How It's Made (2001–…): Season 2, Episode 4 - Winter Jackets/Animation/Mushrooms/Gold Rings - full transcript

Find out how winter jackets are constructed, how animation is created from initial drawings, how mushrooms come into being and how gold is formed.


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

WINTER JACKETS, ANIMATION,

MUSHROOMS, AND GOLD RINGS.

AS ANYONE WHO'S SHIVERED
THROUGH A COLD WINTER KNOWS,

YOU'VE GOT YOUR RUN-OF-THE-MILL
WINTER JACKETS

AND THEN,
THOSE REALLY WARM WINTER JACKETS

THAT CAN RUN UP TO $1,000.

THE DIFFERENCE IS WHAT THEY'RE
MADE OF AND HOW THEY'RE MADE.

A TOP-OF-THE-LINE WINTER JACKET
GIVES YOU THE WARMTH

WITHOUT THE WEIGHT.

IT'S WATERPROOF
AND COMFORTABLE --

NO BULKY STUFFING
OR CONSTRICTIVE STYLING.

THE DESIGNER DRAWS A PATTERN
BY COMPUTER.

A SOFTWARE PROGRAM THEN ADAPTS
THE PATTERN TO DIFFERENT SIZES.

A GIANT PRINTER PUTS IT
TO PAPER.

THE TAILOR SPREADS OUT
SEVERAL LAYERS

OF EACH OF THE FABRICS
THAT'LL MAKE UP THE JACKET.

HE LAYS OUT THE PATTERN...

...THEN PINS IT IN PLACE.

NEXT, HE CUTS THROUGH SEVERAL
LAYERS OF FABRIC AT A TIME

WITH ELECTRIC SCISSORS.

THESE SCISSORS MANEUVER
MUCH LIKE A JIGSAW

AROUND THE LINES AND CURVES
OF THE PATTERN PIECES.

THE FINISHED JACKET
WILL ACTUALLY BE MADE UP

OF TWO JACKETS SEWN TOGETHER --

AN INSULATION JACKET
ON THE INSIDE

AND A WINDBREAKER
ON THE OUTSIDE.

THE INNER INSULATION JACKET
BEGINS WITH A NYLON LINING.

THEN THEY LAYER
THE KEY COMPONENTS --

A FILM TO STABILIZE AND PROTECT
THE INSULATION,

THEN THE THICK POLYESTER
INSULATION ITSELF.

AT THIS POINT, THE INSULATION
LAYER IS LARGER THAN THE LINING.

THIS ENSURES THAT EVERY INCH OF
THE JACKET WILL HAVE INSULATION.

WORKING WITH ONE PIECE
AT A TIME,

THEY STITCH THE LAYERS TOGETHER.

EACH LINE OF STITCHING IS TACKED
AT THE BEGINNING AND AT THE END

FOR ADDED STRENGTH.

THEY CUT OFF
THE EXCESS INSULATION,

THEN SEW AN OVERLOCK
AROUND EACH PIECE

TO HOLD THE REMAINING INSULATION
SOLIDLY IN PLACE.

ONCE THEY'VE COMPLETED EACH
PIECE OF THE INSULATION JACKET,

THEY SEW IT ALL TOGETHER.

NEXT STEP -- THE WINDBREAKER.

THE OUTER FABRIC IS HEAVY NYLON.

THE LINING IS A SPECIAL FABRIC
WITH TINY HOLES,

LARGE ENOUGH
TO LET HUMIDITY ESCAPE,

BUT SMALL ENOUGH
TO STOP WATER DROPLETS

AND WIND FROM PENETRATING.

THIS IS WHAT WILL ALLOW
THE JACKET TO BREATH,

WHILE AT THE SAME TIME,

MAKING IT WINDPROOF
AND WATERPROOF.

FINALLY, IT'S TIME TO PUT THE
TWO JACKET COMPONENTS TOGETHER.

USING TWO SEPARATE
STRONG THREADS,

THEY SEW SEAMS
MADE OF KNOTTED STITCHES.

NO SEAMS GO THROUGH THE JACKET

BECAUSE THAT WOULD BREAK
THE INSULATION BARRIER

AND LET IN COLD AIR.

THEY JOIN
THE TWO JACKETS TOGETHER

ONLY WHERE THEY HAVE TO --
AT THE COLLAR, THE CUFFS,

THE HEM,
AND ALONG THE ZIPPER.

AND THIS ISN'T
ANY ORDINARY ZIPPER.

IT'S MADE
OF CORROSION-RESISTANT NYLON

WITH A NICKEL-PLATED SLIDER

THAT LASTS SEVEN TIMES LONGER
THAN A NORMAL SLIDER.

UNTIL NOW, THEY'VE BEEN SEWING
THE JACKET TURNED INSIDE OUT.

NOW THEY TURN IT RIGHT-SIDE IN
FOR FINISHING.

THESE HEAVY-DUTY SNAPS
HAVE STURDY GRIPS

THAT ANCHOR THEMSELVES BETWEEN
THE FIBERS IN THE MATERIAL

SO THEY WON'T TEAR THE FABRIC
WITH REPEATED USE.

SOME JACKETS
HAVE DECORATIVE EMBROIDERY.

DESIGNERS USE A COMPUTER PROGRAM
TO PREPARE THE PATTERN.

THE AUTOMATIC MACHINE EMBROIDERS
FIVE JACKETS AT ONCE.

THIS INTRICATE OWL PATTERN
TAKES 1 1/4 HOURS TO COMPLETE.

THE FINAL RESULT
IS A STYLISH JACKET

WHOSE SECRET WEAPON IS
THAT HIDDEN LAYER OF INSULATION.

IT TRAPS AIR INSIDE YOUR BODY,

THEN HEATS IT UP,

CREATING A CUSHION OF WARMTH
AGAINST THE COLD OF WINTER.

Narrator:
WHAT IS BIOPHOTONICS?

WELL, BIO IS SHORT FOR BIOLOGY.

PHOTONICS IS THE PHYSICS
OF LIGHT.

BIOPHOTONICS
USES SOPHISTICATED IMAGING

AND OTHER SENSITIVE
OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS

TO CONDUCT BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH.

BIOPHOTONICS HAS A RANGE OF USES

FROM MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS
TO DRUG SCREENING.

IN THE GOLDEN YEARS
OF ANIMATED FILM,

TEAMS OF ANIMATORS WOULD DRAW
EVERY SINGLE ILLUSTRATION

BY HAND.

TODAY, THEY DO MUCH
OF THEIR WORK BY COMPUTER,

BUT THAT DOESN'T MEAN
IT'S ANY LESS ARTISTIC.

IT ALL STARTS
WITH A SCREENPLAY --

A SCRIPT CONTAINING
NOT JUST DIALOGUE,

BUT ALSO PHYSICAL DESCRIPTIONS
OF THE CHARACTERS

AND BACKGROUND SCENERY.

THE ART DIRECTOR
BEGINS CREATING THE CHARACTERS.

HE DRAWS IN PENCIL.

WHEN HE'S FINISHED, HE TRACES
THE DRAWING IN FELT PEN.

THEN HE ERASES THE PENCIL MARKS.

HE ADDS SHADOWING
TO CREATE RELIEF.

ONCE HE'S DRAWN
ALL THE CHARACTERS,

HE STARTS THE BACKGROUNDS...

...AND THEN THE OBJECTS
THAT APPEAR IN THE BACKGROUNDS.

THE STORYBOARD ARTIST
BLOCKS OUT THE FILM ON PAPER,

DRAWING BY DRAWING.

THE PRODUCTION TEAM
WILL FOLLOW THIS STORYBOARD

THE WAY A DRESSMAKER
FOLLOWS A PATTERN.

THEY BLOW UP THE DRAWINGS,
SCAN THEM INTO THE COMPUTER,

THEN PLAY THEM BACK
IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER.

THIS CREATES
WHAT'S CALLED AN "ANIMATIC" --

A TWO-DIMENSIONAL VERSION
OF THE FILM,

MINUS THE ANIMATION.

SHOULD THE DIRECTOR
NOW DECIDE TO CHANGE,

SAY, A GROUND-LEVEL VIEW
OF THE STREET TO AN AERIAL VIEW,

HE HAS THE ARTIST REDRAW
THE STREET FROM THAT NEW ANGLE.

MEANWHILE, THE ANIMATORS WORK ON
BRINGING THE CHARACTERS TO LIFE.

USING SPECIALIZED SOFTWARE,

THEY BUILD A SKELETON TO FIT
INSIDE THE CHARACTER'S BODY.

WHEN THEY MOVE THE SKELETON,

THE SOFTWARE MAKES
THE BODY MOVE WITH IT.

THEY MAKE THE CHARACTERS
THREE-DIMENSIONAL

USING A TECHNIQUE
CALLED WIREFRAME ANIMATION.

FIRST, THEY BUILD
THE SHAPE OF THE CHARACTER

USING A WIRE STRUCTURE.

THEN THEY ADD COLOR
AND CLOTHING.

THEY FURTHER
REFINE THE CHARACTER

BY MODIFYING FACIAL FEATURES,

BY ADDING TEXTURE,
AND BY SHADOWING.

THEY USE SPECIALIZED SOFTWARE

TO SYNCHRONIZE THE CHARACTER'S
MOUTH WITH THE DIALOGUE.

THE TECHNICIAN WORKS
SYLLABLE BY SYLLABLE,

PICKING THE MOUTH MOVEMENT
THAT MATCHES EACH SOUND.

IT'S A PAINSTAKING PROCESS
THAT TAKES MANY MONTHS.

ANOTHER ANIMATOR APPLIES
THE LIGHTING EFFECTS.

LIGHTING IS AS IMPORTANT
IN AN ANIMATED CARTOON

AS IT IS IN A MOVIE
WITH REAL PEOPLE.

IT CREATES RELIEF, MAKING
EVERYTHING LOOK MORE REALISTIC.

THE ANIMATORS CUT AND PASTE
THE CHARACTERS AND OBJECTS

ONTO THE BACKGROUNDS.

WITH THE CHARACTERS' MOVEMENTS
PROGRAMMED INTO THE COMPUTER,

THE ANIMATORS TURN
A TWO-DIMENSIONAL

STILL VERSION OF THE FILM INTO
A THREE-DIMENSIONAL ANIMATION,

ESSENTIALLY A ROUGH CUT
OF THE FILM.

MEANWHILE, IN THE STUDIO,
THE SOUNDTRACK TAKES SHAPE.

ACTORS RECORD
THE CHARACTERS' DIALOGUE.

THE SOUND TECHNICIAN WEAVES
TOGETHER THE VOICES, THE MUSIC,

AND THE SOUND EFFECTS USING
SPECIALLY DESIGNED SOFTWARE.

THEY SYNC THE SOUNDTRACK
TO THE ROUGH CUT OF THE FILM.

THEN THEY REFINE THE ROUGH CUT,
PLAYING WITH COLORS AND TEXTURES

AND SMOOTHING OUT
THE CHARACTERS' MOVEMENTS.

AFTER A FULL YEAR'S WORK
AND MORE THAN 42,000 DRAWINGS,

THIS 24-MINUTE COMPUTER-ANIMATED
FILM IS FINALLY FINISHED.

Narrator:
HAVE YOU EVER DINED ON FUNGUS?

WELL, IF YOU'VE EATEN MUSHROOMS,
YOU HAVE.

WE LIKE TO THINK OF THOSE TASTY

LITTLE UMBRELLA-SHAPED THINGS
AS VEGETABLES,

BUT TECHNICALLY, THEY'RE FUNGI.

FUNGUS OMELETTE, ANYONE?

MUSHROOMS GROW IN COMPOST,

AND PREPARING THAT COMPOST
IS A SCIENCE IN ITSELF.

IT STARTS WITH HORSE MANURE
AND STRAW.

THE CORRECT BALANCE OF MOISTURE
AND AIR IS CRITICAL,

BECAUSE MUSHROOMS
NEED BOTH TO GROW,

SO MUSHROOM FARMERS HAVE TO
TURN THE PILE FREQUENTLY

TO AIR IT OUT, AND THEY WATER
IT DAILY FOR ABOUT A WEEK.

THIS KICKS UP PLENTY OF CHEMICAL
AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY.

AMMONIA FORMS,

AND MICROORGANISMS GROW
AND REPRODUCE,

RELEASING HEAT.

GOOD COMPOST REQUIRES
A NITROGEN CONTENT OF ABOUT 2%,

SO FARMERS ADD
A NITROGEN SUPPLEMENT --

CHICKEN MANURE.

THEY ALSO ADD GYPSUM --

A MINERAL THAT IMPROVES
THE STRUCTURE OF THE COMPOST

AND NEUTRALIZES ITS ACIDITY.

AT THE WEEK TO TWO-WEEK MARK,

DEPENDING ON
HOW THE COMPOST IS PROGRESSING,

IT GOES INTO THE COMPOSTER,

WHICH WATERS, AERATES,
AND BLENDS IT.

THE COMPOST COMES OUT
CHOCOLATE BROWN,

SMELLING OF AMMONIA.

NEXT, THEY PASTEURIZE IT,

TO KILL OFF ANY INSECTS
OR INSECT EGGS.

THEY HEAT THE COMPOST
AT 136 DEGREES FOR EIGHT HOURS,

THEN AT 113 DEGREES
FOR FIVE DAYS.

THEN, OVER SEVERAL MORE DAYS,

THEY GRADUALLY COOL IT
TO 77 DEGREES

AS MICROORGANISMS
TURN THE AMMONIA

INTO A NITROGEN PROTEIN --
A MUSHROOM NUTRIENT.

THE COMPOST IS FINALLY READY.

THE FARMER SOWS GRAINS OF WHEAT

INOCULATED
WITH MUSHROOM MYCELIUM --

FINE THREADS OF FUNGI THAT ACT
AS THE MUSHROOMS' ROOTS.

A LAYER OF SOIL AND PEAT MOSS
GOES ON TOP OF THE COMPOST.

THE MYCELIUM DRAWS WATER
FROM THE SOIL

AND NUTRIENTS FROM THE COMPOST.

AFTER ABOUT TWO WEEKS,
TINY MUSHROOMS BEGIN TO DEVELOP.

THEY GROW FAST, DOUBLING
THEIR SIZE EVERY 24 HOURS,

AND THIS IN RELATIVE DARKNESS.

GREEN PLANTS NEED SUNLIGHT
FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS

BUT MUSHROOMS DON'T.

WHAT MUSHROOMS DO NEED IS AIR,

BECAUSE THEY BREATHE IN OXYGEN
AND BREATHE OUT CARBON DIOXIDE.

GREEN PLANTS DO THE OPPOSITE.

ANOTHER THREE DAYS, AND THE TINY
MUSHROOMS ARE FULLY GROWN

AND READY FOR HARVESTING.

PICKERS HAVE TO BE CAREFUL
NOT TO REMOVE THE ROOTS

BECAUSE LEFT INTACT, THEY'LL
SPROUT A NEW BATCH OF MUSHROOMS

EVERY THREE TO FIVE DAYS
FOR ABOUT THREE WEEKS.

THEY PUT THE HARVESTED MUSHROOMS
IN A REFRIGERATOR

JUST ABOVE FREEZING TEMPERATURE,
FOR ABOUT A HALF-HOUR,

TO STOP THE GROWING PROCESS.

ON THE PACKAGING LINE,
THEY WEIGH THE MUSHROOMS

AND ARRANGE THEM IN A CONTAINER,
BUTTONS UP.

A MACHINE PERFORATES
THE PLASTIC COVERING

TO LET THE MUSHROOMS BREATHE.

THIS ENSURES
A LONGER SHELF LIFE.

THE MUSHROOMS STAY IN A FRIDGE

UNTIL THEY LEAVE FOR THE STORE
THE FOLLOWING DAY.

IT'S TAKEN ABOUT 12 WEEKS

FROM THE START OF COMPOSTING
TO YOUR SUPERMARKET SHELF.

Narrator: GOLD JEWELRY HAS BEEN
A SYMBOL OF WEALTH AND STATUS

THROUGHOUT THE AGES.

TODAY, THOUGH,
IT ISN'T JUST FOR THE RICH.

EVEN ORDINARY PEOPLE ARE LIKELY
TO HAVE A GOLD RING OR NECKLACE,

JUST A LITTLE
LESS DIAMOND-STUDDED.

AS EARLY AS 2,000 B.C.,

EGYPTIAN KINGS AND QUEENS
ADORNED THEMSELVES

IN GOLDEN JEWELRY
ENCRUSTED WITH PRECIOUS GEMS.

WHEN THE SPANISH SAILED
TO THE NEW WORLD IN 1492,

THEY DISCOVERED MAYAN AND AZTEC
MASTERPIECES OF COLORED STONES

AND PURE GOLD.

TODAY, ELABORATE GOLD JEWELRY
AND PRECIOUS GEMS

ARE WELL BEYOND THE REACH
OF THE AVERAGE PERSON,

EXCEPT FOR THE DIAMOND RING --

STILL THE CUSTOMARY SYMBOL
OF ENGAGEMENTS.

THE CLIENT
AND THE JEWELRY DESIGNER

FIRST DECIDE
HOW THE RING WILL LOOK.

THE DESIGNER THEN MEASURES
THE CLIENT'S FINGER

TO DETERMINE HER RING SIZE.

HE THEN SKETCHES OUT THE DESIGN
THEY'VE AGREED UPON --

A GROOVED BAND
WITH THREE DIAMONDS.

THE MODEL MAKER WORKS
WITH A SPECIAL CARVING WAX.

USING A COMPASS,

HE MEASURES AND MARKS
THE WIDTH OF THE BAND,

THEN CAREFULLY SAWS IT OFF.

HE TAKES HIS GAUGE

AND PUTS IT ON A STICK
WITH RING-SIZE MARKINGS,

CALLED A MANDREL.

HE ADJUSTS HIS COMPASS
TO THE RING SIZE,

THEN SCORES THE FINGER HOLE
ON THE BLOCK OF WAX.

HE THEN TAKES HIS DRILL

AND CAREFULLY CARVES OUT
THE HOLE HE SCORED.

THEN HE GRINDS OFF THE WAX
ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE BAND.

USING THE COMPASS AGAIN, HE
SCORES THE MIDDLE OF THE BAND,

WHERE HE'LL MAKE THE GROOVE.

THEN, USING A FINE DRILL BIT,
HE CARVES OUT THE GROOVE.

WITH A FILE,
HE THEN REFINES THE GROOVE

AND SHAPES
THE CURVES OF THE RING

ACCORDING TO THE DESIGN.

AFTER PUTTING WAX PRONGS
ON THE BAND,

HE ATTACHES A WAX STEM
TO THE MODEL.

HE THEN POSITIONS THE STEM
INTO THE BASE OF THE CYLINDER

THAT THE JEWELER WILL USE
TO CAST THE RING.

THE BASE GOES ONTO THE PLATFORM
OF A VACUUM MACHINE.

THE JEWELER PUTS A CYLINDER
ON TOP OF THE BASE,

THEN POURS IN A SPECIAL PLASTER.

THE VACUUM SUCKS ALL THE AIR
OUT OF THE PLASTER.

THIS IS A KEY PART
OF THE PROCESS,

BECAUSE IF
ANY AIR BUBBLES REMAIN,

THE FINISHED RING WILL BE
OUT OF SHAPE.

IN LESS THAN A MINUTE,
THE VACUUMING IS DONE,

AND THE CYLINDER
GOES INTO THE FURNACE

AT 1,350 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THE WAX MODEL EVAPORATES,

LEAVING A VOID THE EXACT SHAPE
OF THE RING

IN THE HARDENED PLASTER.

NEXT, THEY MELT THE GOLD.

THE GOLD CONTENT OF JEWELRY
IS MEASURED BY KARAT.

THE LOWER THE KARAT, THE LESS
GOLD AND THE MORE ALLOY,

OR CHEAPER METALS SUCH
AS NICKEL, SILVER, AND COPPER.

AFTER FIVE HOURS,

THE CYLINDER COMES
OUT OF THE FURNACE

AND GOES INTO
THE CASTING MACHINE.

THE MACHINE SPINS
FOR ABOUT A MINUTE.

THE CENTRIFUGAL FORCE
SHOOTS THE LIQUEFIED GOLD

INTO THE PLASTER MOLD
THAT'S INSIDE THE CYLINDER.

THE JEWELER THEN IMMERSES
THE CYLINDER IN COLD WATER.

THIS COOLS THE GOLD AND MAKES
THE PLASTER DISINTEGRATE.

WHAT'S LEFT
IS THE CAST GOLD RING,

BUT ITS SURFACE IS ROUGH,
SO ON TO THE FINISHING PROCESS.

THE JEWELER SAWS OFF THE STEM
AND GETS TO WORK.

HE FILES AND GRINDS THE RING
UNTIL THE SURFACE IS SMOOTH.

THEN HE STAMPS ON HIS TRADEMARK
AND THE KARAT MARKING.

THEN HE HAMMERS THE RING
ON THE MANDREL

TO MAKE IT PERFECTLY ROUND.

THE JEWELER THEN HANDS IT OFF
TO A SPECIALIST IN POLISHING.

THE POLISHER RUNS THE RING
AGAINST A SERIES

OF BUFFING WHEELS
UNTIL IT'S BRIGHT AND SHINY.

THE POLISHER THEN HANDS IT OFF

TO A SPECIALIST
IN SETTING GEMSTONES.

THE SETTER STRAIGHTENS
THE PRONGS

THAT'LL HOLD THE DIAMONDS.

THEN, WITH A DELICATE DRILL BIT,

HE CAREFULLY CARVES OUT
THE INSIDE OF THE PRONGS.

THE EDGES OF THE DIAMONDS WILL
FIT DIRECTLY INTO THESE SLOTS.

HE READJUSTS THE PRONGS,
THEN SETS THE DIAMONDS,

MAKING SURE THE PRONGS
HOLD THEM DOWN SECURELY.

THAT'S A 1-CARAT DIAMOND
IN THE MIDDLE,

A 1/2-CARAT DIAMOND
ON EACH SIDE.

THE JEWELER THEN IMMERSES
THE FINISHED RING

INTO THE ULTRASONIC MACHINE.

THE VIBRATIONS IN THE WATER
PENETRATE EVERY NOOK AND CRANNY,

WASHING THE RING.

FINALLY, HE PUTS THE RING
UNDER A JET OF HOT STEAM

TO BLAST AWAY
ANY REMAINING RESIDUE.

AND VOILà.

WITH A RING LIKE THAT,
WHO WOULDN'T SAY "I DO"?

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