Star Trek (1966–1969): Season 3, Episode 1 - Spock's Brain - full transcript

The Enterpise is approached by an ion-propelled craft (much to Eng. Scott's liking); from it enters a female who renders everyone unconscious. When the crew wakes up, McCoy finds Spock alive in sick bay but with his brain surgically removed. McCoy urges its quick restoration if he's to survive at all. Desperately Kirk follows an ion-trail to a system where he gambles on an icy planet populated by a simple-minded all-male race of large cavemen who attack them. The landing party captures one, who says Kirk and crew are small like 'The Others' - bringers of pain and delight - whom they fear. McCoy brings down Spock's body, mobilized with a mechanical brain-substitute installed. They enter the acclimatized, underground dwelling of 'The Others' - a similarly simple-minded all-female race of enslavers - and overpower female Luma by surprise. Kirk makes communicator contact with Spock, who knows not where he is but is aware of autonomic functions. As they finally find Kara, the female brain-thief, she overpowers them and, outfitting them with control belts, brings them before a female panel to be judged. As their interrogation commences, they realize there is no superior intellect among them capable of handling the technology to maintain the subterranean complex, and the 'controller' to which these women begin to refer is actually Spock's brain, which Kirk must somehow get back and reunite with Spock's body.

- Phaser banks standing by, sir.
- Range 43,000 and closing.

- What do you read, Mr. Spock?
- Configuration unidentified.

Ion propulsion, high velocity,
though of a unique technology.

- Any contact, lieutenant?
- Beaming on all frequencies, sir.

All languages have been attempted.
No response.

Now using standard
interstellar symbols.

- Keep trying.
- Aye, sir.

- Magnification ten, Mr. Chekov.
- Aye, sir.

Thirty-eight thousand and closing.

- Well, Scotty?
- Beats me, but isn't she a beauty?

- Interesting design.
- I've never seen anything like her.

And ion propulsion, at that.

They could teach us a thing or two.

- Life forms, Mr. Spock?
- One. Humanoid or similar.

Low level of activity.
Life-support systems functioning.

Interior atmosphere:
Conventional nitrogen-oxygen.

Instruments indicate
a transferral beam

emanating from the area
of the humanoid life form.

Directed at what?

Directed at the Bridge
of the Enterprise.

- Security guard.
- Security guard to the Bridge.

I'm Captain James Kirk.
This is the starship Enterprise.

Space, the final frontier.

These are the voyages
of the starship Enterprise.

Its five-year mission:
To explore strange new worlds,

to seek out new life
and new civilisations,

to boldly go where no man
has gone before.

- What happened?
- Helm status, Mr. Sulu.

No change from last reading, sir.

Condition reports from all decks,

- Aye, sir. All decks...
- Spock. Where's Spock?

- Jim? Jim?
- Yes, what is it?

You'd better come to Sickbay
right now.

All right. On my way.

Deck 5. Personnel, no damage.



My God.

- Spock. What happened?
- I found him on the table.

- Like this?
- No, not like this.

- What happened?
- I don't know.

You've got him on complete
life support. Was he dead?

He was worse than dead.

- What do you mean?
- Jim...

Come on, Bones.
What's the mystery?

- His brain is gone.
- His what?

It's been removed surgically.

How could he survive?

It's the greatest technical job
I've ever seen.

Every nerve ending of the brain
must have been neatly sealed.

Nothing ripped, nothing torn.

No bleeding. It's a medical miracle.

If the brain is missing,
then Spock is dying.


That incredible Vulcan physique hung
on till the life-support cycle took over.

His body lives.
The autonomic functions continue.

But there is no mind.

- That girl.
- Aye.

- What girl?
- From that ship.

She took it.

I don't know why or where,
but she must have taken it.

Bones, how long
can you keep him functioning?

- I can't give you any guarantee.
- That's not good enough, doctor.

If it was us, I would say indefinitely.

But Vulcan physiology
limits what I can do.

Spock's body
is much more dependent

upon that tremendous brain
for life support.

Then we'll have to take him with us.

- Take him where?
- In search of his brain, doctor.

From what you say,
the moment we find it,

we must restore it to his body
or we lose him.


Where are you going to look?

In this whole galaxy, where are you
going to look for Spock's brain?

How are you going to find it?

- I'll find it.
- Even if you do, I can't restore it.

I don't have the medical technique.

It was taken out.
It can be put back in.

But I don't know how.

The thief that took it
has the knowledge.

I'll force it out of her.

If you don't find it in 24 hours, you'd
better forget the whole thing, Jim.

You and Scotty, have Spock ready.

I've got it again, sir. An ion trail
that's from that ship of hers, all right.

Where does the trail lead,
Mr. Chekov?

- System Sigma Draconis.
- Lock on, Mr. Sulu.

Maximum speed.

Warp 6.

- No question about the trail?
- No mistake, sir.

Captain's log, stardate 5431.4.

For 15 hours and 20 minutes,
we have been following the ion trail

of the spaceship
that has Spock's brain.

Time left to us:
Eight hours and 40 minutes.

- Captain, I've lost the trail.
- All scanners, extreme sweep.

Aye, sir.

- Well?
- Nothing, sir.

No signal at all, captain.

- It's gone, sir. A sudden deaction shift.
- We've lost her trail.

But she went into that system.

Mr. Chekov, put a schematic
of Sigma Draconis on the screen.

Aye, captain.

Readout, Mr. Chekov?

Sun spectral type, Gamma 9.

Nine planets, three of them Class-M,

possessing sapient life according
to reports and long-range scanning.

She was breathing our air.
She must have gone to one of them.

Show us the three Class-M planets,
Mr. Chekov.

The one on the left, number III,
rates letter B on the industrial scale.

Earth equivalent,
approximately 1485.

Yes, sir. Second planet, Class-M,
number IV, rates letter G.

The year 2030.

But that ship, captain,
either was many years ahead of us

or it was the most incredible
design fluke in history.

- Third Class-M planet, Mr. Chekov?
- Number VI.

No sign of industrial development.

At last report, in a glacial age.

Sapient life plentiful,
but on a most primitive level.

As I understand you, Mr. Chekov,

- there are three Class-M planets.
- Yes, sir.

Not one of which is capable
of launching an interstellar flight.

- No, sir.
- Yet one of them accomplished it.

- Yes, sir.
- Thank you, Mr. Chekov.

Captain, I'm picking up high
energy generation on planet VI.

- That's the primitive glaciated planet.
- Yes, sir.

- The source, lieutenant?
- It could be natural.

Volcanic activity, steam,
any of a number of causes.

But it's very regular.

What do your surface readings show,
Mr. Chekov?

No sign of organised civilisation.

Primitive humanoids picked up
at irregular intervals.

With regular pulsations
of generated energy?

I can't explain it, sir.

I can't afford to guess wrong.

Better choose the right planet,
get there, find the brain.

Eight hours and 35 minutes.

- Recommendations, Mr. Chekov?
- Sigma Draconis III.

- It's closest, heaviest population.
- But a technological rating of only 3.

They couldn't possibly have
put that ship we saw into space.

None of these planets could.

I say Planet IV, captain.

At least Planet IV is ahead of III

But advanced ion propulsion
is beyond even our capabilities.

It would be a miracle
if they had developed it.

What would they want
with his brain?

What would they want with
Mr. Spock's brain? What use is it?

- Why do they want it?
- Yes, why would they want it?

Eight hours and 34 minutes.

Planet VI is glaciated, you say?

For several thousand years at least.
Only the tropical zone is ice-free.

But the energy. Regular. It's there.

- It's real.
- Yes, sir.

It doesn't make sense, but it's there.

Have the Transporter Room stand by.

I'm taking a landing party
down to Planet VI.

Aye, aye, sir.

A hunch, captain?

A hunch, Mr. Sulu.

But if you guess wrong, captain?

If I guess wrong, Mr. Spock is dead.

Spock will die.

Captain's log, stardate 4351.5.

We are beaming down
to a primitive glaciated planet

in the Sigma Draconis star system.

Time left to us to find Spock's brain:
Eight hours and 29 minutes.

Suit temperatures are 72.

Life-form readings, Mr. Spock?
Mr. Scott?

Scattered, widely spaced.
Humanoid, all right. On the large side.

Watch out. We know
their development is primitive.


Readout, Mr. Chekov?

No structures, captain.
No mechanised objects that I can read.

No surface consumption,
no generation of energy.

Atmosphere is perfectly all right,
of course.

Temperature, a high maximum of 40.

You have a thick skin.


There's someone, something
out there in the rocks.

- Five of them. Humanoid. Large.
- Phasers on stun.

I want them conscious.

Fire only on my signal.

Flank out.


We mean you no harm. We're not
your enemies, we're your friends.

We only wish to talk to you.

You are not the others?

No. We come from a far place.

We are men.

- Men?
- Like yourselves.

You are small, like the others.

- Who are the others?
- Givers of pain.

And delight.

Do they live here with you?

No. They come.
They give pain and delight.

- Do they come from the sky?
- They are here.

You will see.

The others will come for you.

They come for all like us.

Do they come for your women
as well?

- Women?
- The female of your kind.

Your words say nothing.

Don't you have a mate?

- Mate?
- A companion.

Will you take us
where we can find the others?

No one wants to find them.

We do. We want to find them.
Take us there and we'll let you go.

Captain, 500 metres in that direction
there's a foundation under the surface.

A huge one.
Registration's all over the place.

- Buildings?
- Yes, sir.

Immensely old, completely buried,
but they were here once.

Somewhere down there
is where the others live.

Scotty, see if you can find
a way down.

- Aye, sir.
- No! No!

- Do not go there! No! No!
- It's all right.

It's all right. Let him go!

What could the others do
to cause such terror?

What was it he said?
Pain and delight?

- Peculiar mixture.
- A dead and buried city

on a planet in a glacial age.

And the male humanoid

who doesn't know the meaning
of the word "female."


Over here, sir.

There's food in there
and a whole pile of other stuff.

A storehouse
for our muscular friends.

I don't think so. Scotty.

Metal, forged, tempered.

Our apish friends didn't make these.

What do you think?

It could be a warning device to keep
those creatures away from the food.

Or the food could be a lure
set by the others to bring them in here.

In that case,
the beam would be a signal.

And this cave a trap.

If it will trap the creatures
for the others, captain,

- won't it trap us too?
- Exactly.

- Kirk to Enterprise.
- Uhura here.

Have Dr. McCoy
beam down immediately.

Aye, aye, sir.

Mr. Chekov, you and the security team
will remain here at the entrance.

- We'll be in constant contact with you.
- Aye, sir.

All right, Bones. Bring him along.

Keep him close to the right.


Call Chekov and tell him
to send my stomach down.

It might be a long wait.
We may as well be comfortable.

Phasers on stun.

Captain, that power we picked up
above, we're getting closer.

A lot of it?

Enough to push this planet
out of orbit.

What source?

Either a nuclear pile
100 miles across, or...

- Or what?
- Ion power.

We're slowing down.

- Is she all right?
- I'll have her talking in a minute.

You do not belong here.
You are not Morg.

Take me to the one in charge,
I wish to speak to him.

"Him"? What is "him"?

What have you done with Spock's
brain? Where have you taken it?

You are not Morg or Eymorg.
I know nothing about a brain.

- You're lying.
- She's not, Jim. No change in reading.

She doesn't know.

See what you can pick up
on your communicator.


We don't wanna hurt you.

What is this place?

This place is here.

- Who are you?
- I am Luma. I am Eymorg.

You are not Eymorg.
You are not Morg.

What are you?

Jim, it's no use.

You'll get nothing out of that one.
Hers is the mind of a child.

Captain, I've got something
but I can't quite get a fix on it.

Fascinating. Activity without end,
but with no volition.

- Spock, is that you?
- Captain? Captain Kirk?

Yes, Spock.

- Yes.
- Captain,

there is a definite
pleasurable experience

connected with the hearing
of your voice.

Where are you, Spock?

Is that you, Dr. McCoy,
and are you with the captain?

- Where else would I be?
- Mr. Spock, where are you?

Engineer Scott as well? Unfortunately,
I do not know where I am.

We'll get to you, Spock.
It won't be long.

Practical idea, captain.

It seems unlikely
that I shall be able to get to you.


There she is. That's the one. What
have you done with Spock's brain?

What are you do..?

Captain's log, stardate 5431.6.

Immediately after making contact
with Spock's brain,

Dr. McCoy, Engineer Scott
and myself

were taken prisoner
inside a highly complex civilisation

hundreds of metres below the surface
of planet Sigma Draconis Vll.

The primitive creature
we encountered above

warned us about
the givers of pain and delight

and the frightening consequences
of being captured by them.

What are you? Why are you here?

You have something to speak?

What have you done
with Spock's brain?

We do not know Spock.

This is Spock. You saw him
on the ship. You have his brain.

It must be restored to him immediately.
What have you done with it?

Yes, brain. You spoke to Luma also
of brain, but we do not understand.

I do not know about Luma, but you
were on the Enterprise. I saw you.

- We do not know these things you...
- You came to my ship.

We know only here below
and here above. This is our place.

- You are not Morg. You are stranger.
- I saw you on my ship.


She may not remember
or even really know.

Disassociation could be complete.

Doesn't seem possible she could've
performed surgery on Spock.

- No, it doesn't.
- You hurt Luma.

It is not permitted again
to hurt anyone.

We don't want to hurt anyone.

If you wish to return to your home,
you may go.

No. We'll stay here
and learn about you

and tell you of us.

Yes. For instance,
above it's cold and harsh.

And below, it's warm.
The air is fresh.

Aye. There's no sun but there's light.

- I wish to talk to those in charge.
- In charge?

Yes, the organisers, the managers.

- The leader of your people.
- I am leader. There is no other.

That's impossible.
Who built the machines?

Who are the doctors?
Who operates?

- Who controls this complex?
- Control?

- Controller?
- Yes, the Controller.

The Controller. Who controls?
I would like to meet, to see him.

No, it is not permitted. Never.
Controller is alone, apart.

We serve Controller.
No other is permitted near.

- We intend no harm.
- You have come to destroy us.

No, no, no. I promise you.

We wanna talk to somebody
about Spock's brain, that's all.

Brain and brain! What is brain?

- It is Controller, is it not?
- Yes. Yes, in a way, it is.

The human brain
controls the individual's functions.

Bones. Scotty.

Spock's brain controls.

It's not possible.

Great leader.

Great leader,
we come from a far place

to learn from your Controller.

You lie. You know me.
You have said that.

You came to take back
the Controller.

He is our friend.
You must take us to him. We beg you.

- Soon it'll be too late.
- Do not take them, Kara.

Do not take them to the Controller.

- They will be prevented.
- You must take us.

I must learn what to do.
Come with me.

- You will keep them here.
- Yes, mistress.

Ship's log.
Lieutenant Sulu recording.

I'm holding the Enterprise in orbit
about planet Sigma Draconis Vll.

Captain Kirk's hunch
that Spock's brain is on this planet

appears to be correct.

Ensign Chekov
remains on the surface

to act as liaison between
the captain and the Enterprise.

I never felt anything like that.
Every nerve of my body was on fire.

I wouldn't believe the human organism
could take such pain.

Aye. These are on to stay for a while.
Must be a magnetic lock of some kind.

No wonder the Morgs
are so obedient and terrified.

How is this place kept functioning
by the primitive minds we've met?

No, those women
could never have set up

anything as complex
as this has to be.

Why, that takes engineering genius.

But there's no sign of engineering
genius in any of those women.

And they were smart enough
to invent these training devices.

What a way to maintain control
over a man.


"Pain and delight," he said up above.

I'm sure you noticed
the delight aspect of this place.

Yes, I certainly did notice
those delightful aspects.

But that, too, was strictly
under command of the women.

How does Spock's brain fit into this?

With a communicator,
we might be able to find out.

This fellow
is keeping us from our property.

Well, isn't there a way
to correct that situation?

I certainly think that science
might provide an answer.

- It does, captain.
- Agreed, doctor.

Science will triumph.
Come on, Scotty. Bones,

give them something that will keep
them out for a while. Spock? Spock?

Come on, Spock.

Spock, you were on this frequency,

Yes, captain. I am still here.

Have you returned
to the Enterprise?

No. We might be able to locate you

if you gave us some idea
of what they were using you for.

- Is it medical?
- I'm not certain.

I seem to have a body
which stretches into infinity.

Body? Why, you have none.

Then what am I?

- You are a disembodied brain.
- Fascinating.

It could explain much, doctor.

My medulla oblongata is hard at work,
apparently breathing,

apparently pumping blood,

apparently maintaining
a normal physiologic temperature.

Spock, we don't have time for that.

Why are you endangering your lives
by coming here?

We came to put you back.
Where are you?

- Back where?
- Back into your body.

We brought it along with us.

Thoughtful, captain,
but probably impractical.

While I might trust the doctor
to remove a splinter or lance a boil,

I do not believe he has the knowledge
to restore a brain.

- Thank you.
- No denigration intended, Dr. McCoy.

That skill does not yet exist
in the galaxy.

The skill to remove it exists
right where we are.

Restoring it must also be possible.

That's why we've got to get to you
as quickly as we can.

Captain, I appreciate the risks
you're taking on my behalf.

But I must insist
that they are worthwhile

only if there is a reasonable chance
for success.

Let me ask you,
how much time has elapsed since..?

Eighteen hours and 12 minutes.

Dr. McCoy must have told you

that 24 hours is the maximum
my body can be...

I told him.

That leaves us exactly five hours
and 48 minutes, Spock.

It does seem all too brief a time
to develop such skills, does it not?

Yes, very brief. That's why
we must get to you immediately.

Beam us a signal
so we can home in on you.


Got it.

- Spock, one question.
- Yes, captain.

We've got pain-giving devices
attached to us.

Can you tell us how to get them off?

I shall give it top priority.

Captain, I have an answer for you.

It seems your pain bands
are manually controlled.

The red button on a bracelet
releases them.

I know that does not
make much sense.

Oh, yes, it does, Spock.

Keep concentrating, Spock.
Keep concentrating, Spock.

Must be in here, captain.


Spock. No pain.


No, go away.

We will die. You must not take
the Controller away. We will all die!

The Controller is young and powerful.

How very flattering.

You will give life to my people
for 10,000 years to come.

You will find another Controller.

The old one is finished.
There is no other than this.

And there will not be another
for 10,000 years.

Spock, you're in a black box

tied in with light rays
into a complex control panel.

- Fascinating.
- You say you're breathing,

pumping blood,
maintaining temperature.

Is it possible
that you're recirculating air,

running heating plants,
purifying water?

Indeed, captain,

that is unquestionably
part of what I am doing.

- He must stay. He must stay!
- He will not stay.

Now, you took his brain.
You will put it back. How did you do it?

- I do not know.
- She couldn't, Jim.

Her mind is functioning
on a very simple level.

Mental faculties down here seem to be
almost atrophied because of non-use.

She was on the Enterprise. She must
have done it. How did you do it?

- It was the old knowledge.
- How do you get the old knowledge?

- I put upon my head the Teacher.
- What is the Teacher?

The Great Teacher
of all the ancient knowledge.

If I may explain, captain,

she refers to the taped
storehouse of knowledge

of the builders of this place.

I scan it. A most impressive store.

- How does it work? Show us.
- I cannot.

- You must tell us.
- I cannot.

Only by command of the ancients
may I understand.

How does it work? Show us.

We'll protect you.
You won't come to any harm.

It is a device with feeding circuits.

They lead into the mind
of the priestess leader.

Its use is strictly predetermined
by the builders.

No! The knowledge is forbidden.
I must not know the secrets!

I will be punished!

Gentlemen, the Controller's explanation
of the functioning of the Teacher

is essentially correct.

However, he is giving
no credit to me.

I provide the means
whereby the knowledge is used.

- Without me, captain...
- Without you,

there could be no delicate miracle
that kept Spock's brain alive.

Thank you, doctor.
That was very gracious.

Yes. From the very first,
I appreciated your ability.

Good, Captain Kirk. Then you will also
appreciate that without the Teacher,

I would not have
the knowledge to use

that which you have
thoughtfully provided.

That phaser is set to kill.

So it is. That is the knowledge
you have brought me.

Do not move.
If your weapon kills, it will kill you.

We're not the first to bring you
the knowledge of killing.

If you continue, you'll kill Spock.

The Controller die? The Controller
will live for 10,000 years.

And we shall give him
all our devotion.

But Spock will be dead.
His body is dying this minute.

Why do you not understand that the
need of my people for their Controller

is greater than your need
for your friend.

No one may kill a man. Not for
any purpose. It cannot be condoned.

Do not.

I do not know killing.
I do not wish to kill.

- The commandment must be fulfilled.
- You must help us.

When you came to the ship,
you had the knowledge,

yet when we came here, you didn't.

- Correct.
- How long does the knowledge last?

- Three of your hours.
- That would be just enough time.

If you had the knowledge,
could you restore what you've taken?

- I would not.
- You must help us.

You must restore
with that knowledge

- what you have taken.
- No!

You must put back
what you have taken!

I will not betray my people.
The Controller will stay.

Jim, it worked for her.
It might work for me.

She is an alien. The configurations
of her brain are different.

It could cause irreparable damage
to your human brain, doctor.

I'm a surgeon already.

If I could learn these techniques,
I might be able to retain them.

Captain, you might lose
the doctor that way.

He might. But we're sure to lose you
if I don't try.

I cannot allow you
to jeopardise your life for me.

Spock, didn't you hear?

I might be able to retain and bring
these techniques to the world.

Jim, isn't it worth that risk?

Wouldn't you insist
upon taking such a risk yourself?

Go ahead, doctor.
Put the Teacher on.


Of course.

Of course.

A child could do it.

A child could do it.

Captain's log, stardate 5432.3.

Dr. McCoy is proceeding
to restore Spock's brain.

Our problem:
We do not know how long

his increased surgical knowledge
will stay with him.

Any additional attempt to use
the teaching device is impossible.

It would kill my medical officer.

I've never seen anything like it.
He's operating at warp speed.

You know, I'd like a try
at that Teacher myself.

You will have him back
and we will be destroyed.

No, you won't be destroyed.

You'll be without your Controller
for the first time.

- But you'll be much better off, I think.
- We will die.

No, you'll live and develop
as you should have.

All this shouldn't
have been done for you.

Now the women here below
and the men here above

will control together.

- They will not help us without the pain.
- There are other ways.

You'll discover them. You must
move to the surface, you understand.

- We will die above in the cold.
- No, you won't.

You'll learn to build houses,
to keep warm,

to work. We'll help you for a while.

Humans have survived
under worse conditions.

It's a matter of evolution.
You'll be fine.

Captain Kirk.

- What is it?
- He's forgetting.

- I can't. I...
- Bones?


All the, you know... The nerves.
There are a million of them.

What am I supposed to do?

What am I supposed to do?

Bones, you can't stop now.

I'm trying to thread a needle
with a sledgehammer.

What am I supposed to do?
I can't remember.

- I don't remember.
- Bones?

- No one can restore a brain.
- You could.

A while ago, it was child's play.

Captain's log, supplemental.

Our race against time to save
Spock's life may have been futile.

Dr. McCoy has lost
the surgical knowledge

he obtained from the Teacher.

He has been drawing on his own skills
in surgical techniques

in an attempt
to continue the operation.

But he is faltering and uncertain.

In the desperate hope that he can
draw on Spock's brain for assistance,

I instructed Dr. McCoy to give priority
to connecting Spock's vocal chords.

- Well?
- He's dying and I can't stop it.


- Dr. McCoy?
- Spock?

If you'll finish reconnecting my speech
centre, I might be able to help.

Speech centre.


That's correct.

One thing at a time.

That's better. Now, doctor,
try the sonic separator.

Sonic separator...

Yes, I believe I already have
some sensation of feeling.

Please stimulate the nerve endings
and observe the physical reactions

one by one.

In each case, I shall tell you
when the probe is correct.

You will then seal
using the trilaser connector.

Trilaser connector.

- Ready?
- Ready.

Right forefinger.


Right wrist.


Right elbow.

Correct. Very good, doctor.

I'll never live this down. This Vulcan
is telling me how to operate.

- Closed.
- Well?

How would I know? I could've
made a thousand mistakes.

Sealing nerve endings.
Joining ganglia.

The fluid balance is correct,
but I don't know.

Congratulations, doctor.
And thank you.

How do you feel, Spock?

On the whole, captain,
I believe I am quite fit.

Fascinating. A remarkable example
of a retrograde civilisation.

At the peak, advanced beyond
any of our capabilities,

and now operating
at this primitive level, which you saw.

And it all began
thousands of years ago,

when a glacial age reoccurred.

You see, this underground complex
was developed for the women.

The men remained above.

Then a male-female schism
took place.

A fascinating cultural development
of a kind...

I knew it was wrong.

- I shouldn't have done it.
- What's that?

I should've never
reconnected his mouth.

Well, we took the risk, doctor.

As I was saying,
a fascinating cultural development

of a kind which
hasn't been seen in ages.

The last such occurrence took place
on old Earth when the Romans...