How It's Made (2001–…): Season 2, Episode 5 - Hydroponic Lettuce/Construction Wood/Recycling/Fishing Flies - full transcript


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

HYDROPONIC LETTUCE,

CONSTRUCTION WOOD,

RECYCLING,

AND FISHING FLIES.

BET YOU THOUGHT
THE ONLY WAY TO GROW LETTUCE

WAS IN A GARDEN.

WELL, VEGETABLES
DON'T NECESSARILY NEED SOIL.

THEY CAN ALSO GROW IN WATER,

PROVIDED IT CONTAINS THE PROPER
NUTRIENTS AND FERTILIZERS.

THAT'S CALLED HYDROPONICS.

THIS METHOD OF GROWING
HYDROPONIC LETTUCE

IS CALLED "DEEP POOL
FLOATING RAFT TECHNOLOGY."

IT SOUNDS PRETTY COMPLICATED,
BUT IT'S REALLY QUITE SIMPLE,

AND IT ALL STARTS
IN THE GERMINATION AREA

WITH LETTUCE SEEDS.

TO PLANT THEM,
WORKERS USE A STEEL TRAY

CONNECTED TO A VACUUM HOSE.

THE TRAY HAS 276 HOLES,

AND A VACUUM SUCKS A SEED
INTO EACH ONE.

NEXT THEY TAKE A FOAM BLOCK
WITH CORRESPONDING HOLES

CALLED AN OASIS
AND POSITION IT INTO THE TRAY.

A QUICK FLIP DEPOSITS A SEED
INTO EACH HOLE OF THE OASIS.

THE SEEDS ARE COATED IN CLAY.

CLAY HOLDS IN MOISTURE
TO NOURISH THE SEED

BUT ALSO BREAKS APART EASILY
TO LET THE SEED SPROUT.

ON THE WAY TO THE GREENHOUSE,

THE SEEDS GET
THEIR FIRST WATERING.

THEN WORKERS SET THEM AFLOAT.

THE POOL OF WATER
IS ABOUT 12 INCHES DEEP.

TECHNICIANS CONTINUOUSLY MONITOR
AND MANIPULATE

ITS LEVELS OF OXYGEN
AND FERTILIZER.

THAT'S THE KEY
TO HYDROPONIC GROWING.

THE WATER IS NEVER DISCARDED,
JUST TOPPED OFF

TO REPLACE WHAT THE PLANTS DRINK
AND WHAT EVAPORATES.

ON THE FIRST DAY,
THEY WATER THE SEEDS FREQUENTLY.

WITHIN A COUPLE OF DAYS,
THE SEEDLINGS START TO APPEAR.

THEY WATER AND FERTILIZE THEM.

BY ABOUT THE FOURTH DAY,

THERE'S SOME SIGNIFICANT
SPROUTING ACTION.

AGAIN, THEY WATER
AND FERTILIZE THE PLANTS.

THE FIRST LEAVES EMERGE ON ABOUT
THE SEVENTH DAY IN THE SUMMER,

ON ABOUT THE 11th DAY
IN THE WINTER.

THE WINTER GROWTH RATE IS SLOWER
BECAUSE THERE'S LESS SUN.

AT THIS POINT,

IT'S TIME FOR THE FIRST
IN A SERIES OF TRANSPLANTS.

WORKERS TRANSFER THE LETTUCES
FROM THE 276-PLANT OASIS

TO A STYROFOAM BOARD
THAT HOLDS MORE PLANTS -- 288.

THEY SET THE BOARDS AFLOAT
IN THE NURSERY ZONE.

AT ABOUT THE 13-DAY MARK
IN THE SUMMER --

THE 20-DAY MARK IN THE WINTER --

TRANSPLANT NUMBER 2
TAKES PLACE, THIS TIME

TO A LESS CROWDED
STYROFOAM BOARD

THAT HOLDS JUST 72 PLANTS.

THIS GIVES THE PLANTS MORE LIGHT
AND MORE ROOM TO GROW.

WORKERS USE A HOOK
TO AVOID DAMAGING THE ROOTS.

A PLANT NEEDS HEALTHY ROOTS
TO ABSORB WATER AND NUTRIENTS.

THE LAST TRANSPLANT HAPPENS
ON ABOUT THE 26th DAY

IN THE SUMMER,
THE 45th DAY IN THE WINTER.

NOW THE LETTUCES GO FROM
THE 72-PLANT BOARD

TO A BOARD THAT HOLDS JUST 18.

BY NOW THE PLANTS
HAVE LONG ROOTS,

SO THEY'RE HARDER TO MANIPULATE.

THE LETTUCES
GO INTO THE PRODUCTION ZONE,

THE LAST MOVE BEFORE HARVESTING.

THESE POOLS ARE BIGGER,

SO AUTOMATIC MACHINES
MOVE THE BOARDS AROUND.

THIS HYDROPONIC SYSTEM

PRODUCES 500 PLANTS
PER SQUARE YARD,

ALMOST FIVE TIMES THE YIELD
OF FIELD-GROWN LETTUCE,

AND IT'S SAFER, TOO.

THERE'S NO NEED HERE
FOR PESTICIDES OR FUNGICIDES,

AND BECAUSE IT'S ALL INDOORS,

FERTILIZER CAN'T
CONTAMINATE THE ENVIRONMENT.

BY ABOUT THE 45th DAY
IN THE SUMMER,

THE 75th DAY IN THE WINTER,

THE LETTUCES ARE FINALLY
READY FOR HARVESTING.

WORKERS CUT OFF
THE YELLOWED LEAVES AT THE BASE,

THEN EITHER CUT OFF THE ROOTS
OR WRAP THEM AROUND THE STEM,

DEPENDING ON
HOW THIS CROP WILL BE SOLD.

THEN THEY VACUUM-COOL EACH
LETTUCE FOR LONGER SHELF LIFE.

Narrator:
AN AMERICAN ENGINEER

HAS INVENTED
A SELF-MENDING PLASTIC

TO USE FOR COMPONENTS
THAT VIBRATE AND WEAKEN.

WHEN THE PLASTIC TEARS, TINY
CAPSULES INSIDE IT ALSO TEAR,

RELEASING A LIQUID,
LIKE BLOOD FROM A CUT.

THEN A CATALYZING AGENT
ALSO IN THE PLASTIC

SEALS THE TEAR LIKE A SCAR.

THERE WAS A TIME

WHEN IF YOU WANTED TO
BUILD SOMETHING OUT OF WOOD,

YOU HAD TO PICK UP AN AX
AND GO CHOP DOWN A TREE.

THANKFULLY FOR CITY DWELLERS,
ALL IT TAKES TODAY

IS A TRIP TO YOUR
LOCAL HOME-IMPROVEMENT CENTER

TO BUY 2x4's, 2x10's --
YOU NAME IT.

THEY START WITH LOGS
CUT FROM SPRUCE OR FIR TREES.

TURNING THEM INTO CONSTRUCTION
WOOD ISN'T THAT COMPLICATED.

FIRST THEY SOAK THE LOGS
FOR ABOUT 20 MINUTES.

THIS REMOVES THE MUD

AND SOFTENS THE BARK
TO MAKE IT EASIER TO REMOVE.

NEXT THE LOGS
GO THROUGH THE DEBARKER,

A MACHINE WITH A ROTOR
THAT SHAVES OFF THE BARK.

THE ROTOR HAS SIX SHARP BLADES

THAT TAKE JUST 10 SECONDS
TO SHAVE A LOG BARE.

IN THE FILING ROOM,

THEY REGULARLY SHARPEN
AND INSPECT THE SAW BLADES

THEY'LL USE
TO CUT THE SHAVED LOGS,

STRAIGHTENING THEM
BACK INTO SHAPE WHEN NECESSARY.

IN THIS SAWMILL,
THERE ARE TWO PRODUCTION LINES.

THE WIDER LOGS
GO THROUGH THIS SAW.

THE WORKER AT THE CONTROLS
USES A LASER

TO HELP HIM POSITION
AND REPOSITION EACH LOG

AS HE RUNS IT THROUGH THE SAW
SEVERAL TIMES

TO CUT IT INTO AS MANY
4x10-INCH PIECES AS POSSIBLE.

AN AVERAGE LOG USUALLY YIELDS
ABOUT SEVEN OR EIGHT PIECES.

THE NARROWER LOGS
GO THROUGH A DIFFERENT SAW.

THIS SAW FIRST CUTS A BOARD
OFF EACH SIDE,

THEN SENDS WHAT'S LEFT
OF THE LOG ON TO ANOTHER SAW.

THE 4x10's ON
THE FIRST PRODUCTION LINE

GO FOR A SECOND CUT
CALLED THE RESAW.

THEY'RE CUT IN HALF INTO 2x10's.

THE LOGS ON THE SECOND
PRODUCTION LINE END UP HERE

IN WHAT'S CALLED
THE CANTER-BULL MACHINE.

IT HAS EIGHT
ADJUSTABLE CIRCULAR SAWS

THAT CAN CUT THE LOG
INTO VARIOUS SIZES OF WOOD

ANYWHERE FROM 2x3's TO 2x8's,
DEPENDING ON THE LOG'S DIAMETER.

BOTH PRODUCTION LINES FEED TO
MACHINES THAT SMOOTH THE EDGES

AND TRIM OFF ANY DEFECTS
THAT CAN EFFECT THE STRENGTH

OR RESISTANCE OF THE WOOD.

THEN AN AUTOMATED SORTER
DROPS THE WOOD INTO BINS

ACCORDING TO THEIR SIZE.

EACH BIN THEN FEEDS
THE STACKING MACHINE.

FROM HERE THEY'LL PUT THE WOOD
INTO A KILN TO BE DRIED

TO ABOUT 15% HUMIDITY.

THEN THEY'LL GRADE THE PIECES

AND SHIP THEM TO A LUMBERYARD
OR HOME-IMPROVEMENT STORE.

Narrator: IF YOU CARE ABOUT
OUR ENVIRONMENT,

CHANCES ARE YOU SEPARATE
YOUR RECYCLABLE WASTE

FROM YOUR OTHER GARBAGE

AND EITHER TAKE IT
TO A RECYCLING CENTER

OR PUT IT OUT AT THE CURB
FOR PICKUP.

BUT HAVE YOU EVER WONDERED
WHERE IT GOES FROM THERE?

WHEN THE TRUCK ARRIVES,

YOUR RECYCLABLES GO THROUGH
THEIR FIRST SORTING.

THE WORKER PUTS PAPER AND BOXES
IN ONE RECEPTACLE,

GLASS, PLASTICS, AND METALS
IN ANOTHER.

AT THE SORTING PLANT

THE TRUCK DUMPS EACH RECEPTACLE
INTO A SEPARATE AREA.

THEN IT'S ON TO SEPARATE
CONVEYOR BELTS FOR MORE SORTING.

ON THE PAPER-AND-BOXES LINE,

WORKERS FIRST REMOVE
ANY PLASTIC, METAL, OR GLASS

THAT GOT THERE BY MISTAKE.

THEN THEY SORT WHAT'S LEFT
INTO THREE CATEGORIES --

FIRST, CORRUGATED CARDBOARD --
WHAT BROWN BOXES ARE MADE OF --

SECOND, NEWSPRINT,
AND THIRD, MIXED-FIBER PAPER

SUCH AS CEREAL BOXES, ENVELOPES,
AND GREETING CARDS.

ON THE GLASS, METAL,
AND PLASTICS CONVEYOR BELT,

WORKERS FIRST REMOVE
THE BIG BULKY ITEMS

SUCH AS GALLON-SIZED CONTAINERS.

A JUMBO MAGNET
PICKS UP EVERYTHING METAL

EXCEPT FOR ALUMINUM,
WHICH ISN'T MAGNETIC.

WORKERS THEN SORT MILK
AND JUICE CARTONS TO ONE AREA,

ALUMINUM TO ANOTHER.

THEY SEPARATE PLASTICS
INTO THREE CATEGORIES,

GLASS INTO TWO --
CLEAR AND COLORED.

ONCE EVERYTHING'S
BEEN SEPARATED,

EACH CATEGORY GOES INTO A BALER,
WHICH COMPACTS IT...

...THEN BINDS IT WITH WIRE
LIKE A GIANT BALE OF HAY.

THEN IT'S OFF TO THE WAREHOUSE

UNTIL THEY'RE SOLD
TO A RECYCLER.

AT THE RECYCLING PLANT, THEY
CUT OPEN A BALE OF PLASTICS,

THEN LOAD EVERYTHING
ONTO THE CONVEYOR BELT.

THE PLASTICS
PASS THROUGH MAGNETS

TO REMOVE ANY METAL
THAT MIGHT HAVE SLIPPED THROUGH.

THEN IT'S INTO THE SHREDDER.

IT TAKES THE SHREDDER
JUST AN HOUR

TO SHRED TWO TONS OF PLASTIC.

ALL THOSE CONTAINERS

ARE NOW TINY,
LITTLE PLASTIC FLAKES.

NEXT, CLEANING BY FRICTION
AND WATER.

ANY REMAINING GLASS
OR OTHER CONTAMINANTS

NOW SINK TO THE BOTTOM

WHILE THE LIGHTER PLASTIC FLAKES
FLOAT TO THE TOP.

THE DIRTY WATER
WILL BE CHEMICALLY FILTERED

AND USED AGAIN.

THEY DRY THE FLAKES BY HOT AIR,

THEN PUT THEM INTO SILOS
TO BE COMPACTED.

INSIDE THE COMPACTOR,
IT'S 320 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THE HEAT PARTIALLY MELTS
THE PLASTIC,

FUSING THE PIECES
AS THEY COMPACT.

THE FLAKES

GO THROUGH THE COMPACTOR'S
PERFORATED INNER DRUM,

MUCH LIKE A PASTA PRESS...

...AND COME OUT
LOOKING A BIT LIKE MACARONI.

THEY'RE NOW OFFICIALLY RECYCLED
PLASTIC

IN RAW-MATERIAL FORM.

NEXT THEY'RE MELTED,
PRESSED THROUGH A SCREEN,

THEN CUT INTO PELLETS
1/8 INCH LONG.

THEY DROP INTO WATER TO COOL,
THEN GO INTO A DRYER.

FACTORIES BUY THESE PELLETS

AND USE THEM
TO MAKE PLASTIC PRODUCTS.

THIS RECYCLING PLANT TAKES
THE PLASTIC FLAKES IT PRODUCES

TO MOLD WAREHOUSE PALLETS.

THE MOLD GOES IN
AT 446 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT

FOR JUST ABOUT
SEVEN OR EIGHT MINUTES.

IT TAKES JUST 2 1/2 MINUTES
TO MOLD A RECYCLING BIN...

...SOMETHING TO HELP ENSURE
A STEADY SUPPLY

OF WHAT THE FACTORY NEEDS TO
KEEP PRODUCING RECYCLED PLASTIC.

Narrator: STILL MOPING
ABOUT THE ONE THAT GOT AWAY?

WELL, MAYBE YOU JUST
DIDN'T USE THE RIGHT FLY.

FLY-FISHING IS ONE OF
THE MOST CHALLENGING TYPES

OF SPORT FISHING,

AND TYING A GOOD FLY
TO THE END OF YOUR LINE

CAN MAKE ALL THE DIFFERENCE.

IN ABOUT 300 A.D., PEOPLE BEGAN
DECORATING THEIR FISHING HOOKS

TO MIMIC INSECTS AND SMALL FISH.

THE MACEDONIANS WERE KNOWN
TO USE A FISHING FLY

MADE OF RED YARN
AND ROOSTER FEATHERS.

TODAY, WITH SO MANY SYNTHETIC
MATERIALS AVAILABLE,

THE DESIGN POSSIBILITIES
ARE ENDLESS.

BUT EVERY FISHING FLY

IS STILL BASED ON THAT
CENTURIES-OLD TECHNIQUE

OF ATTACHING BIRD FEATHERS
OR ANIMAL HAIRS TO A HOOK.

THE WHOLE IDEA
IS TO TRICK THE FISH.

THE FLY IMITATES
AN AQUATIC INSECT OR TINY FISH,

SOMETHING THE FISH YOU'RE
TRYING TO CATCH LIKES TO EAT.

THE FLYMAKER STARTS
BY PLACING A HOOK IN A VISE.

USING A TOOL
CALLED A BOBBIN HOLDER,

HE WINDS A WAXED NYLON THREAD

CAREFULLY AND TIGHTLY
AROUND THE SHANK OF THE HOOK...

THEN CUTS OFF THE EXCESS.

THIS FLY WILL SIMULATE A
MOTHLIKE INSECT CALLED A CADDIS,

A PRIMARY FOOD FOR TROUT --

A CADDIS IN THE PUPAL STAGE
OF ITS LIFE CYCLE,

JUST BEFORE IT
TRANSFORMS INTO AN ADULT.

THE FLYMAKER FIRST ATTACHES
A SPECIAL SYNTHETIC YARN

TO CREATE THE TAIL.

HE SECURES IT ALONG
THE MIDDLE OF THE HOOK.

HE THEN TAKES ANOTHER SYNTHETIC
MATERIAL CALLED DUBBING

TO CREATE THE BODY.

HE SPINS THE DUBBING BETWEEN
HIS FINGERS ONTO THE THREAD.

THE WAX ON THE THREAD
HELPS IT ADHERE.

HE WINDS THE DUBBING OVER THE
BASE OF YARN TO FORM THE BODY.

THEN HE FOLDS SOME YARN
OVER THE DUBBING

AND ATTACHES IT
WITH MORE NYLON THREAD.

THEN HE CUTS OFF THE EXCESS.

GOOD FISHING FLIES NOT ONLY
LOOK LIKE THE REAL THING,

THEY ALSO ACT LIKE IT, MIMICKING
THE INSECT'S NATURAL MOVEMENTS.

WHEN A CADDIS PUPA IS READY
TO TRANSFORM INTO AN ADULT,

IT SWIMS TO THE SURFACE OF THE
WATER, THEN DEPLOYS ITS WINGS.

THE SHIMMERING YARN
ON THIS FAKE CADDIS

WILL GIVE THE ILLUSION
OF THE AIR BUBBLES

THIS VOYAGE TO THE SURFACE
CREATES.

TO SIMULATE THE WINGS,

THE FLYMAKER USES DUBBING
MADE OF DEER FUR.

HE CUTS OFF THE LONG, COARSE
HAIRS KNOWN AS GUARD HAIRS...

...THEN PLACES THEM
INTO A DEVICE

CALLED A HAIR STACKER.

HE SHAKES IT...

...TURNS IT TO THE SIDE...

THEN OPENS IT UP.

ALL THE HAIRS
ARE NOW EVENLY ALIGNED.

HE MEASURES THE LENGTH HE NEEDS
TO CREATE THE FLY'S WINGS.

THEN HE ATTACHES IT,

LEAVING A PORTION STICKING OUT
THE FRONT

TO FORM THE INSECT'S HEAD.

NEXT HE USES A TOOL
CALLED A WHIP FINISHER

TO TIE A STURDY KNOT
MADE OF SEVERAL LOOPS.

THIS CADDIS FLY IMPOSTER

IS NOW READY
TO TRICK SOME TROUT.

THERE ARE THOUSANDS OF STYLES
OF FLIES.

YOU CHOOSE WHICH TO USE

ACCORDING TO WHAT FISH
ARE FEEDING ON AT THE MOMENT.

FLYMAKERS USE MANY TYPES OF
NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC DUBBINGS

TO FORM AND DECORATE
THEIR FLIES --

FEATHERS, ANIMAL HAIRS, METALS,

AND PLASTICS OFTEN DYED
BRILLIANT COLORS.

TYING A GREAT FLY WON'T ALWAYS
SNAG YOU THE CATCH OF THE DAY,

BUT IF YOU MANEUVER THE FLY

TO MAKE REALISTIC MOVEMENTS
IN THE WATER,

THE FISH WILL BUY IT --
HOOK, LINE, AND SINKER.

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