE THE
CLAMPS.

IS DRY, AND THEY CAN REMOVE THE
CLAMPS.
USING A SMALL PLANE, THEY EVEN

CLAMPS.
USING A SMALL PLANE, THEY EVEN
OUT THE SURFACE.

USING A SMALL PLANE, THEY EVEN
OUT THE SURFACE.
THEN THEY TRACE THE VIOLIN'S

OUT THE SURFACE.
THEN THEY TRACE THE VIOLIN'S
SHAPE AND CUT IT OUT.

THEN THEY TRACE THE VIOLIN'S
SHAPE AND CUT IT OUT.
THEY SHAVE THE SURFACE SCULPTING

SHAPE AND CUT IT OUT.
THEY SHAVE THE SURFACE SCULPTING
A DOWNWARD SLOPE FROM THE MIDDLE

THEY SHAVE THE SURFACE SCULPTING
A DOWNWARD SLOPE FROM THE MIDDLE
USING AN EVEN SMALLER PLANE.

A DOWNWARD SLOPE FROM THE MIDDLE
USING AN EVEN SMALLER PLANE.
THEN THEY CARVE A GROOVE ALONG

USING AN EVEN SMALLER PLANE.
THEN THEY CARVE A GROOVE ALONG
THE CIRCUMFERENCE.

THEN THEY CARVE A GROOVE ALONG
THE CIRCUMFERENCE.
AFTER DABBING IT WITH GLUE, THEY

THE CIRCUMFERENCE.
AFTER DABBING IT WITH GLUE, THEY
INSERT WHAT'S KNOWN AS PURFLING,

AFTER DABBING IT WITH GLUE, THEY
INSERT WHAT'S KNOWN AS PURFLING,
A REINFORCEMENT MADE FROM A THIN

INSERT WHAT'S KNOWN AS PURFLING,
A REINFORCEMENT MADE FROM A THIN
STRIP OF HARDWOOD, USUALLY

A REINFORCEMENT MADE FROM A THIN
STRIP OF HARDWOOD, USUALLY
MAPLE.

STRIP OF HARDWOOD, USUALLY
MAPLE.
FINALLY, THEY CARVE THE REVERSE

MAPLE.
FINALLY, THEY CARVE THE REVERSE
SIDE TO THE RIGHT FORM AND

FINALLY, THEY CARVE THE REVERSE
SIDE TO THE RIGHT FORM AND
THICKNESS.

SIDE TO THE RIGHT FORM AND
THICKNESS.
NEXT THEY MAKE THE SIDES

THICKNESS.
NEXT THEY MAKE THE SIDES
OF THE VIOLIN, KNOWN AS THE

NEXT THEY MAKE THE SIDES
OF THE VIOLIN, KNOWN AS THE
RIBS.

OF THE VIOLIN, KNOWN AS THE
RIBS.
FIRST THEY SOAK THIN STRIPS

RIBS.
FIRST THEY SOAK THIN STRIPS
OF MAPLE OR SYCAMORE AND PRESS

FIRST THEY SOAK THIN STRIPS
OF MAPLE OR SYCAMORE AND PRESS
THEM AGAINST A HEATED BENDING

OF MAPLE OR SYCAMORE AND PRESS
THEM AGAINST A HEATED BENDING
IRON TO CURVE THEM.

THEM AGAINST A HEATED BENDING
IRON TO CURVE THEM.
THEN THEY GLUE THE STRIPS AROUND

IRON TO CURVE THEM.
THEN THEY GLUE THE STRIPS AROUND
A FORM, CONNECTING THEM AT THE

THEN THEY GLUE THE STRIPS AROUND
A FORM, CONNECTING THEM AT THE
TOP AND BOTTOM, AND AT THE

A FORM, CONNECTING THEM AT THE
TOP AND BOTTOM, AND AT THE
CORNERS WITH SMALL BLOCKS OF

TOP AND BOTTOM, AND AT THE
CORNERS WITH SMALL BLOCKS OF
WOOD.

CORNERS WITH SMALL BLOCKS OF
WOOD.
THEY CLAMP EVERYTHING TOGETHER

WOOD.
THEY CLAMP EVERYTHING TOGETHER
AND LET THE GLUE DRY FOR FOUR

THEY CLAMP EVERYTHING TOGETHER
AND LET THE GLUE DRY FOR FOUR
HOURS.

AND LET THE GLUE DRY FOR FOUR
HOURS.
NEXT THEY GLUE THIN STRIPS OF

HOURS.
NEXT THEY GLUE THIN STRIPS OF
WOOD CALLED COUNTER-RIBS ONTO

NEXT THEY GLUE THIN STRIPS OF
WOOD CALLED COUNTER-RIBS ONTO
THE EDGE OF THE RIBS.

WOOD CALLED COUNTER-RIBS ONTO
THE EDGE OF THE RIBS.
THIS ENLARGES THE SURFACE SO

THE EDGE OF THE RIBS.
THIS ENLARGES THE SURFACE SO
THAT IT'S EASIER TO GLUE THE

THIS ENLARGES THE SURFACE SO
THAT IT'S EASIER TO GLUE THE
RIBS AND THE BACK TOGETHER.

THAT IT'S EASIER TO GLUE THE
RIBS AND THE BACK TOGETHER.
THEY MAKE THE VIOLIN'S FRONT, OR

RIBS AND THE BACK TOGETHER.
THEY MAKE THE VIOLIN'S FRONT, OR
BELLY, FROM A SOLID PIECE OF

THEY MAKE THE VIOLIN'S FRONT, OR
BELLY, FROM A SOLID PIECE OF
SPRUCE.

BELLY, FROM A SOLID PIECE OF
SPRUCE.
TO THE UNDERSIDE, THEY GLUE A

SPRUCE.
TO THE UNDERSIDE, THEY GLUE A
SPRUCE SUPPORT BAR CALLED THE

TO THE UNDERSIDE, THEY GLUE A
SPRUCE SUPPORT BAR CALLED THE
BASE BAR.

SPRUCE SUPPORT BAR CALLED THE
BASE BAR.
SOUND ESCAPES THROUGH THE TWO

BASE BAR.
SOUND ESCAPES THROUGH THE TWO
CURVED SLOTS CALLED F-HOLES.

SOUND ESCAPES THROUGH THE TWO
CURVED SLOTS CALLED F-HOLES.
THEY CUT OUT AND CARVE THE

CURVED SLOTS CALLED F-HOLES.
THEY CUT OUT AND CARVE THE
VIOLIN'S NECK AND SCROLLED HEAD

THEY CUT OUT AND CARVE THE
VIOLIN'S NECK AND SCROLLED HEAD
FROM A PIECE OF MAPLE.

VIOLIN'S NECK AND SCROLLED HEAD
FROM A PIECE OF MAPLE.
THEN THEY GLUE IT TO THE BODY.

FROM A PIECE OF MAPLE.
THEN THEY GLUE IT TO THE BODY.
THEY SCULPT THE FINGERBOARD FROM

THEN THEY GLUE IT TO THE BODY.
THEY SCULPT THE FINGERBOARD FROM
EBONY, A HARDWOOD DURABLE ENOUGH

THEY SCULPT THE FINGERBOARD FROM
EBONY, A HARDWOOD DURABLE ENOUGH
TO WITHSTAND CENTURIES OF

EBONY, A HARDWOOD DURABLE ENOUGH
TO WITHSTAND CENTURIES OF
A VIOLINIST'S FINGERING.

TO WITHSTAND CENTURIES OF
A VIOLINIST'S FINGERING.
USING A TOOL CALLED A PEGHOLE

A VIOLINIST'S FINGERING.
USING A TOOL CALLED A PEGHOLE
REAMER, THEY MAKE THE HOLES FOR

USING A TOOL CALLED A PEGHOLE
REAMER, THEY MAKE THE HOLES FOR
THE EBONY OR ROSEWOOD PEGS

REAMER, THEY MAKE THE HOLES FOR
THE EBONY OR ROSEWOOD PEGS
AROUND WHICH THE STRINGS ARE

THE EBONY OR ROSEWOOD PEGS
AROUND WHICH THE STRINGS ARE
WOUND.

AROUND WHICH THE STRINGS ARE
WOUND.
THEY COAT THE WOOD WITH FOUR OR

WOUND.
THEY COAT THE WOOD WITH FOUR OR
FIVE COATS OF VARNISH, DEPENDING

THEY COAT THE WOOD WITH FOUR OR
FIVE COATS OF VARNISH, DEPENDING
ON THE COLOR, THEN POLISH

FIVE COATS OF VARNISH, DEPENDING
ON THE COLOR, THEN POLISH
IT WITH SEVERAL COATS OF OIL

ON THE COLOR, THEN POLISH
IT WITH SEVERAL COATS OF OIL
OVER SEVERAL DAYS UNTIL THE

IT WITH SEVERAL COATS OF OIL
OVER SEVERAL DAYS UNTIL THE
FINISH IS SHINY AND

OVER SEVERAL DAYS UNTIL THE
FINISH IS SHINY AND
SILKY-SMOOTH.

FINISH IS SHINY AND
SILKY-SMOOTH.
NEXT THEY INSERT THE SOUND POST.

SILKY-SMOOTH.
NEXT THEY INSERT THE SOUND POST.
THIS LITTLE CYLINDER CONDUCTS

NEXT THEY INSERT THE SOUND POST.
THIS LITTLE CYLINDER CONDUCTS
SOUNDS AND SUPPORTS THE BELLY

THIS LITTLE CYLINDER CONDUCTS
SOUNDS AND SUPPORTS THE BELLY
AGAINST BOWING PRESSURE, SO IT'S

SOUNDS AND SUPPORTS THE BELLY
AGAINST BOWING PRESSURE, SO IT'S
CRITICAL TO POSITION IT IN

AGAINST BOWING PRESSURE, SO IT'S
CRITICAL TO POSITION IT IN
PRECISELY THE RIGHT SPOT BETWEEN

CRITICAL TO POSITION IT IN
PRECISELY THE RIGHT SPOT BETWEEN
THE BELLY AND THE BACK.

PRECISELY THE RIGHT SPOT BETWEEN
THE BELLY AND THE BACK.
IT'S NOT GLUED, BUT RATHER

THE BELLY AND THE BACK.
IT'S NOT GLUED, BUT RATHER
WEDGED INTO PLACE.

IT'S NOT GLUED, BUT RATHER
WEDGED INTO PLACE.
THE BRIDGE ISN'T GLUED EITHER.

WEDGED INTO PLACE.
THE BRIDGE ISN'T GLUED EITHER.
IT'S HELD IN PLACE BY THE

THE BRIDGE ISN'T GLUED EITHER.
IT'S HELD IN PLACE BY THE
PRESSURE OF THE FOUR STRINGS,

IT'S HELD IN PLACE BY THE
PRESSURE OF THE FOUR STRINGS,
WHICH THEY FEED THROUGH THE

PRESSURE OF THE FOUR STRINGS,
WHICH THEY FEED THROUGH THE
EBONY TAILPIECE AND WIND ONTO

WHICH THEY FEED THROUGH THE
EBONY TAILPIECE AND WIND ONTO
THE PEGS.

EBONY TAILPIECE AND WIND ONTO
THE PEGS.
THE BRIDGE HAS LITTLE NOTCHES

THE PEGS.
THE BRIDGE HAS LITTLE NOTCHES
IN WHICH THE STRINGS SIT.

THE BRIDGE HAS LITTLE NOTCHES
IN WHICH THE STRINGS SIT.
THE VIOLIN IS FINISHED.

IN WHICH THE STRINGS SIT.
THE VIOLIN IS FINISHED.
THEY MAKE THE BOW FROM HORSEHAIR

THE VIOLIN IS FINISHED.
THEY MAKE THE BOW FROM HORSEHAIR
AND A HIGH-QUALITY BRAZILIAN

THEY MAKE THE BOW FROM HORSEHAIR
AND A HIGH-QUALITY BRAZILIAN
WOOD CALLED PERNAMBUCO.

AND A HIGH-QUALITY BRAZILIAN
WOOD CALLED PERNAMBUCO.
THEY BIND THE HAIRS AT ONE END

WOOD CALLED PERNAMBUCO.
THEY BIND THE HAIRS AT ONE END
WITH STRONG SEWING THREAD, THEN

THEY BIND THE HAIRS AT ONE END
WITH STRONG SEWING THREAD, THEN
BURN THEM AND SEAL THEM WITH WAX

WITH STRONG SEWING THREAD, THEN
BURN THEM AND SEAL THEM WITH WAX
TO PREVENT FRAYING.

BURN THEM AND SEAL THEM WITH WAX
TO PREVENT FRAYING.
THIS END GOES INTO THE FROG, THE

TO PREVENT FRAYING.
THIS END GOES INTO THE FROG, THE
WOODEN BOX AT THE BOTTOM, OR

THIS END GOES INTO THE FROG, THE
WOODEN BOX AT THE BOTTOM, OR
HEEL, OF THE BOW.

WOODEN BOX AT THE BOTTOM, OR
HEEL, OF THE BOW.
THEY COVER THE FROG WITH THE

HEEL, OF THE BOW.
THEY COVER THE FROG WITH THE
MOTHER-OF-PEARL LINING, THEN

THEY COVER THE FROG WITH THE
MOTHER-OF-PEARL LINING, THEN
SLIP ON A RING MADE OF NICKEL,

MOTHER-OF-PEARL LINING, THEN
SLIP ON A RING MADE OF NICKEL,
SILVER, OR GOLD TO PREVENT THE

SLIP ON A RING MADE OF NICKEL,
SILVER, OR GOLD TO PREVENT THE
HAIRS FROM TANGLING.

SILVER, OR GOLD TO PREVENT THE
HAIRS FROM TANGLING.
NEXT COMES THE SCREW THAT

HAIRS FROM TANGLING.
NEXT COMES THE SCREW THAT
CONTROLS THE TENSION OF THE

NEXT COMES THE SCREW THAT
CONTROLS THE TENSION OF THE
HAIRS.

CONTROLS THE TENSION OF THE
HAIRS.
THEY COMB THE HAIRS TO MAKE THEM

HAIRS.
THEY COMB THE HAIRS TO MAKE THEM
PARALLEL, THEN INSERT THEM INTO

THEY COMB THE HAIRS TO MAKE THEM
PARALLEL, THEN INSERT THEM INTO
THE TIP OF THE BOW, KNOWN AS THE

PARALLEL, THEN INSERT THEM INTO
THE TIP OF THE BOW, KNOWN AS THE
HEAD.

THE TIP OF THE BOW, KNOWN AS THE
HEAD.
THEY TIGHTEN THE SCREW UNTIL THE

HEAD.
THEY TIGHTEN THE SCREW UNTIL THE
HAIRS ARE TAUT.

THEY TIGHTEN THE SCREW UNTIL THE
HAIRS ARE TAUT.
FINALLY THEY RUB ON ROSIN, A

HAIRS ARE TAUT.
FINALLY THEY RUB ON ROSIN, A
STICKY PINE-TREE RESIN THAT

FINALLY THEY RUB ON ROSIN, A
STICKY PINE-TREE RESIN THAT
KEEPS THE BOW FROM SLIPPING OFF

STICKY PINE-TREE RESIN THAT
KEEPS THE BOW FROM SLIPPING OFF
THE STRINGS.

>> Narrator: AT "HOW IT'S MADE,"
WE PRIDE OURSELVES IN SHOWING
YOU THE NUTS AND BOLTS OF HOW

WE PRIDE OURSELVES IN SHOWING
YOU THE NUTS AND BOLTS OF HOW
EVERYDAY ITEMS ARE MADE, SO IT'S

YOU THE NUTS AND BOLTS OF HOW
EVERYDAY ITEMS ARE MADE, SO IT'S
ABOUT TIME WE VISITED A REAL

EVERYDAY ITEMS ARE MADE, SO IT'S
ABOUT TIME WE VISITED A REAL
NUTS-AND-BOLTS OPERATION.

ABOUT TIME WE VISITED A REAL
NUTS-AND-BOLTS OPERATION.
WE SURE COULDN'T DO WITHOUT

NUTS-AND-BOLTS OPERATION.
WE SURE COULDN'T DO WITHOUT
THESE TINY BUT ESSENTIAL PIECES

WE SURE COULDN'T DO WITHOUT
THESE TINY BUT ESSENTIAL PIECES
OF HARDWARE.

THESE TINY BUT ESSENTIAL PIECES
OF HARDWARE.
IF ONLY THEY WEREN'T SO DARN

OF HARDWARE.
IF ONLY THEY WEREN'T SO DARN
EASY TO LOSE.

IF ONLY THEY WEREN'T SO DARN
EASY TO LOSE.
NUTS AND BOLTS ARE MADE FROM

EASY TO LOSE.
NUTS AND BOLTS ARE MADE FROM
WHAT'S CALLED STEEL WIRE ROD.

NUTS AND BOLTS ARE MADE FROM
WHAT'S CALLED STEEL WIRE ROD.
AFTER SPENDING UP TO 30 HOURS IN

WHAT'S CALLED STEEL WIRE ROD.
AFTER SPENDING UP TO 30 HOURS IN
A FURNACE TO MAKE IT PLIABLE,

AFTER SPENDING UP TO 30 HOURS IN
A FURNACE TO MAKE IT PLIABLE,
THE WIRE ROD GOES INTO A BATH OF

A FURNACE TO MAKE IT PLIABLE,
THE WIRE ROD GOES INTO A BATH OF
SULFURIC ACID TO REMOVE ANY RUST

THE WIRE ROD GOES INTO A BATH OF
SULFURIC ACID TO REMOVE ANY RUST
PARTICLES.

SULFURIC ACID TO REMOVE ANY RUST
PARTICLES.
IT'S RINSED IN WATER THEN

PARTICLES.
IT'S RINSED IN WATER THEN
COATED WITH PHOSPHATE, A

IT'S RINSED IN WATER THEN
COATED WITH PHOSPHATE, A
CHEMICAL COMPOUND.

COATED WITH PHOSPHATE, A
CHEMICAL COMPOUND.
THIS PREVENTS THE STEEL FROM

CHEMICAL COMPOUND.
THIS PREVENTS THE STEEL FROM
RUSTING BEFORE THE BOLT FORMING

THIS PREVENTS THE STEEL FROM
RUSTING BEFORE THE BOLT FORMING
BEGINS AND LUBRICATES THE STEEL

RUSTING BEFORE THE BOLT FORMING
BEGINS AND LUBRICATES THE STEEL
TO MAKE FORMING EASIER.

BEGINS AND LUBRICATES THE STEEL
TO MAKE FORMING EASIER.
THEY FORM THE BOLTS BY COLD

TO MAKE FORMING EASIER.
THEY FORM THE BOLTS BY COLD
FORGING, SHAPING THE STEEL AT

THEY FORM THE BOLTS BY COLD
FORGING, SHAPING THE STEEL AT
ROOM TEMPERATURE BY FORCING IT

FORGING, SHAPING THE STEEL AT
ROOM TEMPERATURE BY FORCING IT
THROUGH VARIOUS DIES AT HIGH

ROOM TEMPERATURE BY FORCING IT
THROUGH VARIOUS DIES AT HIGH
PRESSURE.

THROUGH VARIOUS DIES AT HIGH
PRESSURE.
THE FORMING MACHINE FIRST

PRESSURE.
THE FORMING MACHINE FIRST
STRAIGHTENS THE WIRE ROD, THEN

THE FORMING MACHINE FIRST
STRAIGHTENS THE WIRE ROD, THEN
CUTS IT INTO PIECES SLIGHTLY

STRAIGHTENS THE WIRE ROD, THEN
CUTS IT INTO PIECES SLIGHTLY
LONGER THAN THE BOLT LENGTH.

CUTS IT INTO PIECES SLIGHTLY
LONGER THAN THE BOLT LENGTH.
THE EXTRA WILL BECOME THE BOLT

LONGER THAN THE BOLT LENGTH.
THE EXTRA WILL BECOME THE BOLT
HEAD.

THE EXTRA WILL BECOME THE BOLT
HEAD.
EACH PIECE GOES THROUGH A DIE

HEAD.
EACH PIECE GOES THROUGH A DIE
THAT MAKES IT PERFECTLY ROUND,

EACH PIECE GOES THROUGH A DIE
THAT MAKES IT PERFECTLY ROUND,
THEN THROUGH A SERIES OF DIES

THAT MAKES IT PERFECTLY ROUND,
THEN THROUGH A SERIES OF DIES
THAT PROGRESSIVELY SHAPE THE

THEN THROUGH A SERIES OF DIES
THAT PROGRESSIVELY SHAPE THE
HEAD OF THE BOLT ON ONE END.

THAT PROGRESSIVELY SHAPE THE
HEAD OF THE BOLT ON ONE END.
THE MACHINE HEADS UP TO 300

HEAD OF THE BOLT ON ONE END.
THE MACHINE HEADS UP TO 300
BOLTS PER MINUTE.

THE MACHINE HEADS UP TO 300
BOLTS PER MINUTE.
HERE'S WHAT THE HEADING STAGES

BOLTS PER MINUTE.
HERE'S WHAT THE HEADING STAGES
LOOK LIKE IN SLOW MOTION.

HERE'S WHAT THE HEADING STAGES
LOOK LIKE IN SLOW MOTION.
THIS DIE CREATES A SLIGHT

LOOK LIKE IN SLOW MOTION.
THIS DIE CREATES A SLIGHT
COLLAR.

THIS DIE CREATES A SLIGHT
COLLAR.
THE NEXT ONE TURNS IT INTO A

COLLAR.
THE NEXT ONE TURNS IT INTO A
ROUND HEAD.

THEN THE LAST ONE TRANSFORMS
THAT INTO A HEXAGONAL HEAD --
THE MOST COMMON SHAPE.

NEXT THE MACHINE FORMS THE
OPPOSITE END OF THE BOLT.
A TOOL CALLED THE POINTER SHAPES

OPPOSITE END OF THE BOLT.
A TOOL CALLED THE POINTER SHAPES
THE BOTTOM OF EACH BOLT,

A TOOL CALLED THE POINTER SHAPES
THE BOTTOM OF EACH BOLT,
CREATING WHAT'S CALLED THE

THE BOTTOM OF EACH BOLT,
CREATING WHAT'S CALLED THE
CHAMFER, THE PART THE NUT

CREATING WHAT'S CALLED THE
CHAMFER, THE PART THE NUT
CATCHES ON TO.

CHAMFER, THE PART THE NUT
CATCHES ON TO.
HERE'S THE BULLET BEFORE AND

CATCHES ON TO.
HERE'S THE BULLET BEFORE AND
AFTER THE CHAMFER.

HERE'S THE BULLET BEFORE AND
AFTER THE CHAMFER.
THE BOLT NEEDS THREADS TO ENABLE

AFTER THE CHAMFER.
THE BOLT NEEDS THREADS TO ENABLE
THE NUT TO SCREW ONTO IT.

THE BOLT NEEDS THREADS TO ENABLE
THE NUT TO SCREW ONTO IT.
ONCE AGAIN, THEY USE THE COLD

THE NUT TO SCREW ONTO IT.
ONCE AGAIN, THEY USE THE COLD
FORGING METHOD.

ONCE AGAIN, THEY USE THE COLD
FORGING METHOD.
HIGH-PRESSURE ROLLERS PRESS IN

FORGING METHOD.
HIGH-PRESSURE ROLLERS PRESS IN
THE THREAD PATTERN...AS WE SEE

HIGH-PRESSURE ROLLERS PRESS IN
THE THREAD PATTERN...AS WE SEE
HERE IN SLOW MOTION.

THE THREAD PATTERN...AS WE SEE
HERE IN SLOW MOTION.
THIS IS THE ACTUAL SPEED, UP TO

HERE IN SLOW MOTION.
THIS IS THE ACTUAL SPEED, UP TO
300 BOLTS PER MINUTE.

THIS IS THE ACTUAL SPEED, UP TO
300 BOLTS PER MINUTE.
DURING EACH PRODUCTION RUN, THEY

300 BOLTS PER MINUTE.
DURING EACH PRODUCTION RUN, THEY
TAKE SEVERAL SAMPLES TO VERIFY

DURING EACH PRODUCTION RUN, THEY
TAKE SEVERAL SAMPLES TO VERIFY
DIMENSIONS.

TAKE SEVERAL SAMPLES TO VERIFY
DIMENSIONS.
THEY USE VARIOUS MEASURING

DIMENSIONS.
THEY USE VARIOUS MEASURING
DEVICES -- A MICROMETER TO CHECK

THEY USE VARIOUS MEASURING
DEVICES -- A MICROMETER TO CHECK
THE BOLT'S LENGTH, CALIPERS TO

DEVICES -- A MICROMETER TO CHECK
THE BOLT'S LENGTH, CALIPERS TO
MEASURE THE WIDTH OF THE HEAD,

THE BOLT'S LENGTH, CALIPERS TO
MEASURE THE WIDTH OF THE HEAD,
AND A RING GAUGE TO CHECK THE

MEASURE THE WIDTH OF THE HEAD,
AND A RING GAUGE TO CHECK THE
THREADS.

AND A RING GAUGE TO CHECK THE
THREADS.
TO MAKE THE NUTS, THEY USE A

THREADS.
TO MAKE THE NUTS, THEY USE A
PROCESS CALLED HOT FORGING.

TO MAKE THE NUTS, THEY USE A
PROCESS CALLED HOT FORGING.
THEY CUT STEEL BARS INTO SMALL

PROCESS CALLED HOT FORGING.
THEY CUT STEEL BARS INTO SMALL
PIECES KNOWN AS SLUGS, THEN HEAT

THEY CUT STEEL BARS INTO SMALL
PIECES KNOWN AS SLUGS, THEN HEAT
THEM TO 2,200 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT

PIECES KNOWN AS SLUGS, THEN HEAT
THEM TO 2,200 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT
TO MAKE THEM MALLEABLE.

THEM TO 2,200 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT
TO MAKE THEM MALLEABLE.
AS WE SEE HERE IN SLOW MOTION,

TO MAKE THEM MALLEABLE.
AS WE SEE HERE IN SLOW MOTION,
HYDRAULIC CAMERAS PUNCH THE

AS WE SEE HERE IN SLOW MOTION,
HYDRAULIC CAMERAS PUNCH THE
SLUGS INTO HEXAGONS, WHILE A

HYDRAULIC CAMERAS PUNCH THE
SLUGS INTO HEXAGONS, WHILE A
DIE PIERCES THE HOLE.

SLUGS INTO HEXAGONS, WHILE A
DIE PIERCES THE HOLE.
THEN A TOOL CALLED A TAPPER

DIE PIERCES THE HOLE.
THEN A TOOL CALLED A TAPPER
DRIVES INTO THE HOLE TO CUT THE

THEN A TOOL CALLED A TAPPER
DRIVES INTO THE HOLE TO CUT THE
THREADS.

DRIVES INTO THE HOLE TO CUT THE
THREADS.
THAT BLACK LIQUID IS A LUBRICANT

THREADS.
THAT BLACK LIQUID IS A LUBRICANT
OIL TO MINIMIZE WEAR AND TEAR ON

THAT BLACK LIQUID IS A LUBRICANT
OIL TO MINIMIZE WEAR AND TEAR ON
THE TAPPERS.

OIL TO MINIMIZE WEAR AND TEAR ON
THE TAPPERS.
THE NUTS AND BOLTS NOW GO INTO

THE TAPPERS.
THE NUTS AND BOLTS NOW GO INTO
AN OVEN AT 1,600 DEGREES

THE NUTS AND BOLTS NOW GO INTO
AN OVEN AT 1,600 DEGREES
FAHRENHEIT FOR ABOUT AN HOUR.

AN OVEN AT 1,600 DEGREES
FAHRENHEIT FOR ABOUT AN HOUR.
THIS GIVES THEM THE REQUIRED

FAHRENHEIT FOR ABOUT AN HOUR.
THIS GIVES THEM THE REQUIRED
STRENGTH.

THIS GIVES THEM THE REQUIRED
STRENGTH.
THEN A RAPID COOLING IN OIL FOR

STRENGTH.
THEN A RAPID COOLING IN OIL FOR
FIVE MINUTES TO SOLIDIFY THE

THEN A RAPID COOLING IN OIL FOR
FIVE MINUTES TO SOLIDIFY THE
STEEL'S INTERNAL STRUCTURE.

FIVE MINUTES TO SOLIDIFY THE
STEEL'S INTERNAL STRUCTURE.
BY NOW THE STEEL IS HARD, BUT

STEEL'S INTERNAL STRUCTURE.
BY NOW THE STEEL IS HARD, BUT
BRITTLE, SO THEY HEAT THE NUTS

BY NOW THE STEEL IS HARD, BUT
BRITTLE, SO THEY HEAT THE NUTS
AND BOLTS FOR ANOTHER HOUR.

BRITTLE, SO THEY HEAT THE NUTS
AND BOLTS FOR ANOTHER HOUR.
THIS REMOVES THEIR BRITTLENESS

AND BOLTS FOR ANOTHER HOUR.
THIS REMOVES THEIR BRITTLENESS
YET MAINTAINS THEIR STRENGTH.

THIS REMOVES THEIR BRITTLENESS
YET MAINTAINS THEIR STRENGTH.
THE QUALITY-CONTROL TEAM PULLS

YET MAINTAINS THEIR STRENGTH.
THE QUALITY-CONTROL TEAM PULLS
SAMPLES OFF THE LINE, MEASURING

THE QUALITY-CONTROL TEAM PULLS
SAMPLES OFF THE LINE, MEASURING
HOW MUCH FORCE IT TAKES TO BREAK

SAMPLES OFF THE LINE, MEASURING
HOW MUCH FORCE IT TAKES TO BREAK
THEM.

HOW MUCH FORCE IT TAKES TO BREAK
THEM.
IF A BOLT MEETS ITS MINIMUM

THEM.
IF A BOLT MEETS ITS MINIMUM
STRENGTH REQUIREMENT, IT PASSES

IF A BOLT MEETS ITS MINIMUM
STRENGTH REQUIREMENT, IT PASSES
INSPECTION, PROVIDED THE BREAK

STRENGTH REQUIREMENT, IT PASSES
INSPECTION, PROVIDED THE BREAK
OCCURRED IN THE THREADING -- THE

INSPECTION, PROVIDED THE BREAK
OCCURRED IN THE THREADING -- THE
WEAKEST PART.

OCCURRED IN THE THREADING -- THE
WEAKEST PART.
FINALLY PACKAGING -- LABELED,

WEAKEST PART.
FINALLY PACKAGING -- LABELED,
AMONG OTHER THINGS, BY SIZE AND

FINALLY PACKAGING -- LABELED,
AMONG OTHER THINGS, BY SIZE AND
GRADE.

>> Narrator: TOILET PAPER IS
PROBABLY THE MOST INDISPENSABLE
ITEM IN YOUR HOME.

PROBABLY THE MOST INDISPENSABLE
ITEM IN YOUR HOME.
AFTER ALL, IT'S NOT SOMETHING

ITEM IN YOUR HOME.
AFTER ALL, IT'S NOT SOMETHING
YOU WANT TO RUN OUT OF AT THE

AFTER ALL, IT'S NOT SOMETHING
YOU WANT TO RUN OUT OF AT THE
WRONG TIME.

YOU WANT TO RUN OUT OF AT THE
WRONG TIME.
MOST OF US PROBABLY TAKE OUR

WRONG TIME.
MOST OF US PROBABLY TAKE OUR
ROLLS OF TOILET PAPER FOR

MOST OF US PROBABLY TAKE OUR
ROLLS OF TOILET PAPER FOR
GRANTED.

ROLLS OF TOILET PAPER FOR
GRANTED.
SO YOU MAY BE SURPRISED TO LEARN

GRANTED.
SO YOU MAY BE SURPRISED TO LEARN
THAT BATHROOM TISSUE, AS IT'S

SO YOU MAY BE SURPRISED TO LEARN
THAT BATHROOM TISSUE, AS IT'S
PROPERLY CALLED, IS A RELATIVELY

THAT BATHROOM TISSUE, AS IT'S
PROPERLY CALLED, IS A RELATIVELY
NEW INVENTION.

PROPERLY CALLED, IS A RELATIVELY
NEW INVENTION.
THE VIKINGS USED WOOL.

NEW INVENTION.
THE VIKINGS USED WOOL.
THE ANCIENT ROMANS EMPLOYED

THE VIKINGS USED WOOL.
THE ANCIENT ROMANS EMPLOYED
SPONGES, AND FRENCH ROYALTY

THE ANCIENT ROMANS EMPLOYED
SPONGES, AND FRENCH ROYALTY
WIPED WITH LACE.

SPONGES, AND FRENCH ROYALTY
WIPED WITH LACE.
THEN IN 1857, AN AMERICAN

WIPED WITH LACE.
THEN IN 1857, AN AMERICAN
ENTREPRENEUR FIGURED THAT PEOPLE

THEN IN 1857, AN AMERICAN
ENTREPRENEUR FIGURED THAT PEOPLE
HAD HAD ENOUGH OF USING LEAVES,

ENTREPRENEUR FIGURED THAT PEOPLE
HAD HAD ENOUGH OF USING LEAVES,
CORNCOBS, NEWSPAPERS, AND

HAD HAD ENOUGH OF USING LEAVES,
CORNCOBS, NEWSPAPERS, AND
MAIL-ORDER CATALOGS, SO HE

CORNCOBS, NEWSPAPERS, AND
MAIL-ORDER CATALOGS, SO HE
INVENTED THERAPEUTIC PAPER, AS

MAIL-ORDER CATALOGS, SO HE
INVENTED THERAPEUTIC PAPER, AS
HE SO TASTEFULLY NAMED IT.

INVENTED THERAPEUTIC PAPER, AS
HE SO TASTEFULLY NAMED IT.
TOILET PAPER ONLY CAME IN PILES

HE SO TASTEFULLY NAMED IT.
TOILET PAPER ONLY CAME IN PILES
OF PRE-CUT SHEETS UNTIL 1890.

TOILET PAPER ONLY CAME IN PILES
OF PRE-CUT SHEETS UNTIL 1890.
THAT'S WHEN ONE COMPANY

OF PRE-CUT SHEETS UNTIL 1890.
THAT'S WHEN ONE COMPANY
INTRODUCED BATHROOM TISSUE ON A

THAT'S WHEN ONE COMPANY
INTRODUCED BATHROOM TISSUE ON A
ROLL.

INTRODUCED BATHROOM TISSUE ON A
ROLL.
EVER WONDER WHERE ALL THAT

ROLL.
EVER WONDER WHERE ALL THAT
RECYCLED PAPER GOES?

EVER WONDER WHERE ALL THAT
RECYCLED PAPER GOES?
WELL, LOOK NO FURTHER THAN YOUR

RECYCLED PAPER GOES?
WELL, LOOK NO FURTHER THAN YOUR
BATHROOM.

WELL, LOOK NO FURTHER THAN YOUR
BATHROOM.
MANY BRANDS OF TOILET PAPER

BATHROOM.
MANY BRANDS OF TOILET PAPER
BEGIN AS RECYCLED PAPER.

MANY BRANDS OF TOILET PAPER
BEGIN AS RECYCLED PAPER.
THE BALES OF PAPER DROP DOWN

BEGIN AS RECYCLED PAPER.
THE BALES OF PAPER DROP DOWN
INTO THE PULPER, A GIANT TANK

THE BALES OF PAPER DROP DOWN
INTO THE PULPER, A GIANT TANK
WITH AN AGITATOR, SIMILAR TO A

INTO THE PULPER, A GIANT TANK
WITH AN AGITATOR, SIMILAR TO A
WASHING MACHINE.

WITH AN AGITATOR, SIMILAR TO A
WASHING MACHINE.
IT MIXES THE PAPER IN LUKEWARM

WASHING MACHINE.
IT MIXES THE PAPER IN LUKEWARM
WATER FOR ABOUT 10 MINUTES,

IT MIXES THE PAPER IN LUKEWARM
WATER FOR ABOUT 10 MINUTES,
TRANSFORMING IT INTO WHAT'S

WATER FOR ABOUT 10 MINUTES,
TRANSFORMING IT INTO WHAT'S
KNOWN AS PULP AND SCREENING OUT

TRANSFORMING IT INTO WHAT'S
KNOWN AS PULP AND SCREENING OUT
ALL THE BITS OF METAL AND

KNOWN AS PULP AND SCREENING OUT
ALL THE BITS OF METAL AND
PLASTIC.

ALL THE BITS OF METAL AND
PLASTIC.
NOW THEY HAVE TO TAKE OUT THE

PLASTIC.
NOW THEY HAVE TO TAKE OUT THE
INK.

NOW THEY HAVE TO TAKE OUT THE
INK.
THE INK-REMOVAL SYSTEM INJECTS

INK.
THE INK-REMOVAL SYSTEM INJECTS
THE PULP WITH AIR.

THE INK-REMOVAL SYSTEM INJECTS
THE PULP WITH AIR.
INK PARTICLES ATTACH TO THE AIR

THE PULP WITH AIR.
INK PARTICLES ATTACH TO THE AIR
BUBBLES, WHICH RISE TO THE TOP.

INK PARTICLES ATTACH TO THE AIR
BUBBLES, WHICH RISE TO THE TOP.
THE SYSTEM THEN SKIMS OFF THE

BUBBLES, WHICH RISE TO THE TOP.
THE SYSTEM THEN SKIMS OFF THE
FOAM, LEAVING THE PULP INK-FREE.

THE SYSTEM THEN SKIMS OFF THE
FOAM, LEAVING THE PULP INK-FREE.
NEXT THE PULP PASSES THROUGH A

FOAM, LEAVING THE PULP INK-FREE.
NEXT THE PULP PASSES THROUGH A
SERIES OF ROLLERS, WHICH SQUEEZE

NEXT THE PULP PASSES THROUGH A
SERIES OF ROLLERS, WHICH SQUEEZE
OUT THE WATER.

SERIES OF ROLLERS, WHICH SQUEEZE
OUT THE WATER.
THIS DRIES OUT THE SOGGY PULP,

OUT THE WATER.
THIS DRIES OUT THE SOGGY PULP,
ENABLING IT TO ABSORB THE

THIS DRIES OUT THE SOGGY PULP,
ENABLING IT TO ABSORB THE
CHEMICALS THEY'LL USE TO BLEACH

ENABLING IT TO ABSORB THE
CHEMICALS THEY'LL USE TO BLEACH
IT.

CHEMICALS THEY'LL USE TO BLEACH
IT.
REVOLVING KNIVES NOW CHOP UP THE

IT.
REVOLVING KNIVES NOW CHOP UP THE
PULP TO PREPARE IT FOR THE

REVOLVING KNIVES NOW CHOP UP THE
PULP TO PREPARE IT FOR THE
BLEACHING PROCESS, THE DETAILS

PULP TO PREPARE IT FOR THE
BLEACHING PROCESS, THE DETAILS
OF WHICH ARE A CLOSELY GUARDED

BLEACHING PROCESS, THE DETAILS
OF WHICH ARE A CLOSELY GUARDED
TRADE SECRET.

OF WHICH ARE A CLOSELY GUARDED
TRADE SECRET.
THE BLEACH TURNS THE GRAY PULP A

TRADE SECRET.
THE BLEACH TURNS THE GRAY PULP A
PURE WHITE.

THE BLEACH TURNS THE GRAY PULP A
PURE WHITE.
THE COMPANY SAYS IT DOES THIS

PURE WHITE.
THE COMPANY SAYS IT DOES THIS
WITHOUT USING CHLORINE OR OTHER

THE COMPANY SAYS IT DOES THIS
WITHOUT USING CHLORINE OR OTHER
TOXIC CHEMICALS.

WITHOUT USING CHLORINE OR OTHER
TOXIC CHEMICALS.
THEY SPREAD THE WET PULP ONTO A

TOXIC CHEMICALS.
THEY SPREAD THE WET PULP ONTO A
FLAT SCREEN THAT RUNS THROUGH A

THEY SPREAD THE WET PULP ONTO A
FLAT SCREEN THAT RUNS THROUGH A
HOT DRYER.

FLAT SCREEN THAT RUNS THROUGH A
HOT DRYER.
IN LESS THAN A SECOND, THE PULP

HOT DRYER.
IN LESS THAN A SECOND, THE PULP
DRIES INTO A DELICATE PAPER

IN LESS THAN A SECOND, THE PULP
DRIES INTO A DELICATE PAPER
4/1000 OF AN INCH THICK.

DRIES INTO A DELICATE PAPER
4/1000 OF AN INCH THICK.
EACH SPOOL HOLDS CLOSE TO 47

4/1000 OF AN INCH THICK.
EACH SPOOL HOLDS CLOSE TO 47
MILES OF PAPER.

EACH SPOOL HOLDS CLOSE TO 47
MILES OF PAPER.
THAT SPOOL NOW FEEDS A MACHINE

MILES OF PAPER.
THAT SPOOL NOW FEEDS A MACHINE
WITH ROLLERS THAT EMBOSS A

THAT SPOOL NOW FEEDS A MACHINE
WITH ROLLERS THAT EMBOSS A
PATTERN, IN THIS CASE A WAFFLE

WITH ROLLERS THAT EMBOSS A
PATTERN, IN THIS CASE A WAFFLE
PRINT.

PATTERN, IN THIS CASE A WAFFLE
PRINT.
THE PATTERN ISN'T JUST

PRINT.
THE PATTERN ISN'T JUST
AESTHETIC.

THE PATTERN ISN'T JUST
AESTHETIC.
IT ALSO MAKES THE PAPER THICKER

AESTHETIC.
IT ALSO MAKES THE PAPER THICKER
AND THEREFORE MORE ABSORBENT.

IT ALSO MAKES THE PAPER THICKER
AND THEREFORE MORE ABSORBENT.
ELSEWHERE IN THE FACTORY,

AND THEREFORE MORE ABSORBENT.
ELSEWHERE IN THE FACTORY,
PRODUCTION IS ROLLING, SO TO

ELSEWHERE IN THE FACTORY,
PRODUCTION IS ROLLING, SO TO
SPEAK, WITH TWO STRIPS OF

PRODUCTION IS ROLLING, SO TO
SPEAK, WITH TWO STRIPS OF
CARDBOARD, EACH 3 INCHES WIDE.

SPEAK, WITH TWO STRIPS OF
CARDBOARD, EACH 3 INCHES WIDE.
THE MACHINE COATS THE UNDERSIDE

CARDBOARD, EACH 3 INCHES WIDE.
THE MACHINE COATS THE UNDERSIDE
OF THE TOP STRIP WITH GLUE, THEN

THE MACHINE COATS THE UNDERSIDE
OF THE TOP STRIP WITH GLUE, THEN
WINDS THE TWO STRIPS DIAGONALLY

OF THE TOP STRIP WITH GLUE, THEN
WINDS THE TWO STRIPS DIAGONALLY
TO CREATE A CONTINUOUS CARDBOARD

WINDS THE TWO STRIPS DIAGONALLY
TO CREATE A CONTINUOUS CARDBOARD
TUBE.

TO CREATE A CONTINUOUS CARDBOARD
TUBE.
THE MACHINE THEN CUTS THE TUBE

TUBE.
THE MACHINE THEN CUTS THE TUBE
IN 65-INCH LENGTHS.

THE MACHINE THEN CUTS THE TUBE
IN 65-INCH LENGTHS.
THE TUBES RIDE AN ELEVATOR TO

IN 65-INCH LENGTHS.
THE TUBES RIDE AN ELEVATOR TO
THE TOILET PAPER ZONE.

THE TUBES RIDE AN ELEVATOR TO
THE TOILET PAPER ZONE.
THERE, TWO GIANT SPOOLS OF PAPER

THE TOILET PAPER ZONE.
THERE, TWO GIANT SPOOLS OF PAPER
FEED WHAT'S CALLED THE WINDING

THERE, TWO GIANT SPOOLS OF PAPER
FEED WHAT'S CALLED THE WINDING
MACHINE.

FEED WHAT'S CALLED THE WINDING
MACHINE.
THE TWO SHEETS COME TOGETHER TO

MACHINE.
THE TWO SHEETS COME TOGETHER TO
FORM A TWO-PLY TOILET PAPER.

THE PAPER THEN WINDS ONTO A
CARDBOARD TUBE, CREATING A
SUPER-WIDE ROLL OF TOILET PAPER.

CARDBOARD TUBE, CREATING A
SUPER-WIDE ROLL OF TOILET PAPER.
WHEN THE ROLL IS FULL, A BLADE

SUPER-WIDE ROLL OF TOILET PAPER.
WHEN THE ROLL IS FULL, A BLADE
AUTOMATICALLY CUTS THE PAPER,

WHEN THE ROLL IS FULL, A BLADE
AUTOMATICALLY CUTS THE PAPER,
AND WINDING RESUMES ON THE NEXT

AUTOMATICALLY CUTS THE PAPER,
AND WINDING RESUMES ON THE NEXT
TUBE.

THE MACHINE AUTOMATICALLY SEALS
THE END OF THE ROLL WITH GLUE
TO PREVENT UNRAVELING.

A CIRCULAR SAW SLICES THE
SUPER-WIDE TOILET PAPER ROLL
INTO 16 STANDARD ROLLS,

SUPER-WIDE TOILET PAPER ROLL
INTO 16 STANDARD ROLLS,
4 INCHES WIDE.

THE TOILET PAPER IS FINISHED AND

READY FOR PACKAGING.

THIS BATCH IS FOR COMMERCIAL

USE.

EACH ROLL IS INDIVIDUALLY

WRAPPED IN PAPER.

CHECK OUT THIS SLOW-MOTION

WRAPPING ACTION.

TOILET PAPER DESTINED FOR

RESIDENTIAL USE GETS WRAPPED IN

TRANSPARENT PLASTIC, 4 TO 30

ROLLS PER PACKAGE.

IF YOU HAVE ANY COMMENTS ABOUT

THE SHOW, OR IF YOU'D LIKE TO

SUGGEST TOPICS FOR FUTURE SHOWS,

DROP US A LINE AT...