How It's Made (2001–…): Season 7, Episode 12 - Drill Bits/Photo Booths/Stamps - full transcript

Ever wonder how drill bits, photo booths and stamps are made? Find out on How It's Made.


Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

DRILL BITS...

...PHOTO BOOTHS...

...AND STAMPS.

DRILL BITS ARE ATTACHMENTS

YOU FASTEN TO DRILLING TOOLS.

A TAPER-POINT DRILL
NARROWS TO A POINT

SO THE THREADS OF THE SCREW
GRAB THE WOOD.

A COUNTERSINK MAKES THE TOP
OF THE HOLE THE SAME DIAMETER

AS THE SCREW HEAD

SO THAT THE HEAD LIES FLUSH
OR BELOW THE SURFACE.

A PLUG CUTTER REMOVES
A ROUND PIECE OF WOOD

WITH WHICH YOU PLUG
THE HOLE AFTERWARD

TO HIDE THE SUNKEN SCREW.

COUNTERSINKS AND PLUG CUTTERS
START OUT AS STEEL BARS.

TO MAKE A COUNTERSINK,

THIS COMPUTER-GUIDED
TOOLING MACHINE

USES WHAT'S CALLED
A CENTER DRILL

TO PIERCE A STARTING HOLE,

THEN SWITCHES TO ITS MAIN DRILL,
WHICH BORES RIGHT THROUGH.

NEXT, IT USES WHAT'S CALLED
A ROUGH TURNING TOOL

TO SHAPE THE COUNTERSINK'S
ANGLED NOSE, THEN ITS BODY.

THE MACHINE NOW SWITCHES
TO A MILLING CUTTER.

THIS TOOL SHAPES
THE COUNTERSINK'S FOUR BLADES.

A CROSS-DRILLING TOOL BORES
A HOLE FOR THE TWO SCREWS

THAT'LL HOLD THE COUNTERSINK
TO THE DRILL.

A TAP CUTS THREADS
INTO THE HOLE.

NEXT, A TOOL CALLED A DOVETAIL
CUTTER SHARPENS THE BLADES.

THEN, FINALLY, A CUTOFF BLADE
REMOVES THE TOOL.

THE SAME MACHINE
MAKES PLUG CUTTERS.

ITS CENTER DRILL
MAKES A STARTING HOLE,

BUT THIS TIME, THE MAIN DRILL
DOESN'T BORE RIGHT THROUGH.

IT STOPS AT THE DEPTH THAT THE
PLUG CUTTER IS DESIGNED TO CUT.

JUST AS BEFORE, THE ROUGH
TURNING TOOL SHAPES THE BODY,

AND THE MILLING CUTTER
SCULPTS THE FOUR BLADES.

SOME PLUG CUTTERS ON THE MARKET
HAVE FEWER BLADES.

THIS COMPANY MAKES FOUR

SO THE CUTTER WILL CLEAR
THE WOOD CHIPS MORE EFFICIENTLY

WHEN IT TUNNELS INTO THE WOOD.

AFTER THE DOVETAIL CUTTER
SHARPENS THE BLADES,

A TOOL CALLED A BORING BAR
REFINES THE HOLE IN THE CENTER,

MAKING IT THE PROPER SIZE.

ANOTHER TURNING TOOL
NOW FORMS THE SHANK,

THE STEM OF THE PLUG CUTTER

THAT YOU INSERT
INTO THE POWER TOOL.

THEN THE CUTOFF BLADE
SLICES THE TOOL OFF.

NOW FOR SOME MANUAL TOUCH-UPS.

FIRST, THEY GRIND THE PLUG
CUTTER AGAINST AN ABRASIVE WHEEL

TO REMOVE EXCESS METAL
FROM THE CUTOFF.

THEN THEY DO WHAT'S CALLED
SIDE-CHIPPING,

GRINDING THE SIDES OF EACH BLADE
TO A PARTICULAR SHAPE

THAT'LL CLEAR THE WOOD CHIPS.

HERE'S HOW THE PLUG CUTTER LOOKS

BEFORE AND AFTER GRINDING OFF
THE EXCESS

AND BEFORE AND AFTER
SIDE-CHIPPING.

AND NOW FOR MAKING THE DRILLS

TO WHICH THE COUNTERSINKS
ATTACH.

IT ALL STARTS
WITH A TAPERED PIECE OF STEEL

BECAUSE THIS WILL BECOME
A TAPER-POINT DRILL.

STRAIGHT DRILLS BEGIN
WITH A STRAIGHT PIECE.

A MECHANICAL ARM INSERTS THIS
DRILL BLANK, AS IT'S CALLED,

INTO A COMPUTER-GUIDED GRINDER.

THE MACHINE HAS TWO WHEELS
MADE OF BORON NITRITE GRANULES,

A NATURAL MATERIAL THAT'S TOUGH
AND ABRASIVE.

THE FIRST WHEEL
SHAPES THE SMOOTH BLANK

INTO LENGTHWISE SPIRALS
CALLED FLUTES.

A SECOND WHEEL THEN GRINDS SHARP
CUTTING EDGES ON THE FLUTES

AND SHAPES THE TIP OF THE DRILL
TO A POINT.

BACK TO THE COUNTERSINKS NOW.

THE STEEL IS STILL
RELATIVELY MALLEABLE,

SO A WORKER RUNS EACH ONE
THROUGH A STAMPING MACHINE

THAT IMPRINTS THE SIZE OF
THE TOOL AND THE COMPANY NAME.

WHEREAS THE DRILLS ARE MADE
OF A DIFFERENT TYPE OF STEEL

THAT'S ALREADY HARD ENOUGH,

THE COUNTERSINKS
AND PLUG CUTTERS

MUST UNDERGO A HEAT-TREATING
PROCESS TO HARDEN --

ABOUT 20 MINUTES IN A FIERY OVEN

ALONG WITH A SECRET RECIPE
OF CHEMICALS.

THE INTENSE HEAT --
1,750 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT --

TRANSFORMS THOSE CHEMICALS
INTO GASES

WHICH THEN PERMEATE
AND HARDEN THE STEEL.

AFTER COOLING IN WARM WATER
AND OIL FOR ABOUT 15 MINUTES,

WORKERS SUBMERGE THE TOOLS

IN AN INDUSTRIAL-STRENGTH
CLEANING SOLUTION

THAT REMOVES ALL THE OIL GRIT,

THEN A BATH IN ACID
TO REMOVE SOOT FROM THE OVEN.

THEN, FINALLY, 20 MINUTES
IN A BLACKENING SOLUTION,

THE INGREDIENTS OF WHICH
ARE, AGAIN,

A CLOSELY GUARDED
COMPANY SECRET.

THIS LAST STEP
IS PURELY COSMETIC.

SO, HOW DO THE THREE DRILL BITS
WE'VE SEEN ALL WORK TOGETHER?

FIRST, YOU USE THE PLUG CUTTER
TO MAKE THE PLUG.

THEN YOU POP OUT THE PLUG
WITH A SCREWDRIVER.

NEXT, MOUNTING THE COUNTERSINK,
THAT BLACK TOOL,

ONTO THE TAPER-POINT DRILL.

YOU DRILL A HOLE FOR THE SCREW.

THEN YOU DRIVE THE SCREW
INTO THE HOLE,

SINKING IT BELOW THE SURFACE.

THEN YOU CAP THE HOLE
WITH A PLUG.

THESE TOOLS COME IN AN EXTENSIVE
RANGE OF SIZES AND GRADES

FOR BOTH AMATEUR
AND PROFESSIONAL WOODWORKERS

AND FOR INDUSTRIAL MACHINES.

Narrator: PHOTO BOOTHS WERE
FIRST INTRODUCED IN THE 1920s

IN THE UNITED STATES.

TODAY, THE SMALL, PRIVATE CABINS
STILL ENABLE US TO BE KOOKY

IN SEVERAL SNAPSHOTS
OR ONE LARGE PICTURE.

THE BOOTHS ARE QUAINT REMINDERS
OF OUR POP CULTURE,

BUT THEY USE THE LATEST
TECHNOLOGY

TO MAKE PORTRAITS
WORTH TREASURING.

THIS MODEL SIMULATES A PAINTING

OR A DRAWING BASED ON THE PHOTO
IT TAKES OF YOU.

TO CUSTOMIZE
THE PREASSEMBLED CABIN,

A WORKER APPLIES STICKERS
TO THE OUTSIDE.

THESE ADVERTISE LOCAL BUSINESSES

OR THE BOOTH'S
EVENTUAL LOCATION,

SUCH AS A SHOPPING MALL
OR AMUSEMENT PARK.

INSIDE, THERE ARE FIVE SHELVES
FOR EQUIPMENT.

TWO LAYERS OF PLEXIGLASS
GLUED TOGETHER

WILL ACT AS SAFETY GLASS,

PROTECTING THE EQUIPMENT
FROM VANDALS.

IT FITS OVER AN OPENING
IN THE WALL

THAT DIVIDES THE SEATING AREA

FROM THE CAMERA
AND A TV MONITOR.

THE WORKER INSTALLS A METAL
PLATE IN ANOTHER OPENING.

IT WILL COVER THE COIN ACCEPTOR

AND GIVE THE BOOTH OPERATOR
ACCESS TO THE MONEY

PEOPLE PAY TO HAVE
THEIR PHOTO TAKEN.

THE COIN ACCEPTOR
ATTACHES TO BRACKETS

ON THE BACK OF THE DOOR.

THEY'LL PROGRAM IT TO ACCEPT
TOKENS OR SPECIFIC CURRENCIES.

A BLACK-AND-WHITE PHOTO
USUALLY COSTS $3.

COLOR IS $5.

THIS 15-WATT BULB PROVIDES
SOME LIGHT FOR YOUR PHOTO.

IT GOES IN A PANEL
THAT FITS INTO THE WALL.

NEXT, A MOTORIZED TRIPOD
TO HOLD THE CAMERA.

IN THIS MODEL,

THEY USE A DIGITAL CAMERA
WITH AN 8-MILLIMETER LENS.

"UP" AND "DOWN" BUTTONS
ON THE CONTROL PANEL

ADJUST THE CAMERA ANGLE.

A COMPUTERIZED VOICE
FROM A SPEAKER

WILL PROMPT YOU
TO MAKE SELECTIONS.

A FAN ATTACHES TO THE CEILING
TO VENT THE CABIN

AND KEEP THE EQUIPMENT
FROM OVERHEATING.

AND TWO 40-WATT
FLORESCENT LIGHTS

WILL PROVIDE MOST OF THE FRONTAL
LIGHTING FOR THE SUBJECT.

ANOTHER 15-WATT LIGHT
BEHIND A FROSTED PANEL

PROVIDES SOME DIFFUSE LIGHT.

THE BOOTH'S POWER PANEL
HAS CONNECTIONS

FOR UP TO 19 PIECES
OF EQUIPMENT.

HERE, A WORKER PLUGS
IN THE CAMERA...

THEN A TV MONITOR...

AND AN INK-JET PRINTER.

SOFTWARE WILL PROCESS
THE PHOTOS,

AND THE PRINTER WILL PRINT THEM
ON PHOTO-QUALITY PAPER.

A PLEXIGLASS WINDOW
PROTECTS THE 15-INCH MONITOR

THAT'S USED FOR VIEWING
AND MAKING SELECTIONS.

TWO OTHER MONITORS
FIT IN WINDOWED PANELS

ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE CABIN.

THE MONITORS ALL CONNECT
TO THE COMPUTER

AND SHOW THE SAME IMAGES
AT THE SAME TIME,

INCLUDING WHAT STAGE OF
DEVELOPMENT YOUR PICTURE IS AT.

THEY INSTALL A DISPENSER

THAT SELLS OPTIONAL CARDBOARD
FRAMES FOR YOUR PORTRAIT.

MONEY FROM THESE SALES
FALLS THROUGH A SLOT

INTO A METAL COIN BOX
INSIDE THE CABIN.

THE DISPENSER HOLDS
UP TO 100 CARDBOARD FRAMES,

EACH LARGE ENOUGH TO HOLD
ONE PORTRAIT

MEASURING 8 BY 11 INCHES.

IF THE DISPENSER IS OUT,

A SIGN READING "OUT OF FRAMES"
DROPS INTO THE TRAY.

FOR SECURITY,

THE TWO DOORS
ENCLOSING THE EQUIPMENT

EACH HAVE TWO KEY LOCKS,

ONE AT THE TOP
AND ONE AT THE BOTTOM.

THE WORKER INSTALLS FOUR SIGNS
ON THE CABIN ROOF.

THEY'RE PLEXIGLASS BOXES

WITH VINYL POSTERS
AND FLORESCENT LIGHTS.

THE CABIN'S CURTAIN LETS YOU
MAKE GOOFY FACES IN PRIVATE,

BUT IS SHORT ENOUGH TO LET
PEOPLE KNOW YOU'RE IN THERE.

INSIDE THE CABIN,

THE CONTROL PANEL HELPS YOU
GUIDE THE CAMERA.

YOU PRESS "UP" OR "DOWN"
TO ADJUST THE CAMERA ANGLE.

THEN YOU CHOOSE ONE OF THREE
PHOTOS THE CAMERA HAS CAPTURED.

THE COMPUTER BASES ITS PORTRAIT
ON THIS PHOTO.

YOU CAN TELL IT TO MAKE
A CARICATURE,

A SIMULATED WORK OF ART,

OR FOUR SMALL PORTRAITS
IN DIFFERENT ARTISTIC MEDIA.

YOU CAN CHOOSE AN OIL PAINTING,
A PENCIL SKETCH,

OR A DRAWING IN CHARCOAL
OR PASTEL.

NOW YOU'VE GOT A MASTERPIECE
STARRING YOU.

Narrator: THE WORLD'S
FIRST POSTAGE STAMP

WAS INTRODUCED IN ENGLAND
IN 1840

AS PART OF A MAJOR REFORM
OF THE POSTAL SYSTEM.

UNTIL THEN, THE LETTER RECIPIENT
HAD TO PAY THE POSTAGE.

THIS FIRST STAMP WAS CALLED
THE PENNY BLACK

BECAUSE IT COST ONE PENNY

AND FEATURED
QUEEN VICTORIA'S PROFILE

ON A BLACK BACKGROUND.

TODAY'S POSTAGE STAMPS FEATURE
ALL TYPES OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

A GRAPHIC ARTIST PRODUCES
A DESIGN CONCEPT,

WORKING THE COMPUTER CURSOR
LIKE A PAINTBRUSH ON CANVAS.

THE CONCEPT GOES
TO THE POSTAL SERVICE'S

DESIGN AUTHORITY FOR APPROVAL.

ONCE APPROVED, THE DESIGN
GOES TO THE PRINTING COMPANY.

THE PRINTER PRODUCES
ONE TYPE OF STAMP

USING TWO DIFFERENT TYPES
OF PRINTING PRESSES,

ONE OF WHICH REQUIRES
AN ENGRAVED PRINTING PLATE.

THE COMPANY'S MASTER ENGRAVER

DRAWS HIS ARTISTIC
INTERPRETATION OF THE CONCEPT

USING PHOTOGRAPHS OF REAL
SUBJECTS FOR INSPIRATION.

THEN HE PAINTS HIS DRAWING
IN WATERCOLORS.

THE SHADING IS KEY

BECAUSE IT INDICATES WHERE
THE ENGRAVING WILL HAVE DEPTH.

THIS HELPS HIM ENVISION
THE END PRODUCT.

ONCE HE'S HAPPY WITH THE RESULT,

HE SCANS THE IMAGE
INTO A COMPUTER

AND SHRINKS THE DIGITIZED IMAGE
TO THE ACTUAL STAMP SIZE.

THEN HE LAYS A SHEET OF CLEAR
ACETATE OVER THE REDUCTION.

WITH A TOOL CALLED A POINT,

HE ETCHES THE MAIN ELEMENTS
INTO THE SHEET.

THIS ETCHING PROCESS IS KNOWN
AS SCRIBING.

NOW HE TAPES THE SCRIBED SHEET
ONTO A PIECE OF SOFT STEEL.

HE LIFTS THE SHEET
AND COATS THE METAL SURFACE

WITH BEESWAX.

THEN HE LAYS THE SHEET
DOWN AGAIN

AND, RUBBING
WITH A BURNISHING TOOL,

TRANSFERS THE SCRIBED IMAGE
TO THE WAX COATING.

NOW, UNDER A MICROSCOPE THAT
MAGNIFIES THE IMAGE SEVEN TIMES,

HE ETCHES THE DESIGN

USING WHAT'S CALLED
A POINTING-IN TOOL.

THEN HE SHARPENS ANOTHER TOOL
CALLED A LOZENGE GRAVER.

WITH THAT,
HE DEEPENS THE ETCHED LINES

OF THE DESIGN'S FOCAL POINT.

THIS ADDS DEPTH,

WHICH WILL MAKE THE DEER APPEAR
ALMOST THREE-DIMENSIONAL

ON THE FINISHED STAMP.

ONCE COMPLETE, THE ENGRAVING
WILL BE COPIED MULTIPLE TIMES

ONTO A PLASTIC MASTER PLATE.

WORKERS COAT THE PLASTIC
WITH SILVER

SO THAT IT WILL CONDUCT
ELECTRICITY,

THEN SUBMERGE IT INTO A BATH
CONTAINING BASKETS OF NICKEL.

THEY RUN AN ELECTRICAL CURRENT
IN BOTH THE BATH AND PLATE.

THIS DISSOLVES THE NICKEL
AND DRAWS IT ONTO THE PLATE

IN A THOROUGH AND EVEN COAT.

WITH A NIPPING TOOL,

WORKERS REMOVE THE EXCESS NICKEL
ALONG THE PERIMETER,

THEN EXTRACT THEIR
NICKEL PRINTING PLATE.

THEN THEY PLATE THE NICKEL PLATE
IN CHROME.

NOW IT'S READY TO GO ON TO
THE INTAGLIO PRINTING PRESS,

A SPECIALIZED MACHINE USED
TO PRINT ONLY SELECT ELEMENTS

ON CERTAIN TYPES OF STAMPS.

WE WILL EXPLAIN WHY LATER.

THIS MACHINE, MEANWHILE,

PRODUCES THE TEMPLATES

FOR CARVING
WHAT ARE CALLED CHABLONS,

THE ROLLERS
ON THE INTAGLIO PRESS

THAT TRANSFER INK
TO THE PRINTING PLATES.

HERE, THE MACHINE
TRACES A PATTERN

FOR ONE OF THE STAMP'S
INTAGLIO ELEMENTS,

GUIDING A ROUTER ON THE OTHER
END TO REPRODUCE IT

IN HALF THE SIZE
IN THICK PLASTIC.

AT ANOTHER MACHINE, MEANWHILE,
A WORKER MAKES THE CHABLONS.

HE TAKES SEVERAL INGREDIENTS --

WHAT THEY ARE IS A CLOSELY
GUARDED COMPANY SECRET --

AND POURS THEM INTO
A ROLLER FORMING MACHINE.

THE MIX HEATS TO ABOUT
350 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT,

AND OVER ABOUT
AN HOUR AND A HALF,

IT THICKENS AND HARDENS.

NOW AN AUTOMATED ROUTER MACHINE
WITH MULTIPLE HEADS

GOES TO WORK.

FOLLOWING THE PLASTIC TEMPLATE,

THE HEADS CARVE AWAY
AT THE RUBBER,

LEAVING BEHIND A RAISED DESIGN
IN THE SHAPE OF THE ELEMENTS

THE INTAGLIO PRESS WILL PRINT.

IT'S THIS RAISED AREA
THAT TRANSFERS THE INK

TO THE PRINTING PLATE.

Narrator: WHY DO THEY PRINT
SOME PARTS OF A STAMP

USING ONE TYPE OF PRESS

AND OTHER PARTS OF IT
USING ANOTHER TYPE?

SIMPLE.

OFF-SET PRINTING PRESSES
ARE WIDELY AVAILABLE,

SO IF THE ENTIRE STAMP WILL BE
PRINTED USING THAT TECHNOLOGY,

COUNTERFEITERS
WOULD HAVE IT EASY.

INTAGLIO PRINTING PRESSES,
ON THE OTHER HAND,

ARE HARDER TO COME BY, MAKING
FAKE STAMPS HARDER TO PRODUCE.

THE SHEETS FIRST RUN
THROUGH THE OFFSET PRESS.

IT PRINTS ONE COLOR AT A TIME,

MAKING A SEPARATE PRINTING PLATE
FOR EACH COLOR.

THE PLATE IS WRAPPED
AROUND A CYLINDER.

AS IT REVOLVES,

THE PLATE TRANSFERS OR OFFSETS
THE INK IMAGE

TO A RUBBER CYLINDER
ROTATING AGAINST IT.

AS THAT CYLINDER TURNS,

IT TRANSFERS THE IMAGE TO
THE PAPER PASSING UNDERNEATH.

A POSTAL-SERVICE OFFICIAL
INSPECTS THE PRESS OUTPUT.

USING A MAGNIFYING GLASS,

SHE SCRUTINIZES THE COLOR
AND PRINT QUALITY,

CIRCLING ANY PROBLEM AREAS

FOR THE PRESS OPERATOR
TO INVESTIGATE AND CORRECT.

NOW THE OFFSET PRINTED SHEETS
MOVE ON TO THE INTAGLIO PRESS.

THE INTAGLIO'S CHABLON ROLLERS
SPREAD INK

OVER THE PRINTING PLATE
THE FACTORY PRODUCED

FROM THE ENGRAVING.

THE INK FILLS THE RECESSED LINES
OF THE IMAGE.

THE PRESS RUNS THE PLATE
AGAINST THE PAPER SHEETS,

TRANSFERRING THE IMAGE.

INTAGLIO PRINTING LEAVES THE INK
SLIGHTLY RAISED

ABOVE THE SURFACE OF THE PAPER.

THIS GIVES THE IMAGE HEIGHT,
A THIRD DIMENSION.

ONCE AGAIN, THE INSPECTOR
CHECKS THE RESULT.

IT'S UP TO THE PRESS OPERATOR
TO CORRECT ANY ERROR.

THE CAUSE CAN BE AS COMPLICATED
AS A PRINTING PLATE PROBLEM

OR AS SIMPLE AS A SPECK OF DIRT
IN THE MACHINE.

THE PRINTING NOW DONE,

A WORKER LOADS THE STAMP SHEETS

INTO A COMPUTER-GUIDED
PERFORATING MACHINE.

GRIPPERS PULL THE SHEETS FORWARD
ONE SECTION AT A TIME.

DOWN COMES A DIE WITH ROWS
OF STEEL PINS,

EACH JUST A FRACTION OF AN INCH
IN DIAMETER.

THEY PUNCH THROUGH THE SHEET,

FRAMING EACH STAMP
WITH TINY HOLES

SPACED LESS THAN 1/16
OF AN INCH APART.

THE MACHINE KNOWS JUST WHERE
TO PUNCH THESE PERFORATIONS

BY READING THE LINE
OF FLORESCENT INK

THAT RUNS ALONG THE BORDERS
OF EACH STAMP.

THIS INK, CALLED TAGGING,

IS VISIBLE ONLY UNDER
ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT.

TAGGING ALSO PLAYS A ROLE
LATER ON.

THE AUTOMATED MACHINES
THAT PROCESS MAIL

AT THE SORTING PLANTS ARE
PROGRAMMED TO SCAN FOR TAGGING.

THEY REJECT ALL ENVELOPES
WITHOUT IT.

THOSE LETTERS ARE EITHER
MISSING A STAMP

OR BEAR COUNTERFEIT POSTAGE.

AFTER STACKING
THE PERFORATED SHEETS,

WORKERS TRIM THEM DOWN
TO THE FINISHED SIZE,

USUALLY SHEETS OF 10
CALLED PANES.

THEIR TRIMMING MACHINE

IS APPROPRIATELY CALLED
THE GUILLOTINE,

BUT UNLIKE
THE HEAD-CHOPPING VERSION,

THIS ONE SLICES WITH A SIDEWAYS
SHEARING ACTION.

THAT PUTS LESS WEAR
ON THE BLADE.

THE MACHINE HOLDS THE STACK
IN PLACE

WITH MORE THAN 8,800 POUNDS
OF PRESSURE

SO THAT IT DOESN'T BUDGE
UNDER THE WEIGHT OF THE BLADE.

THE BLADE RINGS IN
AT ALMOST 71 POUNDS.

NOW IT'S TIME TO GROUP THE PANES
INTO MANAGEABLE-SIZED PACKS

FOR POST OFFICES
AND OTHER STAMP RETAILERS.

THIS MACHINE IS CALLED
A VACUUMATIC COUNTER

BECAUSE IT USES SUCTION
TO DRAW THE PANES

ACROSS A PADDLE WHEEL
WHICH COUNTS THEM.

THIS STACK ADDS UP TO 503 PANES,

SO THE WORKER REMOVES THREE
TO MAKE AN EVEN 500.

THE COUNTER INSERTS A TAB
BETWEEN EVERY 50.

SOME STAMPS GO THROUGH
WHAT'S CALLED BURSTING,

THE PROCESS OF MANUALLY
SEPARATING PAIRS OF STAMPS

FOR DIFFERENT POST OFFICE
PRODUCT LINES SUCH AS GIFT SETS.

SOME BURST STAMPS GO ONTO
FIRST DAY COVER ENVELOPES,

ONE POPULAR COLLECTOR'S ITEM.

AN AUTOMATED PAD PICKS UP
THE STAMPS

AND RUNS THEM
AGAINST A WET ROLLER

THAT ACTIVATES THE ADHESIVE
ON THE BACK.

AFTER A WORKER POSITIONS
AN ENVELOPE

AGAINST THE GUIDE BAR,

THE PAD PLACES THE STAMPS
IN A PRECISE SPOT

AND APPLIES EVEN PRESSURE
OVER THEM

SO THAT THEY'LL LAY FLAT
AND ADHERE SECURELY.

MANY STAMPS ARE STILL
THE OLD LICK-AND-STICK TYPE

PRINTED ON PAPER THAT'S COATED

WITH A MOISTURE-ACTIVATED
ADHESIVE ON THE BACK SIDE.

HOWEVER, THE MOST COMMONLY
ISSUED STAMPS,

KNOWN AS DEFINITIVES,

ARE PRINTED ON WHAT'S CALLED
PRESSURE-SENSITIVE PAPER.

THAT'S A TECHNICAL TERM
FOR PEEL-AND-STICK --

NO WATER OR SALIVA REQUIRED.

CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

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