How It's Made (2001–…): Season 9, Episode 1 - Solid Tires/Cheesecake/Canoe Paddles/Globes - full transcript

Find out how everyday products like solid tires, cheesecake, canoe paddles and globes are made.


>> TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE,"

SOLID TIRES...

CHEESECAKE...

CANOE PADDLES...

AND GLOBES.

SOLID RUBBER TIRES ARE DESIGNED

TO CONQUER THE TOUGHEST TURF,

THE KIND OF ROUGH TERRAIN

FOUND AT CONSTRUCTION SITES,

LANDFILLS, AND MINING

OPERATIONS.

THESE PLACES ARE FULL OF HAZARDS

THAT WOULD FLATTEN ORDINARY

AIR-FILLED TIRES, BUT SOLID

TIRES DON'T GO FLAT.

EVEN WITH A DOZEN NAILS STICKING

OUT OF THEM, THESE BIG BOYS

JUST KEEP ON TURNING.

STRONG AND DEPENDABLE, THESE

TIRES ARE IDEAL FOR HEAVY WORK.

AND BECAUSE THERE'S NO INNER

TUBE, YOU NEVER HAVE TO WORRY

ABOUT GETTING A FLAT.

IT ALL STARTS WITH A WIDE STRIP

OF PARTIALLY PROCESSED RUBBER.

AS THE STRIP IS FORCED THROUGH A

SERIES OF HOLES, IT'S TURNED

INTO A LONG, TUBULAR SHAPE.

NEXT, HOT CYLINDERS ROLL IT THIN

AND SOFT LIKE A PIE CRUST.

IN ANOTHER PART OF THE FACTORY,

THE TIRES' METAL FRAMEWORKS ARE

BEING PREPPED.

A WORKER MOVES THEM ALONG AN

OVERHEAD RAIL INTO A SPECIAL

CHAMBER.

STEEL PELLETS ARE ADDED TO THE

MIX.

INSIDE THE CHAMBER, A MACHINE

TOSSES THE PELLETS AROUND AND

THE FRICTION POLISHES THE METAL

TIRE FRAMES.

NEXT, WORKERS SPRAY ON A COAT OF

PRIMER AND APPLY AN ADHESIVE.

THEN ONE BY ONE, THE FRAMES ARE

MOUNTED ON A MECHANICAL ARM

THAT'S POSITIONED IN FRONT OF

THE RUBBER ROLLING SYSTEM.

THE ARM MOVES THE TIRE FRAME

FORWARD TO MEET THE TURNING

CYLINDERS.

THE METAL SURFACE, STILL TACKY

FROM THE GLUE, EASILY TAKES UP

THE FRESHLY ROLLED RUBBER.

DEPENDING ON THE KIND OF TIRE

BEING MADE, THE MACHINE CAN

LAYER THE RUBBER AROUND THE

FRAME UP TO 100 TIMES.

THEN, WORKERS WEIGH THE TIRE AND

SLICE OFF BITS OF RUBBER UNTIL

IT MEETS SPECIFICATIONS.

THIS SOLID TIRE IS NOW IN GOOD

SHAPE, SO IT MOVES ON TO THE

NEXT STAGE.

OVER AT ANOTHER STATION, THEY'RE

BUILDING A DIFFERENT TYPE OF

SOLID TIRE.

THIS ONE HAS NO METAL FRAMEWORK,

SO IT CAN FIT ON A RIM MADE FOR

AN AIR-FILLED TIRE.

RUBBER STRIPS ARE WOUND AROUND

THE METAL HUB THAT SERVES AS A

MOLD.

THEN A HEAVY PRESS SQUEEZES OUT

ANY AIR POCKETS.

THESE RUBBER STRIPS CONTAIN

RECYCLED MATERIAL WHICH IS

STIFFER THAN REGULAR RUBBER.

THIS WILL HELP THE TIRE HOLD ITS

SHAPE IN THE ABSENCE OF A METAL

FRAMEWORK.

NOW IT'S TIME FOR SOME TREAD.

WORKERS BEGIN THE PROCESS BY

SPRAYING A RELEASE AGENT ONTO A

MOLD SO IT WILL BE EASIER TO

REMOVE THE TIRE LATER.

THEN THEY LIGHTLY GLUE THE I.D.

LABEL AND SERIAL-NUMBER PLATE

TO POSITION THEM FOR TRANSFER TO

THE TIRE.

THE TIRE IS CENTERED IN THE MOLD

WITH A METAL RING.

THEN THE TOP SECTION OF THE MOLD

IS LOWERED INTO PLACE.

NOW IT'S TIME TO GET COOKING.

THE MOLD IS HOISTED TO ANOTHER

STATION AND SANDWICHED BETWEEN

TWO STEAMING HOT PLATES.

THE SEARING TEMPERATURE MELTS

THE RUBBER INTO THE CREVICES OF

THE MOLD.

MINUTES LATER, THE MOLD IS

OPENED AND OUT COMES A TREADED

TIRE.

THE HEAT HAS ALSO VULCANIZED THE

RUBBER, A MOLECULAR CHANGE THAT

MAKES IT MUCH MORE DURABLE.

CHANGING ONE OF THESE TIRES

ISN'T A JOB FOR JUST ANYONE.

TYPICALLY A SPECIALIST TRAVELS

TO THE WORK SITE AND SWITCHES

TIRES USING A HEAVY-DUTY

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM.

AND THAT'S HOW YOU PUT A SOLID

TIRE ON A WHEEL RIM MADE FOR AN

AIR-FILLED ONE.

BIG TIRES WITH METAL FRAMEWORKS

GO INTO THIS AUTOCLAVE TO BE

SHAPED AND UNDERGO

VULCANIZATION.

A FORKLIFT, EQUIPPED WITH SOLID

TIRES, OF COURSE, EXTRACTS THE

FINISHED TIRES FROM THE

AUTOCLAVE.

AND NOW THEY'RE READY TO ROLL.

WHEN WE RETURN, ANOTHER ROUND

CREATION.

>> PEOPLE ASSOCIATE CHEESECAKE

WITH NEW YORK, BUT ACTUALLY, IT

COMES FROM GREECE.

THE ANCIENT GREEKS SERVED THIS

RICH DELICACY TO THE ATHLETES OF

THE FIRST OLYMPIC GAMES IN

776 B.C.

THE ROMAN CONQUEST SPREAD THE

DESSERT ACROSS EUROPE, AND MANY

CENTURIES LATER, EUROPEAN

IMMIGRANTS BROUGHT TO

NORTH AMERICA.

THE ANCIENT ROMANS EVEN BROUGHT

CHEESECAKE TO THEIR TEMPLES AS

AN OFFERING TO THE GODS.

THE BASIS OF A CHEESECAKE IS ITS

RICH, CREAMY FILLING MADE FROM

RICOTTA, NEUFCHATEL, OR

CREAM CHEESE.

BUT FIRST, BAKERS NEED TO MAKE

THE CRUST, SIMILAR TO A BUTTER

COOKIE.

FOR A BATCH OF ABOUT FIVE DOZEN

CAKES, THIS BAKERY COMBINES 50

POUNDS OF BUTTER WITH 10 POUNDS

OF SUGAR.

NEXT, 16 EGG WHITES.

THEN, 25 POUNDS OF FLOUR.

AFTER MIXING JUST LONG ENOUGH TO

INCORPORATE THE FLOUR SMOOTHLY,

A CONVEYOR BELT SHUTTLES THE

DOUGH TO A VAT.

GRAVITY PUSHES THE BLOB OF DOUGH

THROUGH A SLOT AT THE BOTTOM,

EXPELLING A SHEET LESS THAN A

QUARTER INCH THICK.

A DUSTING OF FLOUR PREVENTS THE

DOUGH FROM STICKING, NOT JUST TO

THE CONVEYOR BELT BUT ALSO TO

THE ROLLING AND CUTTING TOOLS.

THIS PRICKLY ROLLER PREPARATES

THE DOUGH SHEET.

THE HOLES ALLOW ANY TRAPPED AIR

TO ESCAPE DURING BAKING, WHICH

PREVENTS THE DOUGH FROM

SHRINKING AND ENSURES A FLAT,

BUBBLE-FREE CRUST.

THE NEXT ROLLER HAS PLASTIC

CIRCLES THAT WORK LIKE COOKIE

CUTTERS, SLICING THE DOUGH INTO

CAKE-SIZE DISCS.

THE LEFTOVER PIECES GO INTO NEW

BATCHES OF DOUGH.

EACH DOUGH CIRCLE GOES IN A PAN,

THEN BAKES AT 375 FOR 16

MINUTES.

MEANWHILE, THE BATTER STARTS

TAKING SHAPE.

FOR A BATCH OF ABOUT 20 CAKES,

THE BAKERY COMBINES 25 POUNDS OF

CREAM CHEESE WITH TWO POUNDS OF

CULTURED SOUR CREAM.

THAT'S SOUR CREAM PROCESSED A

LITTLE LONGER THAN USUAL TO GIVE

IT EXTRA FLAVOR.

AFTER SLOWLY MIXING IN 15 POUNDS

OF SUGAR AND ABOUT 2 1/2 CUPS OF

FLOUR, WORKERS BLEND IN 3/4 CUP

OF VANILLA EXTRACT.

NOW THEY GET CRACKING WITH 1 1/2

DOZEN EGGS.

THAT'S THE RECIPE FOR PLAIN

CHEESECAKE.

FLAVORED VERSIONS COME WITH

EXTRA GOODIES.

THIS BATTER IS CARAMEL PECAN.

IT'S PAIRED WITH A CHOCOLATE

COOKIE CRUST.

AS THE BAKED CRUSTS ARRIVE,

SPRAYERS GREASE THE INSIDE OF

EACH PAN WITH BUTTER SO THAT THE

CAKE WILL SLIDE OUT EASILY AFTER

BAKING.

THEN A MACHINE, CALLED THE

DEPOSITOR, SHOOTS IN JUST THE

RIGHT AMOUNT OF BATTER.

THE PANS NOW ENTER A

TUNNEL-SHAPED OVEN THAT'S ALMOST

25 YARDS LONG.

THE TEMPERATURE INSIDE IS A

TOASTY 350 DEGREES.

BY THE TIME THE CAKES EXIT THE

OTHER END, THEY'RE FULLY BAKED.

THESE 10-INCH CAKES TAKE JUST

UNDER AN HOUR.

FROM THE OVEN, THE CHEESECAKES

GO ONTO A COOLING CONVEYOR, AND

BY THE TIME THE HOT CAKES DO THE

NEARLY HOUR-LONG CIRCUIT, THEY

ARE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND

READY TO COME OUT OF THEIR PANS.

FROM THERE, MOST CHEESECAKES GO

STRAIGHT INTO THE STORAGE

FREEZER, BUT THERE ARE A FEW

EXCEPTIONS WHICH DETOUR TO THE

DECORATION DEPARTMENT.

THIS BELGIAN CHOCOLATE

CHEESECAKE ISN'T COMPLETE

WITHOUT A SQUIRT OF CHOCOLATE

GANACHE, A DECADENT MIXTURE OF

CHOCOLATE AND CREAM.

WORKERS SPREAD IT ALL OVER,

THEN MAKE SWIRLS WITH A

DECORATING COMB.

AND NOW THE FINAL TOUCH, A

SPRINKLING OF COCOA.

SOME CAKES GO INTO AN AUTOMATED

CUTTING MACHINE THAT DIVIDES

EACH CAKE INTO 14 EQUAL SLICES

AND INSERTS PARCHMENT PAPER IN

BETWEEN THEM.

BACK AT THE DECORATING

DEPARTMENT, THEY ARE PUTTING

SHARDS OF CHOCOLATE ON A MUD

PIE, A COMBINATION CHOCOLATE

SOUFFLE, CHOCOLATE CHEESECAKE

WITH PECANS AND COFFEE MOUSSE

TOPPING.

YOU MIGHT WANT TO PUT OFF THAT

DIET JUST FOR ONE MORE DAY.

COMING UP, AN AGE-OLD IMPLEMENT

GETS A NEW SPIN.

>> THEY KEEP US FROM GOING

ADRIFT, AND NO ONE WANTS TO

BE UP THE CREEK WITHOUT ONE.

PADDLES HAVE BEEN AROUND SO LONG

NO ONE KNOW WHO IS INVENTED THEM

OR WHEN.

BUT THERE'S NO QUESTION THEY'VE

EVOLVED.

MADE WITH SOPHISTICATED

CRAFTSMANSHIP, TODAY'S WOODEN

PADDLES REALLY GO THE NAUTICAL

MILE.

MODERN PADDLES ARE OFTEN MADE

FROM A BLEND OF HARD AND SOFT

WOODS FOR A PRODUCT THAT'S

STRONG YET LIGHTWEIGHT.

FIRST, WOODEN BOARDS ARE FED

INTO A MULTI-BLADED RIP SAW

THAT SLICES THEM INTO UNIFORM

STRIPS.

EACH STRIP HAS A FLAT, SMOOTH

JOINT ON THE SIDE.

GLUE IS ROLLED ONTO THOSE FLAT

JOINTS AND THEN THE STRIPS ARE

PRESSED TOGETHER.

THESE GLUED SECTIONS WILL BE

USED TO MAKE PADDLE BLADES.

OVER AT ANOTHER STATION, WORKERS

ARE CREATING THE PADDLE SHAFTS

TWO AT A TIME.

THEY GLUE SHORTER PIECES OF WOOD

FOR THE HANDLES, AND CLAMP THEM

TOGETHER TO ALLOW THE GLUE TO

SET.

THE BLADE CHUNKS ARE ARRANGED IN

A MUCH BIGGER CLAMP.

THEN THE GLUE-COATED ENDS OF

SOME SHAFTS ARE WEDGED BETWEEN

THE BLADE PIECES.

IN A PROCESS CALLED LAMINATION,

THE BLADES ARE BONDED TO THE

SHAFTS.

THE LAMINATED PADDLE SHAPES ARE

CALLED BLANKS.

NEXT, THE BLADE DESIGN IS TRACED

ONTO ONE OF THE BLANKS...

AND THE DESIGN IS CUT OUT WITH A

BAND SAW.

LAMINATED WOOD DOESN'T WARP

EASILY.

THIS ALLOWS THE FACTORY TO

PRODUCE WIDER BLADES, WHICH

GIVE THE CANOER MORE POWER

THROUGH THE WATER.

BUT PADDLES CUT FROM A SINGLE

PIECE OF WOOD HAVE A MORE

TRADITIONAL LOOK AND FEEL, AND

SOME CANOERS PREFER THEM.

THESE NARROWER PADDLES ARE MADE

WITH CHERRY WOOD.

MODERN TOOLS MAKE QUICK WORK OF

A DESIGN THAT HASN'T CHANGED

VERY MUCH OVER THE CENTURIES.

IN NO TIME, A BASIC PADDLE HAS

BEEN CARVED FROM A SINGLE PIECE

OF WOOD.

NEXT, THE EDGES ARE ROUNDED OFF

WITH A LARGE ROUTER.

IT SHAPES AND CONTOURS THE

PADDLE TO ITS FINAL DIMENSIONS

AND GIVES IT A SMOOTH FINISH.

IN JUST MINUTES, THAT

CHUNKY-LOOKING PIECE OF WOOD IS

TRANSFORMED INTO A SLEEK

TRADITIONAL PADDLE.

MEANWHILE, BACK IN THE LAMINATED

PADDLE DEPARTMENT, NOTCHES ARE

SAWED INTO EACH PADDLE BLADE.

WORKERS MIX UP A LIQUID PLASTIC

CONCOCTION...

THEN POUR IT INTO THE SLOTS TO

HARDEN.

THE PLASTIC GIVES THE PADDLE

TIPS SOME EXTRA PROTECTION

AGAINST ROCKS AND OTHER

OBSTACLES IN THE WATER.

NOW IT'S TIME TO IMPROVE THE

PROFILE OF THE LAMINATED

PADDLES.

WITH THE SAME TYPE OF ROUTER

USED TO SHAPE THE SOLID PADDLES,

WORKERS FINE-TUNE THE DESIGN.

BOTH TYPES OF PADDLES THEN GET A

HEAVY SANDING.

THE FINAL TOUCH IS TO TAPER EACH

PADDLE HEAD SO THAT IT'S MUCH

THINNER AT THE TIP.

TRADEMARK INFORMATION IS BRANDED

ONTO EACH PADDLE USING A HOT

IRON.

THEN IT'S TIME FOR THE PADDLES

TO TAKE A DIP IN A TANK OF

VARNISH THAT CONTAINS A

SUNBLOCK.

THE VARNISH BOTH PROTECTS THE

WOOD AND ENHANCES ITS NATURAL

BEAUTY.

THE PADDLES ARE SUSPENDED ON AN

OVERHEAD CONVEYOR TO DRY.

AND SOON, THEY'LL BE ON THEIR

WAY TO A WATERWAY NEAR YOU.

UP NEXT, A FACTORY THAT MAKES

THE WORLD GO ROUND.

>> BECAUSE THE WORLD IS ROUND,

FLAT MAPS DON'T GIVE US THE FULL

PICTURE.

A GLOBE IS THE MOST ACCURATE

REPRESENTATION OF THE EARTH.

IT DEPICTS COUNTRIES IN TRUE

SPATIAL RELATION TO ONE ANOTHER,

AND BETTER DEFINES LATITUDE AND

LONGITUDE LINES.

AT THE GLOBE FACTORY, PRODUCTION

REVOLVES AROUND WORLD EVENTS.

AS WAR AND POLITICAL UPHEAVAL

REDRAW BOUNDARIES, THESE

SPHERICAL MAPS HAVE TO BE

CONSTANTLY REVISED.

GLOBE CONSTRUCTION BEGINS WITH A

BIG ROLL OF CARDBOARD.

A MACHINE PULLS IT UNDER A

ROLLER THAT COATS IT WITH GLUE.

A KNIFE THEN SLICES THE

CARDBOARD INTO SMALLER PIECES,

WHICH WILL SERVE AS LINERS FOR

THE MAPS.

ONE MORE COAT OF GLUE, AND THEN

THE LINERS ARE ATTACHED TO THE

BACK OF MAPS.

HEATED ROLLERS PRESS THEM

TOGETHER, COMPLETING THE SEAL.

EACH MAP REPRESENTS A

HEMISPHERE.

A POWERFUL PRESS NOW CUTS THE

MAPS INTO A PINWHEEL SHAPE.

EACH MAP MUST BE CAREFULLY

POSITIONED IN THE CUTTING PRESS.

AFTER ALL, ONE FALSE MOVE, AND A

WHOLE COUNTRY COULD END UP ON

THE FACTORY FLOOR.

IT TAKES TWO PUNCH CUTS TO DO

THE JOB.

THEN, THE EXCESS PAPER IS PULLED

AWAY, LEAVING BEHIND A MAP

DIVIDED INTO 12 SPOKE-LIKE

SECTIONS.

HERE'S A TOP VIEW OF THAT

CUTTING PRESS.

IT ACTS LIKE A GIANT FIST TO

PUNCH OUT PINWHEELS.

AND NOW IT'S TIME TO SHAPE THE

WORLD.

WORKERS PLACE A MAP CUTOUT AND A

LINER INTO A MOLD.

IT RISES INTO A HEATED CAVITY

THAT PRESSES THE PAPER INTO A

BOWL-LIKE SHAPE.

ONE HEMISPHERE DOWN, ONE MORE TO

GO.

THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE IS

CREATED USING THE SAME TYPE OF

MOLD.

MOLDS ALSO EMBOSS EACH MAP TO

REPRESENT THE PEAKS AND VALLEYS

ON THE EARTH'S SURFACE.

HERE'S AN INSIDE LOOK.

THE RAISED AND INDENTED SECTIONS

OF THE MOLDS ALLOW PEOPLE TO SEE

AND FEEL VARIATIONS IN THE

WORLD'S TOPOGRAPHY, BOTH

ABOVEGROUND AND UNDERWATER.

WITH THE HEMISPHERES COMPLETE,

IT'S TIME TO GO GLOBAL.

THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE GOES FOR

A SPIN WHILE A RAZOR BLADE TRIMS

THE EDGES.

THEN THE LOWER HEMISPHERE TAKES

ITS TURN WHILE A NOZZLE BEADS

HOT GLUE ALONG THE INSIDE.

THIS STIFF CARDBOARD RING

ADHERES TO THE GLOBE AND GIVES

IT SOME RE-ENFORCEMENT ALONG THE

EQUATOR.

GLUE IS APPLIED TO THE NORTHERN

HEMISPHERE...

AND IT IS FITTED OVER THE RIDGED

EDGE OF THE SOUTHERN ONE.

THE TWO HALVES ARE PRECISELY

ALIGNED, THEN TAPE IS ATTACHED

OVER THE SEAM.

THIS BOTH DISGUISES THE SEAM AND

MARKS THE EQUATOR.

NEXT, EACH GLOBE IS MOUNTED ON A

PEDESTAL THAT'S ATTACHED TO A

METAL ARC CALLED A MERIDIAN.

SUCTIONED TO THE TOP OF THE

GLOBE, THE MERIDIAN WILL ALLOW

THE EARTH TO REVOLVE.

FROM FRAGMENTS OF PAPER AND

GLUE, A WHOLE NEW WORLD'S BEEN

CREATED IN JUST A COUPLE OF

HOURS.

GLOBES TELL US WHERE WE ARE AND

HELP US FIGURE OUT WHERE WE'RE

GOING.

THEY COME IN MANY DIFFERENT

LANGUAGES.

AND BECAUSE THEY HELP US GET OUR

BEARINGS, YOU COULD SAY THEY

MAKE THE WORLD A BETTER PLACE.

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