How It's Made (2001–…): Season 3, Episode 6 - Yogurt/Candles/Neon Signs/Bookbindings - full transcript

Find out how yogurt is cultured, how candles are formed, how neon signs are lit and how book bindings work.


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

YOGURT...

CANDLES...

NEON SIGNS...

AND BOOK BINDINGS.

YOUR MOTHER PROBABLY TOLD YOU
NOT TO PUT ANYTHING WITH GERMS

IN YOUR MOUTH.

WELL, IT TURNS OUT
SHE WAS WRONG.

YOGURT IS ONE OF THE HEALTHIEST
FOODS YOU CAN EAT,

YET IT'S CHOCK-FULL OF GERMS --
BACTERIA, TO BE PRECISE,

BACTERIA THAT ARE ACTUALLY GOOD
FOR YOUR DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.

THE FIRST STEP IN MAKING
FRUIT-FLAVORED YOGURT

IS TO INSPECT THE FRUIT.

WORKERS DISCARD ANY SKIN OR PITS
THAT SLIP THROUGH

AND ANY PIECES THAT ARE
DISCOLORED OR BRUISED.

THE FRUIT DOESN'T GO
INTO THE YOGURT AS IS.

FIRST, THEY TURN IT INTO JAM.

TO GIVE THE JAM JUST THE RIGHT
TEXTURE AND TASTE,

THEY HAVE TO WEIGH ALL
THE INGREDIENTS CAREFULLY

BEFORE POURING THEM
IN THE MIXER.

THE FIRST INGREDIENT IS WATER,

FOLLOWED BY ARTIFICIAL
AND NATURAL FLAVORING,

AND STABILIZERS TO GIVE THE JAM
AN EVEN CONSISTENCY.

CERTAIN TYPES OF FRUIT AREN'T
COLORFUL ENOUGH ON THEIR OWN,

SO THE FACTORY ADDS
ARTIFICIAL COLORING.

NEXT COMES TWO TYPES OF SUGAR --
FRUCTOSE AND SUCROSE.

THE MIXER HEATS EVERYTHING
TO 140 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT

TO HELP DISSOLVE
THE DRY INGREDIENTS.

THE MACHINE PUMPS OUT
AND REFEEDS THE MIXTURE

SO THAT IT BLENDS EVENLY.

THEN MORE COLORING,
FOLLOWED BY THE FRUIT,

FOLLOWED BY ANOTHER HOUR OR SO
OF HEATING AND MIXING.

THEN THEY HEAT THE JAM
TO A MINIMUM

OF 176 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT
FOR ANOTHER HOUR

TO KILL OFF ANY HARMFUL
BACTERIA.

TO PREPARE THE YOGURT,

THEY MIX DIFFERENT POWDERED MILK
PRODUCTS WITH MILK AND CREAM.

FOR LOW-FAT YOGURTS,
THEY USE FAT-FREE MILK

AND SKIP THE CREAM.

ONCE THEY'VE BLENDED
THE INGREDIENTS,

THEY HEAT THEM TO 176 DEGREES
FAHRENHEIT OR HIGHER

FOR JUST 30 SECONDS.

THAT'S ALL THE TIME
THAT'S NEEDED

TO PASTEURIZE THE MIXTURE.

WHILE IT'S NOW BACTERIA-FREE,
THERE'S ANOTHER PROBLEM.

MILK AND CREAM
NATURALLY SEPARATE

BECAUSE CREAM IS LIGHTER
DUE TO ITS FAT CONTENT.

SO ON TO THE NEXT STEP,
HOMOGENIZATION --

BLENDING THE MILK AND CREAM
TOGETHER.

THE HOMOGENIZER'S PISTONS
CRUSH THE FAT GLOBULES.

THIS ENABLES THE TWO LIQUIDS
TO MERGE.

THE MIXTURE THEN GOES
INTO FERMENTATION TANKS

HEATED TO 113 DEGREES
FAHRENHEIT.

WORKERS POUR IN A PACKET
OF LIVE BACTERIA

BOUGHT FROM A FACTORY
THAT BREEDS BACTERIAL CULTURES

FOR THE DAIRY INDUSTRY.

FERMENTATION TAKES 6 TO 20 HOURS

DEPENDING ON THE STYLE
OF YOGURT.

THE FACTORY MANUFACTURES
THE YOGURT CONTAINERS

RIGHT ON THE PACKAGING LINE

USING PLASTIC SHEETS
AND PAPER LABELS.

THE MACHINE HEATS THE PLASTIC
AND MOLDS IT INTO CONTAINERS.

A SPLIT SECOND LATER,

IT WRAPS THE CONTAINERS
IN PAPER LABELS.

YOU CAN VIEW THAT
DUAL OPERATION BEST

FROM UNDERNEATH THE MACHINERY.

NOW THEY FILL THE CONTAINERS

WITH THE COMBINATION OF YOGURT
AND FRUIT JAM.

TO PROTECT THE YOGURT
FROM CONTAMINATION,

THE AIR IN THIS PART
OF THE MACHINE

IS STRICTLY CONTROLLED
AND FILTERED.

THE BACTERIA IN THE YOGURT IS
WHAT'S KNOWN AS GOOD BACTERIA,

THE TYPE NATURALLY PRESENT
IN OUR INTESTINES.

THEY PRODUCE A COMPOUND
CALLED ACETALDEHYDE.

THAT'S WHAT GIVES YOGURT
ITS DISTINCTIVE FLAVOR.

THE RED DOTS
ARE ELECTRONIC SENSORS

THAT VERIFY THE FILL LEVEL.

THE CONTAINER COVERS ARE MADE
OF THIN BUT STRONG ALUMINUM.

FIRST, THE SHEET OF COVERS
PASSES UPSIDE DOWN

OVER A PRINTER WHICH STAMPS ON
THE EXPIRATION DATE.

UNOPENED, THIS YOGURT WILL STAY
FRESH FOR MORE THAN 40 DAYS.

THEN THE SHEET OF COVERS
TURNS RIGHT SIDE UP

TO BE HEAT SEALED
ONTO THE CONTAINERS.

FINALLY, THE MACHINE
AUTOMATICALLY DIVIDES

THE CONTAINERS ACCORDING
TO WHATEVER PACK FORMAT

THE FACTORY IS PRODUCING.

Narrator: THE INVENTION
OF THE CANDLE

CAN POSSIBLY BE CREDITED
TO ANCIENT EGYPTIANS,

WHO DIPPED REEDS INTO ANIMAL FAT
AND LIT THEM.

TODAY'S WAX CANDLES PROVIDE
A ROMANTIC ATMOSPHERE,

LIGHT WHEN THERE'S POWER
FAILURE, AND, WHEN BLOWN OUT,

A GRAND FINALE
TO A ROUSING RENDITION

OF "HAPPY BIRTHDAY."

AT THE HEART OF EVERY CANDLE
IS A WICK

MADE FROM WOVEN OR TWISTED
COTTON CORD.

TO STIFFEN UP THAT LIMP CORD,

THEY RUN IT THROUGH A TANK
OF LIQUID PARAFFIN,

A WAX DERIVED FROM PETROLEUM.

THE CORD THEN PASSES OVER
A COOLING DRUM

WHOSE COLD SURFACE INSTANTLY
HARDENS THE WAX COATING.

THE NOW RIGID CORD
WINDS ONTO A SPOOL,

READY TO BE CUT INTO WICKS.

THERE ARE SEVERAL
CANDLE-MAKING METHODS,

ALL OF WHICH WORK
ON THE SIMPLE PRINCIPLE

THAT HOT WAX TURNS HARD
AND WHITE

WHEN IT COMES INTO CONTACT WITH
COLD AIR OR A COLD SURFACE.

THIS PROCESS IS CALLED
CANDLE PRESSING.

THE HOT PARAFFIN TRAVELS
FROM THE HOLDING TANK

TO A SET OF SPRINKLERS

INSIDE A 20-FOOT-HIGH
REFRIGERATED CHAMBER.

THE SPRINKLERS SHOOT THE WAX
UPWARDS INTO THE COLD AIR.

LIKE FALLING PRECIPITATION
TRANSFORMING INTO SNOWFLAKES,

THE WAX DROPLETS TRANSFORM
INTO WAX FLAKES.

THEY LAND AT THE BASE
OF THE CHAMBER,

THEN TRAVEL
TO A HYDRAULIC PRESS.

THE PRESS FORMS THEM
INTO CANDLES,

USING PRESSURE BUT NO HEAT,

AND PIERCES A HOLE THROUGH
THE MIDDLE FOR THE WICK.

THE AIR IN THIS PART
OF THE PLANT

HAS TO BE LESS
THAN 77 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT,

OR ELSE THE FLAKES WILL MELT
AND STICK TOGETHER,

JAMMING THE MACHINE.

NOW THE CANDLES TRAVEL
TO THE WICKING MACHINE,

WHICH CUTS AND INSERTS A WICK
INTO EACH CANDLE.

ANOTHER CANDLE-MAKING METHOD
IS THE DIPPING PROCESS.

THEY INSTALL 96 WICKS
ON EACH FRAME

OF AN AUTOMATED
DIPPING MACHINE.

ONE AFTER ANOTHER,

THE FRAMES DIP THE WICKS
INTO A TANK OF CLEAR PARAFFIN.

AS THE FRAMES
RISE FROM THE TANK,

GRAVITY PULLS THE WAX DOWNWARD,

CREATING A CONICALLY
SHAPED COAT OF WAX.

BY THE TIME A FRAME
HAS MADE THE CIRCUIT

AND RETURNED TO THE TANK,
THE WAX COAT IS HARD AND WHITE.

THE WICKS GO
FOR A SECOND DIPPING,

FOLLOWED BY ANOTHER GO-ROUND.

THIS CONTINUES
UNTIL 25 DIPS LATER.

THE TAPERED CANDLES
ARE .8 OF AN INCH IN DIAMETER.

TO TURN THESE WHITE CANDLES
INTO COLORED CANDLES,

THEY DIP THEM INTO A VAT
OF DYED PARAFFIN...

THEN IMMEDIATELY AFTER
INTO COLD WATER

TO HARDEN THE COLOR COAT.

TO PRODUCE VOTIVE CANDLES,

THE FACTORY USES AN AUTOMATED
MOLDING PROCESS.

THEY HEAT EACH MOLDING TABLE,
FLOOD IT WITH PARAFFIN,

THEN COOL THE TABLE.

THE WAX OVERFLOW COMPENSATES
FOR THE SHRINKING THAT OCCURS

DURING THE 20-MINUTE
HARDENING PHASE.

ONCE THE WAX HARDENS,

THEY SCRAPE OFF THE EXCESS
AND REMELT IT

TO USE FOR THE NEXT BATCH.

A PIN INSIDE EACH MOLD CREATED
A CHANNEL FOR THE WICK.

NOW ANOTHER TYPE OF AUTOMATED
WICKING MACHINE INSERTS A WICK

AND SECURES IT IN PLACE
WITH THE METAL CLIP

AT THE BASE OF THE CANDLE.

THEY MAKE CERTAIN
SPECIALTY CANDLES

ON A MANUALLY OPERATED DIPPER

RATHER THAN BY AUTOMATED
MACHINE.

THESE ALTAR CANDLES
ARE MADE OF PARAFFIN

AND 66% PURE BEESWAX,

AS REQUIRED BY VATICAN LAW.

TO CREATE THEIR
CYLINDRICAL SHAPE,

THE WORKER HAS TO FLIP
THE FRAMES AFTER EVERY DIP

TO EQUALIZE THE WAX.

IT TAKES 90 DIPS TO BUILD
A 3-INCH DIAMETER.

THE CANDLES STILL COME OUT
SLIGHTLY TAPERED,

SO THEY GO THROUGH A HEATED DIE
TO ADJUST THEIR SHAPE.

NO LONGER JUST A STAPLE OF
RELIGION, RITUAL, OR ROMANCE,

TODAY'S CANDLES ARE A HOT
DECORATIVE ITEM.

Narrator: NEON SIGNS
ARE MADE OF GLASS TUBES

BENT INTO LETTERS OR SHAPES
AND FILLED WITH INERT GAS.

WHEN THE ELECTRIC CURRENT HITS
THE ELECTRODES IN THE TUBES,

ELECTRONS FLOW THROUGH THE GAS,
MAKING ITS ATOMS GLOW.

THE TYPE OF GAS AND GLASS

DETERMINE THE COLOR
OF THE LIGHT.

IN A CLEAR GLASS TUBE,

ARGON GAS GIVES OFF BLUE LIGHT

WHILE NEON GAS
PRODUCES RED LIGHT.

TO CREATE VIVID DESIGNS,

THEY CAN PARLAY
THOSE TWO BASE COLORS

INTO MORE THAN 80
ADDITIONAL COLORS

BY USING GLASS TUBES
THAT ARE COLORED

WITH FLUORESCENT POWDERS.

FOR INSTANCE, BLUE GLOWING
ARGON GAS IN A YELLOW TUBE

CREATES A GREEN LIGHT.

TO SHAPE THE TUBE, THEY USE
A GLASS-BLOWING TECHNIQUE.

FOLLOWING A PATTERN DRAWN
ON A FIRE-RESISTANT SHEET,

THEY MARK WHERE THEY HAVE
TO BEND THE TUBE.

THEN THEY HEAT EACH SPOT ON A
DEVICE CALLED A RIBBON BURNER,

WHOSE PROPANE FLAME IS A BLAZING
1,200 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

WITHIN HALF A MINUTE,

THE GLASS SOFTENS ENOUGH
TO BE PLIABLE.

THEY GENTLY BEND THE TUBE,

THEN BLOW INTO THE UNCORKED END

TO RESTORE THE TUBE'S
ORIGINAL DIAMETER.

WITH EACH BEND, THEY CHECK
THE SHAPE AGAINST THE PATTERN,

EVERY SO OFTEN PRESSING
A WOODEN BLOCK ALONG THE TUBE

TO EQUALIZE THE WIDTH.

ARGON GAS EMITS
STEEL-BLUE LIGHT,

BUT THIS BLUE-COLORED TUBE
WILL CHANGE THAT TO DARK BLUE.

AFTER SHAPING,
THEY CUT OFF THE EXCESS

AND RUB THE COLORING
POWDER OFF THE ENDS.

NOW THEY CAN ATTACH
THESE GLASS CASINGS,

WHICH CONTAIN ELECTRODES.

THEY FUSE AN ELECTRODE
TO EACH END OF THE TUBE

USING A PROPANE HAND TORCH

AND A FLEXIBLE
LATEX BLOWING TUBE.

THEY SEAL THE GLASS
AROUND ONE ELECTRODE

BUT LEAVE THE OTHER ONE OPEN.

THEN, USING WHAT'S CALLED
A CROSSFIRE BURNER,

THEY CREATE A TUBULATION,

A THIN TUBE WITH A BUBBLE

THAT WILL ACT AS A PASSAGE WAY
INTO THE OPEN ELECTRODE.

THEY FUSE THE TUBULATION
TO THAT ELECTRODE...

...THEN CAREFULLY INJECT
A DROP OF MERCURY

INTO THE OPEN END
OF THE TUBULATION.

ARGON GAS NEEDS A TOUCH
OF MERCURY

TO BRIGHTEN THE COLOR IT EMITS.

NEON GAS DOESN'T.

USING WHAT'S KNOWN
AS AN END TORCH,

THEY FUSE THE OPEN END
OF THE TUBULATION

TO A LONG GLASS TUBE
LEADING TO A PUMPING SYSTEM.

THEY CONNECT THE ELECTRODES
TO THE SYSTEM,

THEN POWER IT UP.

THE PUMP VACUUMS OUT THE AIR,
THEN INJECTS THE GAS.

THE ELECTRICAL CURRENT MAKES
THE ATOMS IN THE GAS GLOW.

TO TRAP THE GAS INSIDE THE TUBE,

THEY USE THE CROSSFIRE BURNER
TO REMOVE THE TUBULATION

AND SEAL OFF THE OPEN ELECTRODE,

MAKING SURE THE DROP OF MERCURY
HAS DESCENDED INTO IT FIRST.

THEY DIP THE BACK OF THE SIGN
INTO BLACK PAINT.

THIS WILL MAKE THE LETTERING
OR DESIGN STAND OUT.

THEY USE A BRUSH
TO SPREAD THE COAT EVENLY

AND REMOVE THE EXCESS.

NEXT, THEY'LL LIGHT UP THE SIGN
AT HIGH VOLTAGE FOR A HALF HOUR.

THIS WILL DRY THE PAINT
AND, MORE IMPORTANTLY,

TRANSFORM THE LIQUID MERCURY
INTO VAPOR

THAT SPREADS
THROUGHOUT THE SIGN.

USING TRANSPARENT CLIPS,

THEY MOUNT THE SIGN ONTO A BLACK
PLEXIGLAS BACKGROUND

TO MAKE IT STAND OUT EVEN MORE.

FINALLY, THEY CONNECT
THE PROTRUDING ELECTRODE WIRES

TO A TRANSFORMER.

THIS TRANSFORMER CONVERTS
THE STANDARD 110-VOLT CURRENT

FROM OUR ELECTRICAL OUTLETS
INTO HIGH-VOLTAGE CURRENT,

INTO THE 3,000 TO 15,000 VOLTS

YOU NEED TO LIGHT UP
A NEON SIGN.

Narrator: HARDCOVER BOOKS
HAVE BINDINGS

MADE OF HEAVY PAPERBOARDS

COVERED WITH CLOTH, LEATHER,
OR PLASTIC.

SOFT-COVER BOOKS HAVE FLIMSIER
PAPER BINDINGS.

WHILE BOOKBINDING
ON A COMMERCIAL SCALE

IS ALL MECHANIZED TODAY,

YOU CAN STILL FIND CRAFTSPEOPLE

WHO SKILLFULLY BIND BOOKS
BY HAND.

BOOK BINDINGS DATE BACK
TO SECOND-CENTURY EGYPT

WHERE CHRISTIAN MONKS SEWED
SHEETS OF PAPYRUS TOGETHER,

THEN ENCLOSED THEM
IN LEATHER-COVERED BOARDS

CONNECTED BY STRIPS OF HIDE.

MONKS IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE

STITCHED TOGETHER
HANDWRITTEN PARCHMENTS,

BINDING THEM
BETWEEN WOODEN BOARDS

OFTEN COVERED IN LEATHER.

SOMETIMES THEY WERE EMBELLISHED
WITH GOLD LEAF AND GEMS.

THE 16th CENTURY
SAW THE ARRIVAL

OF CHEAPER PRINTED BOOKS
WITH SIMPLE PASTEBOARD BINDINGS.

TODAY, COMMERCIAL BOOKBINDING
IS HIGHLY MECHANIZED.

THE PROCESS STARTS
WITH LARGE SHEETS OF PAPER,

EACH CONTAINING SEVERAL
CONSECUTIVE PAGES OF THE BOOK.

A WORKER POSITIONS A STACK
OF EACH SHEET INTO A MACHINE

APPROPRIATELY CALLED
THE GUILLOTINE.

ITS SHARP BLADE DROPS DOWN
AND CHOPS OFF EXCESS PAPER.

AFTER TRIMMING, THE STACK MOVES
INTO A MACHINE CALLED THE FOLDER

WHICH FOLDS EACH SHEET
INTO BOOK SIZE

WITH THE PAGES
IN THE RIGHT ORDER.

AS WE SEE HERE IN SLOW MOTION,

THE MACHINE STARTS
BY PERFORATING THE FOLD LINE.

THEN THE SHEET MOVES ALONG
THE CONVEYOR BELT

UNTIL IT HITS THE STOPPER
TO THE FAR RIGHT.

THAT STOP POSITION
ALIGNS THE PERFORATION

BETWEEN TWO ROLLERS.

WATCH IN SLOW MOTION HOW THOSE
ROLLERS PULL THE PAGE DOWN,

PRESSING A NEAT FOLD.

THIS PROCESS REPEATS ITSELF
FOR EACH FOLD OF THE SHEET.

THE RESULT OF ALL THAT FOLDING
IS WHAT'S CALLED A SIGNATURE,

A UNIT OF PAGES
IN THE CORRECT ORDER

BUT STILL ATTACHED
TO EACH OTHER.

A BOOK IS MADE UP
OF SEVERAL SIGNATURES.

ANOTHER MACHINE NOW ASSEMBLES
THEM IN THE RIGHT SEQUENCE,

ALONG WITH THE COVER,
FOR BINDING.

THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT
BINDING METHODS.

THIS ONE IS CALLED
WIRE STITCHING.

AS WE SEE HERE IN SLOW MOTION,

THE MACHINE DRIVES HEAVY-DUTY
STAPLES RIGHT THROUGH THE SPINE

OF THE SIGNATURES AND COVER.

THE STAPLES ARE CUT FROM
STEEL WIRE THAT'S SO STRONG,

YOU HAVE TO TEAR THE BOOK APART
TO REMOVE THEM.

HERE'S ANOTHER SLOW-MOTION LOOK
AT THE STAPLING ACTION.

THIS IS ANOTHER BINDING METHOD
CALLED PERFECT BINDING.

FIRST, A SCANNER ENSURES
THE PAGES ARE IN ORDER.

THEN THE COVERS GO ON.

WITH TRADITIONAL BOOKBINDING,

THEY SEW THESE COMPONENTS
TOGETHER.

IN THE PERFECT BIND PROCESS,
THEY GLUE THEM TOGETHER.

TO DO THAT, THE MACHINE FIRST
FEEDS THE ASSEMBLED BOOKS,

SPINE SIDE DOWN, ONTO TRAYS.

THE TRAYS COMPRESS THE PAGES.

THEN A SAW UNDERNEATH
CUTS OFF THE FOLDS,

DETACHING THE PAGES FROM
EACH OTHER ALONG THE SPINE.

BUT THAT CUT
CREATES A SMOOTH EDGE

TO WHICH GLUE WOULD HAVE
DIFFICULTY ADHERING.

SO A SECOND SAW
NOTCHES THE SPINE,

CREATING A ROUGH,
GLUE-FRIENDLY SURFACE.

THE NOTCHED SPINE
NOW RUNS OVER ROLLERS

THAT COAT IT IN HOT GLUE.

FINALLY,
TWO CONVEYOR BELTS MERGE --

ONE WITH THE BOOK'S PAGES

ASSEMBLED WITH THE NOTCHED
AND GLUE-COATED SPINE,

AND THE OTHER
WITH THE BOOK'S COVER.

THE MACHINE PRESSES THE COVER
ONTO THE SPINE.

THE BOOK NOW TRAVELS
ALONG THE CONVEYOR BELT

FOR ANOTHER 30 SECONDS,

DURING WHICH TIME
THE GLUE AIR DRIES.

BY THIS STAGE OF THE PROCESS,
WITH EITHER BINDING METHOD,

MOST PAGES ON THE UNBOUND SIDES
OF THE BOOK

ARE STILL ATTACHED BY FOLDS.

TO SEPARATE THE PAGES,

THE BOOKS GO THROUGH A MACHINE
CALLED A THREE-KNIFE TRIMMER.

IT CUTS THE FOLDS OFF THE THREE
SIDES SIMULTANEOUSLY.

THE BOOK IS NOW FINISHED.

FINE-QUALITY BOOKS STILL HAVE
SOME BINDINGS.

BUT YOUR AVERAGE BOOK TODAY IS
WIRE STITCHED OR PERFECT BOUND.

THOSE NEWER METHODS
ARE FAR LESS COSTLY,

YET STILL PRODUCE BOOKS
THAT ARE STURDY AND DURABLE.

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