How It's Made (2001–…): Season 2, Episode 3 - Personal Watercraft/Wine/Office Furniture/Ice Skates - full transcript

In this episode find out how personal watercraft, ice skates, wine, and office furniture is made.


Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

PERSONAL WATERCRAFT...

WINE...

PARTICLEBOARD
OFFICE FURNITURE...

AND ICE SKATES.

THEY'RE TO WATER
WHAT SNOWMOBILES ARE TO SNOW,

WHAT MOTORCYCLES ARE TO ROAD.

THE PROPER TERM
FOR THESE ADRENALINE-PUMPING,

WIND-IN-YOUR-FACE VEHICLES
IS PERSONAL WATERCRAFT,

BUT MOST PEOPLE
CALL THEM SEA-DOOS.

THE FIBERGLASS SHELL
THAT'S THE BODY OF THE CRAFT

IS MOLDED AT ANOTHER FACTORY.

IT ARRIVES HERE READY-MADE.

WORKERS USE A TEMPLATE

TO POSITION DECORATIVE DECALS
ON THE UPPER SHELL,

CALLED THE DECK.

NEXT, THEY INSTALL
RUBBER FOOTPADS ON THE STEPS.

A ROBOT DRILLS HOLES
IN THE LOWER SHELL,

CALLED THE HULL,

FIRST FOR THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM...

...THEN FOR THE EXHAUST SYSTEM.

NEXT, WORKERS INSTALL THE STRAPS

THAT WILL HOLD THE INTERNAL
COMPONENTS IN PLACE.

THEN THEY INSTALL THE RUBBER PAD
THAT GOES UNDER THE MOTOR.

NEXT COMES THE MOTOR MOUNT
TO HOLD THE MOTOR IN PLACE.

FINALLY, THE MOTOR ITSELF.

THIS 130-HORSEPOWER ENGINE

ARRIVES AT THE FACTORY
FULLY ASSEMBLED.

IT'S A MATTER
OF PUTTING IT IN PLACE.

NEXT, THEY INSTALL
THE JET PUMP --

THAT'S WHAT GIVES THE WATERCRAFT
ITS JET POWER --

THEN THE BATTERY,

THEN THE DRIVELINE --

THAT'S WHAT LINKS THE MOTOR
AND THE JET PUMP.

THE 14-GALLON GAS TANK
GOES IN NEXT.

THEY CONNECT THE DRIVELINE...

...THEN INSTALL THE JET HOUSING.

THAT'S THE PROTECTIVE CASING
AROUND THE JET PUMP.

MEANWHILE,
A ROBOT WORKS ON THE DECK.

IT APPLIES GLOBS OF GLUE
IN KEY LOCATIONS.

WORKERS STICK ON VARIOUS STRAPS

THAT WILL HOLD
INTERNAL COMPONENTS IN PLACE.

THEN THE ROBOT GLUES
THE CIRCUMFERENCE

OF BOTH THE HULL AND DECK.

THEY HEAT THE HULL
TO ACTIVATE THE GLUE...

...THEN CLAMP THE DECK
TO THE HULL.

THE GLUE TAKES
ABOUT 15 MINUTES TO DRY.

USING AN ULTRASOUND MACHINE,

THEY INSPECT THE SEAL
TO MAKE SURE IT'S WATERTIGHT.

NEXT, THEY INSTALL THE HOOD
AND THE STEERING COLUMN.

NOW IT'S TIME TO RUN
AN ENGINE TEST.

THE LAST STEP IS TO INSTALL
A PLASTIC BUMPER.

A ROLLER PRESSES IT
SECURELY INTO PLACE.

Narrator:
RESEARCHERS INVENTED A WAY
TO IDENTIFY FARAWAY OBJECTS,

EVEN IN THICK FOG
OR COMPLETE DARKNESS.

THEY USE A LASER COMBINED WITH
MILITARY NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY

TO LOCATE OBJECTS OR PEOPLE
UP TO MILES AWAY.

THE SYSTEM IS SO PRECISE,

IT CAN READ THE NAME OF A BOAT
IN THE DEAD OF NIGHT.

THE NEXT TIME YOU ENJOY
A GLASS OF WINE,

THINK ABOUT YOUR PLACE
IN HISTORY.

WINE MAY DATE BACK TO 6000 B.C.

NOWADAYS, WINE COMES IN BOTTLES,

NOT ANIMAL SKINS,

BUT THE BASIC PRINCIPLES
OF WINEMAKING REMAIN THE SAME.

WINE GRAPES GROW BEST
IN TEMPERATE CLIMATES.

THE RIPER THE GRAPES,
THE SWEETER THE WINE,

SO GROWERS WAIT
AS LONG AS POSSIBLE

BEFORE HARVESTING THEIR CROP.

PICKERS GATHER GRAPES BY HAND,

CUTTING OFF THE BUNCHES
WITH SHEARS

TO AVOID TEARING THE PLANT.

FOR RED WINE, WINEMAKERS
USE THE ENTIRE RED GRAPE --

JUICE, SKIN, PULP,
AND EVEN SEEDS.

FOR WHITE WINE, THEY USE
JUST THE JUICE OF WHITE GRAPES.

WHILE THE WINEMAKING PROCESS
ITSELF IS CERTAINLY A FACTOR,

THE QUALITY OF THE GRAPES

IS WHAT ULTIMATELY DETERMINES
THE QUALITY OF THE WINE.

GRAPES ARE AFFECTED BY WEATHER,
BY SOIL CONDITIONS,

AND BY HOW THE VINES ARE PRUNED
DURING AND BETWEEN SEASONS.

THE GRAPES GO INTO THE CRUSHER,

THEN INTO THE PRESSER,
WHICH SQUEEZES OUT THE JUICE.

INSIDE THE WINERY,

THE RESULT OF ALL THAT CRUSHING
AND PRESSING

ENDS UP IN LARGE
STAINLESS STEEL TANKS.

THE WINEMAKER ADDS YEAST

TO CONVERT THE SUGAR
IN THE GRAPE JUICE TO ALCOHOL.

THAT'S CALLED FERMENTATION.

WINEMAKERS CONSTANTLY EXPERIMENT
WITH FERMENTATION

TO TRY TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY
OF THEIR WINE.

THEY TAKE SAMPLES OF GRAPE JUICE

AND MIX THEM
WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF YEAST.

YEAST IS FOUND THROUGHOUT
THE ENVIRONMENT,

IN WILD BERRIES, FOR INSTANCE.

THEY HYDRATE THE YEAST
WITH A BIT OF GRAPE JUICE,

THEN POUR THE MIX
INTO THE GRAPE JUICE SAMPLE,

LET IT FERMENT,
AND THEN SEE HOW IT TURNS OUT.

THE BIG FERMENTATION TANKS
ARE REFRIGERATED,

AND MONITORING THEIR TEMPERATURE
IS CRITICAL.

WHITE WINE MUST BE FERMENTED
AT AROUND 63 DEGREES,

RED WINE AT 86 TO 95 DEGREES.

THE FERMENTATION PERIOD
DEPENDS ON THE TYPE OF WINE.

WHITE WINE HAS TO FERMENT
FOR THREE WEEKS,

RED WINE FOR JUST 10 DAYS.

ROSé WINE IS SOMEWHAT
OF A HALF-BREED...

MADE WITH RED GRAPES,

BUT FERMENTED SLOWLY,
LIKE WHITE WINE.

IT COMES OUT PINK.

THERE'S AN EXTRA STEP
IN MAKING RED WINE.

DURING FERMENTATION,

THEY DRAIN THE TANK
TO AERATE THE WINE.

THE OXYGEN HELPS
THE YEAST WORK FASTER

OVER THE SHORT 10-DAY
FERMENTATION PERIOD.

THEN THEY PUMP THE WINE BACK IN
THROUGH THE TOP OF THE TANK

TO MIX EVERYTHING THOROUGHLY.

DURING FERMENTATION,

THEY NOT ONLY
MONITOR TEMPERATURE,

BUT ALSO THE SUGAR LEVEL.

AS THE JUICE BECOMES WINE,
THE SUGAR LEVEL DROPS,

AND THE ALCOHOL LEVEL INCREASES.

EXCEPT FOR VERY SWEET WINES,

FERMENTATION IS FINISHED
WHEN THE SUGAR'S GONE

AND THE ALCOHOL CONTENT
IS 11% TO 13% FOR RED WINE,

OR 11% TO 11 1/2%
FOR WHITE AND ROSé.

THE WINE IS STORED
FOR A FEW MONTHS,

THEN IT'S RUN THROUGH
SEVERAL PRESSURE FILTERS

TO REMOVE ANY PARTICLES.

THEN IT'S TIME
TO BOTTLE THE WINE.

LARGE WINERIES HAVE
FULLY AUTOMATED BOTTLING PLANTS.

SMALLER OPERATIONS

HAVE SEMI-AUTOMATED SYSTEMS
LIKE THIS ONE.

THE KEY IN BOTTLING WINE
IS TO AVOID GETTING AIR INSIDE

BECAUSE OXYGEN TURNS WINE SOUR.

THE COLORED WINE BOTTLES
PROTECT THE WINE FROM LIGHT,

WHICH CAN ALSO AFFECT THE TASTE.

PEOPLE HAVE USED CORK TO PLUG
WINE BOTTLES SINCE ANCIENT TIMES

BECAUSE IT CREATES A TIGHT SEAL
THAT KEEPS THE AIR OUT.

CORK, INCIDENTALLY,
IS A TYPE OF TREE BARK.

INSIDE THE BOTTLE,

THE WINE CONTINUES TO UNDERGO
SUBTLE ORGANIC CHANGES

AS IT AGES.

Narrator:
NOWADAYS, YOU HAVE TO BE
PRETTY HIGH UP IN A COMPANY

TO HAVE A SOLID WOOD DESK.

YOUR DESK IS MORE LIKELY
MADE OF PRESSED WOOD --

AN INEXPENSIVE ALTERNATIVE
MADE FROM LUMBER BY-PRODUCTS.

PARTICLEBOARD IS A COMMON TYPE
OF PRESSED WOOD.

LUMBER MILL LEFTOVERS

PROVIDE THE RAW MATERIALS
FOR PARTICLEBOARD.

THE PROCESS STARTS
WITH TRUCKLOADS OF SAWDUST.

THE NEXT INGREDIENTS
ARE WOOD SHAVINGS AND WOOD CHIPS

FROM ALL TYPES OF LUMBER.

THEY FEED THOSE CHIPS
AND SHAVINGS INTO A LARGE MILL

THAT WORKS LIKE
A GIANT FOOD PROCESSOR,

CHOPPING THEM UP
INTO LITTLE BITS.

WHEN THE MILLING'S DONE,

THE PARTICLES ARE BETWEEN
.008 AND .5 INCHES IN SIZE

AND LESS THAN .03 INCHES THICK.

TO MAKE THE HUMIDITY LEVEL
UNIFORM,

THEY PUT THE PARTICLES
INTO GIANT DRYERS

WHOSE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
ARE FUELED BY LEFTOVER DUST

FROM THE CHOPPING MILL.

AFTER 15 TO 25 MINUTES,

THE HUMIDITY LEVEL DROPS
TO 1.5%.

FROM HERE, THEY'LL SEND
THE DRIED-OUT PARTICLES

TO A SCREENING MACHINE,

WHICH WILL SEPARATE THEM
BY SIZE.

PIECES TOO BIG FOR PARTICLEBOARD
ARE FED THROUGH THE MILL AGAIN.

SAWDUST WILL BECOME FUEL
FOR THE DRYERS.

LARGER PARTICLES
GO INTO THE ROUGHER CORE LAYER

OF THE PARTICLEBOARD,

SMALLER PIECES INTO
THE SMOOTHER SURFACE LAYER.

MEANWHILE, THE FACTORY'S
GLUE DEPARTMENT GETS TO WORK

MIXING RESIN, WATER, WAX,
AND CHEMICAL HARDENERS.

MACHINES MIX THE GLUE
AND THE PARTICLES,

THEN PUSH OUT
A LONG, CONTINUOUS MAT.

A COLD COMPRESSOR
FORCES THE AIR OUT OF THE MAT.

THEN A HOT PRESS
ACTIVATES THE GLUE

AND FORCES IT ALL TOGETHER.

NEXT, A SAW CUTS
THE CONTINUOUS MAT

INTO LARGE SHEETS
CALLED MASTER BOARDS.

THEY'RE STILL HOT
FROM THE HOT PRESS,

SO THEY'RE PUT ASIDE TO COOL
FOR ABOUT A HALF-HOUR.

ONCE THE MASTER BOARDS ARE COOL,
THEY'RE SANDED.

THEN A STACKING MACHINE
PILES THEM ABOUT 80 SHEETS HIGH.

A SAW CUTS THEM INTO A SMALLER,
MORE MANAGEABLE SIZE

TO BE SENT OFF
TO A FURNITURE FACTORY.

AT THE FURNITURE FACTORY,

THE FIRST STEP IS TO LAMINATE
THE PARTICLEBOARD PANELS

WITH A DECORATIVE COVERING.

FIRST, THE GLUE SPREADER COVERS
THE BOARD'S SURFACE WITH GLUE.

THEN ANOTHER MACHINE STICKS ON

A 4- TO 5-FOOT STRIP
OF DECORATIVE PAPER

FORTIFIED WITH RESIN, VARNISH,
AND OTHER CHEMICALS.

THIS COVERING COMES IN MANY
DIFFERENT COLORS AND DESIGNS,

FROM SOLIDS
TO IMITATION GRANITE OR WOOD.

A BLADE CUTS THE PAPER
BETWEEN EACH BOARD.

THEN A MACHINE STACKS THE BOARDS
TO PREPARE THEM FOR CUTTING.

THE SAW CUTS THROUGH SIX
TO EIGHT BOARDS AT A TIME,

DEPENDING ON THEIR THICKNESS.

THE NEXT STEP IS TO COVER
THE EDGES OF THE PARTICLEBOARD.

THEY TAKE A STRIP
MADE OF PVC PLASTIC

THAT MATCHES THE LAMINATE.

THEY GLUE IT OVER THE EDGES,
THEN TRIM IT FOR A NEAT FINISH.

NEXT, THEY PREPARE
THE PIECES FOR ASSEMBLY.

A MULTIPLE-HEAD DRILL
MAKES SCREW HOLES IN THE PANELS.

MEANWHILE, THEY PREPARE
THE BAG OF HARDWARE.

THERE'S A SEPARATE BIN

FOR EACH SCREW, NUT, BOLT,
AND CONNECTOR.

THE MACHINES COUNT OUT
THE EXACT NUMBER OF HARDWARE

EACH PIECE
OF FURNITURE REQUIRES.

THEN THE HARDWARE
IS AUTOMATICALLY BAGGED

AND WEIGHED
TO MAKE SURE NOTHING'S MISSING.

EVERY SO OFTEN,
A WORKER ASSEMBLES A SAMPLE

TO MAKE SURE EVERYTHING
FITS TOGETHER PROPERLY.

IF IT DOES,
PRODUCTION CONTINUES,

AND THEY CAN PROCEED
TO PACKAGING.

THEY PUT TOGETHER
THE PARTICLEBOARDS

FOR EACH PIECE OF FURNITURE,

ADD THE HARDWARE BAG
AND INSTRUCTION BOOKLET,

THEN SEAL EVERYTHING
IN PLASTIC FILM.

FROM HERE, IT GOES INTO A BOX
TO BE SHIPPED TO THE STORE.

Narrator: GETTING YOUR
FIRST PAIR OF ICE SKATES

IS LIKE GETTING
YOUR FIRST BICYCLE.

IT'S A CHILDHOOD RITE
OF PASSAGE,

AND ONE THAT LEADS TO ANOTHER
WELL-KNOWN RITUAL --

LANDING ON YOUR BACKSIDE
THE FIRST TIME YOU TRY THEM OUT.

HOW LONG HAVE WE BEEN
ICE-SKATING?

AN IRON SKATE FOUND IN
SCANDINAVIA DATES TO 200 A.D.,

BUT PEOPLE LIKELY PUT BLADES
MADE OF BONE UNDER THEIR SHOES

EVEN EARLIER THAN THAT.

SKATERS TIED ON
THEIR BLADES WITH STRAPS

UNTIL THE ADVENT OF THE
SKATE BOOT IN THE EARLY 1900s.

TODAY, SKATES
ARE LIGHTWEIGHT AND HIGH-TECH

AND ARE DESIGNED
FOR SPECIFIC SPORTS --

FIGURE SKATING,
SPEED SKATING, AND HOCKEY.

IT TAKES 145 STEPS TO MAKE
THIS HIGH-END HOCKEY SKATE.

THE SKATE BOOT IS MADE
OF A SYNTHETIC MATERIAL

THAT LOOKS
AND FEELS LIKE LEATHER.

ONCE THEY'VE CUT THE PIECES
THAT WILL MAKE UP THE BOOT,

THEY SHAVE THE EDGES,

THINNING THEM OUT
SO THE BOOT WON'T BE BULKY,

PARTICULARLY WHERE
THERE'S OVERLAP AT THE SEAMS.

THEY POSITION
A REINFORCEMENT PIECE

ONTO WHAT'S CALLED
THE QUARTER --

THE MAIN STRUCTURAL PIECE

THAT WILL FORM THE SIDES
AND BACK OF THE SKATE BOOT.

THEY GLUE IT ON
WITH A HOT PRESS.

THE BOOT PIECES NOW GO
TO THE SEWING DEPARTMENT.

THEY STITCH TOGETHER
THE TONGUE PIECE,

THEN, USING A STURDY
ZIGZAG STITCH,

THEY ATTACH THE QUARTER
AND THE HEEL PIECE.

THEY SPRAY GLUE
ON THE QUARTER...

...AND ON THE ANKLE SUPPORT...

...THEN STICK
ON A FOAM ANKLE PAD

DESIGNED TO MOLD TO THE CONTOURS
OF THE SKATER'S ANKLES.

NEXT COMES THE LINING.

THEY MUST CENTER IT PERFECTLY

FOR THE SKATE TO BE
PROPERLY ALIGNED AND BALANCED.

THE EYELET MACHINE
WORKS LIKE A HOLE PUNCH,

PUNCHING OUT EYELETS
IN THE QUARTER.

THEY REINFORCE EACH EYELET
WITH AN ALUMINUM WASHER.

THE LAST STEP
IN THE SEWING DEPARTMENT

IS CALLED FORMING.

THEY PLACE THE BOOT
OVER A METAL FOOT FORM.

A HOT PRESS LAMINATES THE BOOT
TO GIVE THE BACK

AND SIDES OF THE QUARTER
THEIR SHAPE.

IN THE ASSEMBLY DEPARTMENT,

THEY PUT THE PARTS TOGETHER
USING A FOOT FORM.

THEY TACK ON
A WHITE PLASTIC INSOLE

AND A BLACK PLASTIC TOE CAP.

THEY BRUSH ON A LAYER OF GLUE...

...AND ATTACH THE BOOT.

THEY SAND THE BOTTOM OF THE BOOT

TO ROUGHEN UP THE SURFACE
FOR BETTER ADHESION.

AN AUTOMATED MACHINE
APPLIES A LAYER OF GLUE

ALONG THE CONTOURS
OF THE BOOT'S UNDERSIDE.

THE BOOT THEN GOES THROUGH
A HEAT MACHINE

FOR A COUPLE OF SECONDS

TO EVAPORATE THE SOLVENT
IN THE GLUE,

MAKING IT TACKIER.

AS WITH THE LINING,

THEY MUST POSITION
THE SOLE PERFECTLY,

OR THEY'LL THROW
THE SKATE OFF-BALANCE.

AN 8-TON PRESS
PRESSES IT ONTO THE BOOT.

THE SOLE IS MADE
OF STRONG CARBON

OR CARBON COMPOSITE
DEPENDING ON THE SKATE MODEL.

ONCE THE GLUE IS DRY,

THEY DRILL TWO HOLES
THROUGH THE SOLE

FOR ATTACHING THE SKATE BLADE.

THE BLADE SITS
IN A PLASTIC HOLDER.

THEY SCREW IT IN PLACE
THROUGH THE HOLES,

THEN SECURE IT
WITH FIVE STEEL RIVETS

AND FOUR MORE RESISTANT
COPPER RIVETS.

LIKE THE LINING IN THE SOLE,

THE BLADE'S ALIGNMENT
IS CRUCIAL.

ROLLER HOCKEY SKATES ARE MADE
ALMOST THE SAME WAY

AS ICE HOCKEY SKATES,
JUST INSTEAD OF A BLADE,

THEY ATTACH AN ALUMINUM CHASSIS
WITH ROLLERS.

IN THE FINISHING DEPARTMENT,

THEY INSPECT THE INSIDE
OF THE SKATE,

CHECKING THE BLADE HOLES
AND RIVETS IN PARTICULAR.

THEY PLUG THE BLADE HOLES.

THEN THEY LACE UP
THE FIRST THREE SETS OF EYELETS.

FINALLY, THEY INSTALL
WHAT'S CALLED THE FOOTBED --

THE HIGH-DENSITY FOAM PADDING
THAT LIES UNDER THE FOOT.

LAST, BUT NOT LEAST,
THEY CLEAN THE SKATE,

TRIMMING EXCESS THREADS
AND REMOVING ANY GLUE RESIDUE.

CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

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