How It's Made (2001–…): Season 9, Episode 3 - Wooden Bowls/Chainsaws/Stackable Potato Chips/Jet Compressor Blades - full transcript

Discover how wooden bowls, chainsaws, stackable potato chips, and jet compressor blades are made.


>> Narrator: TODAY ON "HOW IT'S

MADE"...WOODEN BOWLS...

CHAIN SAWS...

STACKABLE POTATO CHIPS...

AND JET COMPRESSOR BLADES.

THERE WAS A TIME WHEN BOWL

MAKING WAS A CHERISHED TRADE

PASSED DOWN THROUGH GENERATIONS

OF WOODWORKERS.

BUT TODAY, WITH SO MUCH MASS

MASS-PRODUCED TABLEWARE,

HANDCRAFTED WOODEN BOWLS HAVE

BECOME A SPECIALTY ITEM, AND

THIS CENTURY'S-OLD TRADITIONAL

CRAFT IS PRACTICALLY A LOST ART.

EACH OF THESE EXQUISITE BOWLS IS

MADE FROM A SOLID PIECE OF

HARDWOOD -- BEECH, MAPLE,

WALNUT, OR CHERRY.

LOGS ARRIVE AT THE BOWL MILL

FRESH FROM THE FOREST, SO

THEY'RE STILL VERY DAMP, AND

THAT'S AN ADVANTAGE.

BECAUSE THE MOISTURE LUBRICATES

THE CUTTING TOOLS.

THE FIRST STEP IS TO DIVIDE THE

LOG INTO BLOCKS WITH A CHAIN-SAW

OPERATOR MEASURING AND

INSPECTING AS HE GOES.

DEFECTS SUCH AS KNOTS OR

SCARRING DICTATE THE LENGTH OF

EACH BLOCK.

ANY CRACKS OR OTHER FLAWS ARE

MARKED WITH A RED CRAYON.

NEXT, A RIP-SAW OPERATOR USES

DIFFERENT SIZE BOWL PATTERNS TO

DETERMINE THE BEST WAY TO CUT

THE BLOCK.

THE GOAL IS TO GET THE BIGGEST

BOWL-SIZE PIECES POSSIBLE

WITHOUT INCLUDING ANY DEFECTIVE

WOOD.

EACH BOWL-SIZED PIECE IS CALLED

A BOWL BLANK.

THIS BLOCK IS LARGE ENOUGH TO

YIELD THREE BLANKS, EACH OF

WHICH WILL PRODUCE A 17-INCH

BOWL AND A SERIES OF

PROGRESSIVELY SMALLER BOWLS THAT

NEST INSIDE IT.

THE BLANK IS MOUNTED ON TO A

WOODWORKING LATHE.

FROM THIS POINT ON, PRODUCTION

IS ENTIRELY DEPENDENT ON THE

LATHE OPERATOR'S SKILL.

AS THE BLOCK SPINS, HE CARVES

OUT THE BOWLS USING A SERIES OF

SPECIALIZED KNIVES DESIGNED AND

FORGED AT THIS VERY MILL.

FIRST HE USES THIS CURVED KNIFE

TO SHEAR OFF THE OUTER PORTION

OF WOOD.

IT TAKES GREAT EXPERTISE TO KNOW

EXACTLY HOW TO ANGLE THE TOOL

AND WHEN TO PULL IT OUT AND

RELEASE THE WOOD SHAVINGS AND

PREVENT A JAM.

AFTER TWO OR THREE MINUTES, THE

EXTERIOR BARK SHELL HAS BEEN

SHEARED OFF.

THE BARE WOOD THAT'S LEFT

REPRESENTS THE OUTSIDE OF THE

LARGEST BOWL THAT HE'LL MILL

FROM THIS BLANK.

WITH A FINER BLADE, HE SCULPTS

THE WOOD TO JUST THE RIGHT

THICKNESS AND SMOOTHS THE

SURFACE.

NOW HE SWITCHES TO A SMALLER

CURVED KNIFE AND CUTS INTO THE

WOOD.

THIS FORMS THE INSIDE OF THE

LARGEST BOWL AND THE OUTSIDE OF

THE NEXT SMALLER ONE.

THE LATHE WORKER REPEATS THE

SMOOTHING AND CUTTING PROCESS

WAS PROGRESSIVELY SMALLER

KNIVES, MAKING BOWL AFTER BOWL

AT A RATE OF ABOUT ONE A MINUTE.

THIS ONE BOWL BLANK PRODUCES

FOUR NESTED BOWLS, THE SMALLEST

MEASURING ABOUT NINE INCHES IN

DIAMETER.

THE BOWLS ARE STEAMED FOR ABOUT

FOUR HOURS TO DRAW OUT THE SAP

AND HYDRATE THE PORES OF THE

WOOD UNIFORMLY.

ONCE A BOWL IS DRY, ABOUT A

MONTH LATER, WORKERS EVEN OUT

THE TOP RIM ON A SANDING TABLE.

THEN, USING A BELT SANDER, THEY

SMOOTH THE OUTSIDE AND INSIDE

SURFACES.

A MOTORIZED SAW SHAVES OFF THE

BOTTOM OF THE BOWL, GIVING IT A

FLAT BASE ON WHICH TO SIT AND

A PLACE TO INSCRIBE THE COMPANY

NAME.

BUSINESSES CAN ORDER CUSTOM-MADE

BOWLS FEATURING THEIR COMPANY

LOGO.

ARTISTS BURN THE DESIGN INTO THE

WOOD OR PAINT IT ON.

THE BOWLS NOW GO FOR A BATH IN

FOOD-SAFE MINERAL OIL.

THIS NOURISHES THE WOOD,

PREVENTING DRYNESS AND CRACKS.

OILING ALSO BRINGS OUT THE

NATURAL BEAUTY OF THE WOOD

GRAIN, AND BECAUSE ALL RAW WOOD

IS UNIQUE, NO TWO BOWLS ARE EVER

ALIKE.

UP NEXT...HIGH-TECH PRODUCTION

AT A CHAIN-SAW FACTORY.

>> Narrator: IT'S LOUD.

IT'S POWERFUL.

AND IT RULES THE FOREST.

THE CHAIN SAW HAS REVOLUTIONIZED

THE LOGGING INDUSTRY BY

REPLACING SIMPLE MUSCLE POWER

WITH MECHANICAL MIGHT.

THE CHAIN SAW CAN FELL A TREE

AND QUICKLY TURN LOGS INTO

LUMBER.

PRODUCTION BEGINS WITH THE

PLASTIC HOUSING.

THREE ALUMINUM INSERTS MUST BE

MOLDED INTO THE HOUSING TO

PROVIDE SOLID ANCHORS FOR OTHER

PARTS.

A ROBOT PICKS UP THE INSERTS ONE

AT A TIME AND DELIVERS THEM TO

AN INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE.

THEN IT PLACES THE INSERTS INTO

A MOLD AT THE FRONT OF THE

MACHINE.

THE MACHINE INJECTS MELTED

PLASTIC INTO THE MOLD TO MAKE

THE CHAIN SAW'S ENGINE COVER.

DURING THE MOLDING PROCESS, THE

METAL INSERTS BECOME INTEGRATED

INTO THE HOUSING.

IT TAKES JUST SECONDS TO

TRANSFORM THESE PLASTIC PELLETS

INTO A CHAIN-SAW ENGINE COVER.

THE ROBOT CARRIES EACH ENGINE

COVER TO AN AUTOMATED CUTTER

THAT REMOVES ANY UNWANTED BITS

OF PLASTIC.

THE SCRAPS DROP INTO A BIN

BELOW.

THE HOT COVERS COOL FOR ABOUT

10 MINUTES.

THEN THE ROBOT MOVES THEM TO THE

NEXT STATION.

THERE'S ONE MORE PIECE OF

PLASTIC HOUSING -- THE FUEL

TANK.

THE SONIC WELDER MELTS AND FUSES

IT TO THE ENGINE COVER USING

HIGH-FREQUENCY VIBRATION.

NOW IT'S TIME TO MOVE ON TO THE

ENGINE AND INSTALL A SPRING

SYSTEM FOR THE STARTER CORD.

THE TWO-STROKE ENGINE SLIDES

INTO THE PLASTIC CASING.

AND A SPARK PLUG IS RU3PED INTO

PLACE.

AFTER THE CRANKSHAFT IS

LUBRICATED, THE CHAIN SAW'S

AUTOMATIC OILING SYSTEM IS

INSTALLED.

THE CARBURETOR IS ATTACHED,

ALONG WITH A PULL-CORD STARTER

SYSTEM.

THIS SAW GETS AN AIR FILTER.

THEN THE CHAIN BAR'S STUD BOLTS

ARE DIPPED IN ADHESIVE AND

SCREWED INTO THE INSERTS MOLDED

INTO THE PLASTIC HOUSING.

THE REAR HANDLE GOES ON...ALONG

WITH A SAFETY-RELEASE TRIGGER.

THE FRONT HANDLE IS SCREWED INTO

PLACE.

AND THE OIL LINE GETS A FILTER

ATTACHMENT THAT LUBRICATES THE

BAR AND CHAIN.

THAT WILL STRAIN OUT ANY

IMPURITIES.

NEXT, WORKERS INSTALL BEARINGS

AND THE CRANKSHAFT CLUTCH

SYSTEM.

THE CLUTCH IS THE LINK BETWEEN

THE ENGINE AND CHAIN.

WHEN IT'S ENGAGED, THE CHAIN

WILL MOVE AROUND THE CUTTING

BAR.

THE ENGINE IS NOW READY FOR A

TEST RUN AT TYPICAL SPEED --

8,000 RPM.

TECHNICIANS ADJUST THE

CARBURETOR SO THAT IT MIXES THE

RIGHT AMOUNT OF GAS AND AIR AND

CHECK THE EXHAUST TO MAKE SURE

IT DOESN'T EXCEED POLLUTION

STANDARDS.

WORKERS ATTACH THE COMPANY'S

LOGO AND OTHER OPERATIONAL

INFORMATION.

THEN THE BRAKE SYSTEM GOES INTO

PLACE.

FINALLY, THE METAL BAR AND CHAIN

BLADE ARE PACKED IN A PROTECTIVE

SLEEVE.

ONCE THE SAW'S CHAIN BLADE IS

INSTALLED, THE OWNER HAS A POWER

TOOL WITH TEETH FOR ALMOST ANY

JOB.

WHEN WE RETURN...GET THE SKINNY

ON STACKABLE CHIPS.

>> Narrator: IT'S A SNACK THAT'S

MADE TO STACK.

UNLIKE OTHER CHIPS THAT COME IN

IRREGULAR SHAPES AND SIZES,

THESE CHIPS HAVE A UNIFORM

CONCAVE SHAPE THAT ALLOWS THEM

TO TIGHTLY INTERLOCK AND FIT

NEATLY IN A TUBULAR CONTAINER.

THE PROCESS FOR MAKING THESE

TUBES STARTS WITH BIG ROLLS OF

PLAIN BROWN PAPER AND

FOIL-BACKED PAPER THAT HELP

KEEP THE CHIPS FRESH.

THE STREAMS OF PAPER TRAVEL

ACROSS ROLLERS THAT APPLY A COAT

OF GLUE.

THE PAPER LAYERS THEN TWIST

AROUND THE MANDREL THAT'S

TURNED BY A BIG BELT.

THE BELT ALSO PRESSES THE GLUED

LAYERS TOGETHER.

NEXT, THE LABEL PAPER GETS A

COAT OF GLUE.

THIS HELPS IT STICK TO THE PAPER

ON THE MANDREL.

A CAMERA PHOTOGRAPHS THE WHITE

EDGING ON THE LABEL PAPER, THEN

RELAYS ITS LOCATION TO A SET OF

CIRCULAR KNIFES.

THEY MAKE A PRECISE CUT JUST

BELOW THE WHITE EDGING.

CUED BY THE CAMERA, THE CARRIAGE

THEN MOVES THE KNIVES INTO

POSITION FOR THE NEXT CUT.

YOU THE TUBES THEN HEAD INTO A

TURNING STATION...

A BOX WITH A PATHWAY INSIDE THAT

FLIPS THE TUBES RIGHT SIDE UP.

HOT METAL HEADS CURL THE TOPS TO

ACCOMMODATE LIDS.

A ROLLER PULLS FOIL-BACKED PAPER

INTO A CUTTER THAT PUNCHES OUT

THE LID SHAPES.

LITTLE VACUUMS TAKE THE LIDS TO

THE TUBES AND HEAT-SEAL THEM ON.

PLASTIC LIDS GO OVER THE PAPER

ONES.

THE LIDDED TUBES ARE NOW TURNED

UPSIDE DOWN, READY TO BE STACKED

WITH CHIPS.

THE CHIP RECIPE IS 1/3 WATER TO

2/3 POTATO FLAKES WITH A LITTLE

CORNSTARCH MIXED IN.

A CONVEYOR DELIVERS THE MIX TO

AN AUGER, WHICH DISPERSES IT.

THEN IT SETS OUT ON THE

PRODUCTION LINE.

USING FOUR TONS OF PRESSURE, THE

MIX IS ROLLED INTO ONE LONG

POTATO SHEET.

A ROTARY CUTTER THEN PUNCHES OUT

OVAL SHAPES.

A DEVICE PULLS AWAY THE SCRAP

DOUGH, LEAVING FLAT, UNCOOKED

CHIPS.

THIS SCRAP DOUGH GOES BACK INTO

THE CHIP-MAKING PROCESS, WHILE

THE POTATO CHIPS HEAD FOR THE

FRYER.

AS THEY TRAVEL THROUGH THE

FRYER, ROLLING MOLDS GIVE THE

CHIPS THEIR UNIFORMLY CONCAVE

SHAPE, MAKING THEM MORE EASILY

STACKABLE.

THE CHIPS SPEND 11 SECONDS IN

HOT OIL, CRISPING.

THEN THEY TRAVEL UNDER BLOWERS

TO GET RID OF EXCESS OIL.

THE CHIPS GET A COAT OF

SEASONING, THEN DO A BACKFLIP

OFF ONE CONVEYOR AND ONTO

ANOTHER, FALLING INTO NEAT

PILES.

A WORKER INSPECTS THE ROWS OF

CHIPS.

THEN IT'S ON TO ANOTHER CONVEYOR

THAT SHAKES THEM UP TO LOOSEN

THE STACK.

THEY TRAVEL OVER SCALES TO BE

PORTIONED OUT FOR PACKAGING.

AUTOMATED SPOONS SHOVE THE CHIPS

INTO THE OPEN ENDS OF THE TUBES.

GUIDES TAP THE TOPS OF THE TUBES

TO NUDGE THE CHIPS INTO

POSITION.

GRIPPERS THEN LOWER THE STACKS

OF TUBES TO A STATION, WHERE

SPINNING HEADS FORCE METAL

BOTTOMS ONTO THEM.

NOW THEY'RE READY FOR SHIPPING.

IT TAKES ABOUT 20 MINUTES TO

MAKE A TUBE OF STACKABLE CHIPS,

BUT IT TAKES LESS TIME TO POLISH

THEM OFF.

UP NEXT, JET COMPRESSOR BLADES

THAT REALLY MAKE THE CUT.

>> Narrator: COMPRESSOR BLADES

ARE KEY COMPONENTS IN A JET'S

ENGINE.

THOUSANDS WHIRL INSIDE THE

ENGINE, ROTATING 400 TIMES PER

SECOND AND WHIPPING AIR INTO

SMALL HURRICANES.

LARGE COMPRESSOR BLADES MADE OF

TITANIUM COMPRESS THE AIR IN

FRONT OF AN ENGINE'S TURBO

CHAMBER.

IN THE BACK OF THE CHAMBER,

SMALLER BLADES MADE OF NICKEL

ALLOY COMPRESS IT EVEN MORE.

THE AIR HEATS UP TO MORE THAN

1,000 DEGREES, THEN COMBINES

WITH JET FUEL, CREATING A

POWERFUL MIX THAT EXPLODES OUT

THE BACK OF THE ENGINE.

THE BLADES START OFF AS METAL

PELLETS CALLED SLUGS.

A CERAMIC LAYER PREVENTS THEIR

SURFACES FROM OXIDIZING WHEN

EXPOSED TO INTENSE HEAT.

THE SLUGS ARE HEATED FOR 15

MINUTES IN AN 1,800-DEGREE OVEN.

MEANWHILE, A ROBOT SPRAYS

LUBRICANT ON TWO DIES INSIDE A

PRESS.

THE ROBOT RETRIEVES THE SLUGS

AND LOADS THEM IN THE FIRST DIE.

THE PRESS APPLIES OVER 1,000

TONS OF PRESSURE TO PRE-FORM THE

METAL.

THE ROBOT THEN TRANSFERS THE

SLUGS TO THE SECOND DIE, WHERE

THEY TAKE THE INITIAL SHAPE OF

THE BLADE.

THE BLADES ARE DIPPED IN WATER

TO COOL.

ANOTHER ROBOT CLEANS THE METAL

BURRS OFF THE EDGES.

THE BLADE IS NOW AN AIRFOIL.

ROBOTS WILL SHAPE THE ROUNDED

BASE OF THE BLADE, CALLED THE

DOVETAIL, LATER.

THE AIRFOIL HAS GONE FROM THIS

TO THIS.

AFTER A NEW CERAMIC LAYER IS

APPLIED, THE BLADE IS HEATED

AGAIN.

EACH HEATING AND COOLING CYCLE

TEMPERS THE METAL, MAKING IT

MORE RESILIENT.

ALMOST 1,800 TONS OF PRESSURE

GIVES THE AIRFOIL ITS FINAL

SHAPE.

A TRIMMER SHAVES OFF THE EXCESS

METAL.

THE SEARING HEAT HAS TURNED THE

PROTECTIVE CERAMIC LAYER INTO

GLASS.

THAT WILL COME OFF LATER.

IT'S TAKEN AN HOUR TO SHAPE THE

BLADE'S AIRFOIL.

THE DOVETAIL, THAT NUB ON THE

RIGHT, IS NEXT.

BUT FIRST, THIS MEASURING

MACHINE INSPECTS THE AIRFOIL.

IF ANY MEASUREMENT IS OFF BY

JUST HALF THE THICKNESS OF A

HUMAN HAIR, THE BLADE DOESN'T

MAKE THE CUT.

THIS CASTING MACHINE WILL ENCASE

THE AIRFOIL IN A MATRIX, A

COATING THAT PROTECTS THE

AIRFOIL DURING WORK ON THE

DOVETAIL.

THE MATRIX IS MOLDED FROM LIQUID

TIN AND BISMUTH.

IT SOLIDIFIES INTO A METAL CAST

AROUND THE AIRFOIL.

THE FUTURE DOVETAIL STICKS OUT

AT THE END.

THE CAST IS THEN LOADED INTO

WHAT IS CALLED THE BROACH

MACHINE.

ITS SERIES OF TEETH CARVE THE

DOVETAIL INTO ITS FINAL SHAPE.

NOW THE CAST CAN COME OFF.

A WORKER LOADS IT ONTO THE

REMOVAL MACHINE, AND A HYDRAULIC

CYLINDER HITS THE CAST AT ITS

WEAKEST POINT, BREAKING IT IN

HALF.

THE FINISHED AIRFOIL EMERGES

UNSCATHED.

A DOT-MATRIX MACHINE PUNCHES

IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS ONTO THE

BLADE.

NEXT, THE BLADES ARE SUBMERGED

IN A FLUID THAT PENETRATES ANY

FLAWS IN THE METAL.

THIS INSPECTION IS CRITICAL,

BECAUSE EVEN THE TINIEST NICK

CAN SPELL DISASTER WHEN A JET'S

ENGINES ARE WORKING AT FULL

SPEED.

INSPECTORS EXAMINE THE BLADES

UNDER A BLACK LIGHT.

THIS ONE'S PERFECT, BUT SPOTS

OF FLUORESCENCE ON THIS ONE

INDICATE MICROSCOPIC CRACKS AND

WEAKNESSES.

THIS ONE GETS REJECTED.

THE DOVETAIL GETS TWO STRIPS OF

RUBBER SILICONE THAT ENSURE AN

AIRTIGHT SEAL WHEN THE DOVETAIL

SLIDES INTO THE SLOT ON THE

COMPRESSOR DRUM.

A FINAL CHECK, AND THE BLADES

ARE NOW READY FOR TAKEOFF.

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