How It's Made (2001–…): Season 7, Episode 13 - Yacht Wheels/Braided Rugs/Automobile Thermostats/Chisels - full transcript


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

...YACHT WHEELS...

...BRAIDED RUGS...

...AUTOMOBILE THERMOSTATS...

...AND CHISELS.

A WHEEL IS A FAIRLY MODERN WAY
TO STEER A BOAT.

BEFORE THE 18th CENTURY,

CAPTAINS SHIFTED A STAKE
ATTACHED DIRECTLY TO THE RUDDER.

TODAY SHIP WHEELS CONNECT
TO THE RUDDER

THROUGH A MECHANICAL
OR HYDRAULIC SYSTEM.

FOUND MOSTLY IN YACHTS
UP TO 200 FEET LONG,

THEY'RE A LUXURIOUS WAY TO ECHO
THE GLORY DAYS OF THE SEA.

THIS COMPANY MAKES YACHT WHEELS
AS LARGE AS 5 FEET IN DIAMETER.

IT USES TWO TRADITIONAL
SHIPBUILDING WOODS --

AMERICAN HOLLY AND BURMESE TEAK,

SPECIES THAT ARE AS BEAUTIFUL
AS THEY ARE DURABLE.

WORKERS USE A TABLE SAW

TO CUT BOTH TYPES OF WOOD
INTO LONG, THIN STRIPS

THAT WILL BECOME
THE WHEEL'S RIM.

THEY MEASURE THE STRIPS
WITH DIGITAL CALIPERS,

THEN SAND THEM DOWN
TO A THICKNESS

OF JUST 1/8 OF AN INCH.

USING A DISK SANDER NOW,

A WORKER ANGLES THE ENDS INTO
WHAT ARE CALLED SCARF JOINTS.

HE'LL JOIN THE STRIPS BY FITTING
THESE ANGLES TOGETHER.

AFTER COATING EACH STRIP
WITH EPOXY,

HE ATTACHES IT WITH CLAMPS
TO A ROUND JIG,

WAXED BEFOREHAND
TO PREVENT STICKING.

THE GLUE IS WATERPROOF

BECAUSE THE WHEELS
ARE OFTEN EXPOSED

TO ROUGH WEATHER UP ON DECK.

THE WORKER GRADUALLY BENDS
EACH 6 1/2-FOOT-LONG STRIP

ALL THE WAY AROUND THE JIG.

AND A SPRING-LOADED CLAMP

TEMPORARILY HOLDS
THE END OF EACH STRIP IN PLACE

UNTIL HE ALIGNS THE SCARF JOINT
WITH THAT OF THE NEXT STRIP.

IT TAKES UP TO EIGHT HOURS
OF NONSTOP WORK

TO LAY ALL THE STRIPS.

HE ALTERNATES BETWEEN THE
BLOND HOLLY AND THE DARKER TEAK

FOR A TOTAL OF SEVEN LAYERS.

THEN HE LEAVES THE RIM
TO SET OVERNIGHT.

TO MAKE EACH SPOKE --
THE WHEEL HAS FIVE OF THEM --

A WORKER TEMPORARILY
JOINS STRIPS OF HOLLY AND TEAK

WITH DOUBLE-SIDED TAPE.

A COMPUTER-GUIDED
CUTTING MACHINE THEN CARVES

AN OPENING THROUGH THE MIDDLE

AND SHAPES THE OUTER EDGE
INTO A TRIANGULAR SHAPE.

THIS REDUCES THE SPOKE'S WEIGHT

AND HELPS IT FIT TO THE RIM
LATER ON.

NEXT HE REMOVES THE TAPE AND
GLUES THE WOOD STRIPS TOGETHER,

ALONG WITH OTHERS
MADE OF CARBON FIBER.

THEY STRENGTHEN THE SPOKE
WHILE KEEPING IT LIGHTWEIGHT.

HE PLACES A WAXED JIG IN
THE CENTER AND CLAMPS IN PLACE.

HE LEAVES THE SPOKE
TO SET OVERNIGHT.

THE NEXT DAY,
HE SANDS AWAY THE DRIED GLUE,

THEN USES A ROUTER
TO ROUND THE EDGES.

TOGETHER, THE FOUR WOOD
AND THREE CARBON-FIBER LAYERS

ARE JUST ONE INCH THICK.

HE TRACES A TEMPLATE

ON A STACK OF 14 PRE-GLUED,
CURVED STRIPS OF HOLLY AND TEAK.

HE FOLLOWS HIS TRACE LINES
WITH A BAND SAW,

CUTTING OUT WHAT'S CALLED
A FAIRING.

THIS COMPONENT WILL JOIN
EACH SPOKE TO THE RIM.

NOW HE DRILLS A HOLE
IN EACH FAIRING...

...AND INSERTS A TEMPORARY DOWEL

TO POSITION A REINFORCING STRIP
OF CARBON FIBER AT THE TOP.

IT'S TIME TO JOIN
THE SPOKES TO THE RIM.

EARLIER, HE GLUED STRONG
FIBERGLASS DOWELS TO THE RIM.

NOW HE INSERTS THEM
INTO THE FAIRINGS

AND INTO HOLES IN THE SPOKES,
ALSO GLUED BEFOREHAND.

THROUGH THE OPENINGS,
HE CLAMPS THE SPOKES TO THE RIM.

THEN HE POSITIONS
AN ALUMINUM HUB IN THE CENTER,

TAPPING IT INTO PLACE
WITH A MALLET.

NOW, WITH A JIGSAW,

HE CUTS A SLIVER
OFF THE ENDS OF THE FAIRINGS

SO THEY'LL CURVE INTO THE RIM.

HE USES A ROUTER TO ROUND OFF
THE VERTICAL EDGES OF THE WHEEL.

HE FILES THE FAIRINGS BY HAND

TO COMPLETE THE SMOOTH
TRANSITION TO THE RIM.

JUST THESE
FINISHING TOUCHES ALONE

CAN TAKE UP TO FIVE HOURS
TO COMPLETE.

USING A ROUTER,
IT TAKES HIM ANOTHER FIVE HOURS

TO GRADUALLY ROUND OFF
THE HORIZONTAL EDGE.

NOW TO PROTECT THE WHEEL
FROM THE ELEMENTS --

PARTICULARLY SUN DAMAGE.

FIRST, A POLYESTER PRIMER.

THEN THEY SAND IT AND APPLY
TWO COATS OF WATERPROOF VARNISH.

ON THE YACHT,

FIVE STAINLESS-STEEL BOLTS
ATTACH THE WHEEL TO A PEDESTAL

THAT CONNECTS TO THE REST
OF THE STEERING MECHANISM.

TO CHANGE
HOW FAST THE RUDDER MOVES,

YOU SIMPLY TURN A KNOB
AT THE CENTER OF THE WHEEL.

HOW'S THAT FOR POWER STEERING?

A RELATIVELY HIGH-TECH WAY
TO NAVIGATE THE OPEN SEAS.

Narrator: NEW ENGLAND SETTLERS
IN THE 1700s

WERE THE FIRST
TO BRAID STRIPS OF USED CLOTHING

AND THEN SEW THEM INTO RUGS.

TODAY HIGH-SPEED MACHINES CREATE
THIS CLASSIC LOOK

IN A FRACTION OF THE TIME,

BUT WITH SYNTHETIC AS WELL
AS NATURAL FABRIC AND YARNS

SO THE RUGS LAST EVEN LONGER.

THIS COMPANY'S MOST POPULAR RUGS
ARE OVAL OR RECTANGULAR,

SOME SMALL ENOUGH
FOR YOUR STAIRS.

THE RUGS BEGIN AS YARN.

THEY WIND THE YARN ONTO BOBBINS
THAT FIT THE FACTORY'S MACHINES.

THE YARN RANGES FROM PURE WOOL

TO A BLEND OF WOOL
AND POLYPROPYLENE

THAT MAKES THE RUG DURABLE
EVEN OUTDOORS.

THIS MACHINE BRAIDS YARN

FROM 24 BOBBINS AROUND
A CORE OF SYNTHETIC FABRIC.

THE RESULT IS A COMPLICATED
WEAVE CALLED CABLE LOCK.

OTHER RUGS HAVE
JUST THREE BRAIDED SEGMENTS,

IN WHAT'S CALLED A FLAT BRAID.

HERE A WORKER USES
A POWERFUL SEWING MACHINE

TO JOIN FLAT BRAIDS
WITH STURDY NYLON THREAD.

THIS MAKES ONE ENORMOUS PIECE

THE LENGTH
OF HALF A TENNIS COURT.

THE PIECE MOVES ALONG A CONVEYER

TO AN AUTOMATED ROTARY SAW
THAT CUTS IT TO SIZE.

THE SAW PASSES TWICE

TO ENSURE A CLEAN CUT
THROUGH THE ONE-INCH THICKNESS.

ANOTHER INDUSTRIAL SEWING
MACHINE ATTACHES BINDING TAPE

TO SEAL THE EDGE.

THIS PREVENTS RECTANGULAR
AND SQUARE RUGS FROM UNRAVELING.

OVAL AND ROUND RUGS
DON'T NEED THIS

BECAUSE THEIR BRAIDS AREN'T CUT.

THIS MACHINE DOES
WHAT'S CALLED SERGING.

IT SEWS YARN OVER
THE BINDING TAPE TO COVER IT,

A PURELY AESTHETIC GESTURE.

TO MAKE FABRIC RUGS,

A SEAMSTRESS JOINS SEVERAL
PIECES OF DIFFERENT FABRIC

ALONG ONE EDGE.

THEY'RE A COTTON-AND-POLYESTER
BLEND THAT'S DURABLE

AND EASY TO WASH.

THE MORE PATTERNS, THE MORE
COMPLEX THE RUG WILL LOOK.

AFTER THEY WIND THE FABRIC
INTO A ROLL,

A ROTARY SAW CUTS THE ROLL

TO MAKE STRIPS
THAT ARE ONE INCH WIDE.

THE FABRIC STRIP THEN UNWINDS

INTO A MACHINE
THAT FOLDS IT OVER FILLER.

THIS FORMS THE CORE
OF THE FABRIC TUBES

THEY CALL SPAGHETTI.

THE MACHINE WRAPS THE FABRIC
AROUND THE FILLER,

THEN SEWS THE EDGES
INTO A CLOSED TUBE.

ROLLERS GUIDE THE SPAGHETTI
OUT OF THE MACHINE

AND ONTO BOBBINS.

THIS MACHINE WEAVES SPAGHETTI
FROM THREE BOBBINS

INTO A FLAT BRAID.

FABRIC RUGS
ARE MADE ONLY AS FLAT BRAIDS

BECAUSE THE MATERIAL
IS TOO THICK

TO WEAVE INTO A CABLE LOCK.

THE BRAIDS SETTLE INTO BARRELS
FOR STORAGE

UNTIL THEY'RE WOVEN INTO RUGS.

SOMETIMES MATS ARE ASSEMBLED
FROM A VARIETY OF BRAIDS

FOR A DIFFERENT LOOK.

TO MAKE AN OVAL OR ROUND RUG,

A WORKER COILS ONE
CONTINUOUS BRAID AROUND ITSELF.

AT THE SAME TIME,
SHE SEWS EACH BRAID TO THE NEXT.

THESE RUGS CAN HAVE
ANYWHERE FROM 16 TO 320 ROWS.

THIS FACTORY USES TABLES WITH
HOLES THAT BLOW PRESSURIZED AIR

TO FLOAT RUGS LIKE THIS ONE
AS THEY GROW HEAVIER.

THE OVALS RANGE IN SIZE.

THEY CAN BE AS SMALL
AS A DOORMAT

AND AS LARGE AS A SWIMMING POOL.

BUT WHEN THE RUGS
GET REALLY BIG,

SOME EXTRA HELP MAY BE REQUIRED.

IT TAKES HER ABOUT TWO HOURS

TO SEW TOGETHER
ONE OF THESE HUGE RUGS.

LASTLY, THE WORKER
STAPLES A TAG TO THE RUG

THAT REVEALS THE STYLE AND SIZE

BEFORE THE RUG
HEADS OFF TO SHIPPING.

PERHAPS MORE
THAN ANY OTHER FLOOR COVERING,

THESE RUGS DON'T JUST LIE THERE.

THE VARIETY OF STYLES AND SHAPES

MEANS THEY REALLY TELL A STORY
AT YOUR FEET.

Narrator: ONLY ABOUT 2 INCHES
IN DIAMETER,

A CAR'S THERMOSTAT SITS BETWEEN
THE ENGINE AND THE RADIATOR.

UNTIL THE ENGINE WARMS UP,

IT BLOCKS THE FLOW OF COOLANT
TO THE RADIATOR.

WHEN THE ENGINE REACHES
ABOUT 200 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT,

THE THERMOSTAT OPENS,

LETTING COOLANT FLOW THROUGH
THE RADIATOR AND INTO THE ENGINE

TO PREVENT OVERHEATING.

THE KEY COMPONENT
INSIDE THE THERMOSTAT IS WAX.

WHEN THE ENGINE HEATS UP,

THE WAX MELTS
AND THE THERMOSTAT OPENS,

TRIGGERING THE COOLING SYSTEM.

THE WAX MELTS QUICKLY

BECAUSE IT CONTAINS
POWDERED COPPER, GRAPHITE,

AND/OR ALUMINUM.

AS THE WAX TRANSFORMS FROM SOLID
TO LIQUID, IT EXPANDS.

THE PRESSURE PUSHES A PIN
THAT OPENS THE VALVE

THAT ENABLES THE FLOW OF COOLANT
TO THE ENGINE.

AFTER HEATING
AND MIXING IN THE POWDERS,

WORKERS POUR THE WAX
INTO SLAB-SHAPED MOLDS.

IT TAKES ABOUT A HALF-HOUR
TO COOL AND SOLIDIFY.

THEN THEY EXTRACT THE SLABS
AND GRIND THEM UP.

THEY FEED THE GRANULATED WAX
TO A PILL-MAKING MACHINE,

THE KIND
PHARMACEUTICAL FACTORIES USE.

IT COMPRESS THE GRANULES
INTO CYLINDRICAL PELLETS.

MEANWHILE,
WORKERS FEED A COPPER STRIP

INTO A MACHINE CALLED
A HIGH-SPEED TRANSFER PRESS.

ITS SUCCESSIVE STATIONS

SHAPE THE COPPER CUP
THAT WILL HOUSE THE WAX PELLET.

THE FIRST STATION
STAMPS OUT A CIRCLE.

THE OTHERS PROGRESSIVELY STRETCH
AND FORM THE CIRCLE INTO A CUP.

THE CUPS GO INTO
AN AUTOMATED ASSEMBLY MACHINE,

WHICH DROPS A PELLET
INTO EACH ONE.

A PIN THEN BORES A HOLE DOWN
THE CENTER OF EACH WAX PELLET.

THE MACHINE INSERTS A RUBBER
SLEEVE INTO THE PELLET HOLE

AND CAPS THE SLEEVE
WITH A BRASS COVER.

THEN IT CRIMPS THE CUP
OVER THE COVER,

FORMING A SEAL
THAT'S LEAK-RESISTANT.

NOW THE MACHINE INSERTS
THE STAINLESS-STEEL PIN

THAT OPENS AND CLOSES
THE COOLANT VALVE.

THE PIN GOES
RIGHT INTO THE RUBBER SLEEVE

IN THE CENTER OF THE WAX PELLET.

HOW DO ALL THESE PARTS
WORK TOGETHER?

THE MELTING WAX EXPANDS
WITHIN THE CUP,

SQUEEZING THE RUBBER SLEEVE.

THAT FORCES THE PIN UPWARD,
OPENING THE COOLANT VALVE.

NOW THEY HEAT THE PARTS

TO THE TEMPERATURE AT WHICH THE
ENGINE COOLANT SHOULD KICK IN.

A CALIBRATION MACHINE
SQUEEZES THE CUP

UNTIL THE PIN RISES ENOUGH
TO OPEN THE COOLANT VALVE.

THE COMPONENTS
NOW ENTER A MACHINE

WHICH CONNECTS THAT VALVE.

THE VALVE IS MADE UP
OF TWO STAINLESS-STEEL PIECES.

THE MACHINE LOADS
ONE ON TOP OF THE OTHER,

OVER THE THIN END OF THE CUP...

THEN PUSHES THE VALVE
OVER THE END OF THE CUP,

ATTACHING IT TO THE WIDE END.

ON THE LEFT IS BEFORE
THE VALVE INSTALLATION,

AND HERE'S AFTER.

MEANWHILE, A PRESS FORMS
THE TOP PART OF THE THERMOSTAT,

CALLED THE FLANGE.

IT'S MADE OF STAINLESS STEEL
COATED WITH A LUBRICANT.

AS WITH THE CUP,

A SERIES OF DIES
PROGRESSIVELY FORMS THE FLANGE.

NOW FOR THE FINAL ASSEMBLY.

FIRST, THE THERMOSTAT'S
STAINLESS-STEEL FRAME.

NEXT, A STAINLESS-STEEL SPRING.

ITS JOB IS TO CLOSE THE VALVE
WHEN THE ENGINE COOLS.

NOW THE ASSEMBLED COMPONENTS
GO INSIDE THE SPRING.

THE FLANGE GOES ON TOP.

A TOOL CALLED AN ORBITAL RIVETER
FLATTENS A TAB

ON EITHER SIDE OF THE FLANGE.

THIS HOLDS THE FRAME
ONTO THE FLANGE.

THE ASSEMBLY MACHINE NOW CRIMPS
TWO LITTLE TABS AGAINST THE PIN,

KEEPING IT FROM FALLING OUT
OF THE RUBBER SLEEVE.

AND WITH THAT,
THE THERMOSTAT IS FINISHED.

THIS DEMONSTRATION SHOWS HOW,
AS THE ENGINE HEATS UP,

THE MELTING WAX
PUSHES THE PIN UPWARD,

AND WHEN THE ENGINE COOLS,
THE OPPOSITE HAPPENS

SO THAT EVEN THOUGH YOU MIGHT
BOIL OVER IN HEAVY TRAFFIC,

YOUR ENGINE DOESN'T HAVE TO.

Narrator: A CHISEL IS
A METAL TOOL WITH A SHARP END

FOR SHAPING STONE, METAL,
OR WOOD.

YOU USE YOUR HAND, A HAMMER, OR
A MALLET TO DRIVE IT IN AND CUT.

ALTHOUGH CHISELS
DATE BACK TO ANCIENT ASIA,

TODAY'S FACTORIES
USE HEAT-TREATED STEEL

AND HIGH-TECH MACHINES TO
MAKE THEM STAY SHARPER LONGER.

A WOOD CHISEL
NEEDS TO BE VERY SHARP,

ESPECIALLY
FOR INTRICATE CARVING.

MAKING CHISELS STARTS
WHEN THEY INSERT

A 16 1/2-FOOT-LONG BAR
OF HIGH-CARBON STEEL

IN A MECHANICAL PRESS.

THE CARBON LETS THEM HEAT-TREAT
THE STEEL

TO GIVE IT A LONG-LASTING EDGE.

BUT FIRST THE PRESS CUTS THE BAR
INTO 8 1/2-INCH-LONG RODS.

THE RODS THEN GO THROUGH
AN INDUCTION HEATER.

IN JUST SIX SECONDS,
A MAGNETIC FIELD HEATS THEM

TO ABOUT 2,300 DEGREES
FAHRENHEIT,

A TEMPERATURE AT WHICH
THE STEEL CAN BE FORGED.

A WORKER SETS EACH HOT ROD
INTO A DIE IN A FORGING PRESS.

THE DIE SLAMS DOWN,
APPLYING 700 TONS OF PRESSURE.

THIS PRODUCES WHAT'S CALLED
A FORGING, A ROUGH SHAPING.

THE DIE CAN PRODUCE
AS MANY AS 60,000 FORGINGS

BEFORE IT WEARS OUT.

EACH ONE GOES INTO
WHAT'S CALLED A TRIMMING PRESS.

HERE A DIE CUTS OUT
THE PRECISE SHAPE OF THE CHISEL,

WITH THE BLADE ON ONE END
AND THE TANG ON THE OTHER.

THE TANG LATER FITS
INTO A PLASTIC OR WOODEN HANDLE

SO YOU CAN COMFORTABLY GRIP
THE TOOL.

THE FACTORY SENDS THE EXCESS
METAL OUT FOR RECYCLING.

AFTER THE CHISELS COOL OFF
FOR SEVERAL HOURS,

WORKERS RUN THEM THROUGH ANOTHER
INDUCTION-HEATING MACHINE,

THIS ONE WITH TWO COILS.

THE FIRST HEATS THEM
TO 1,400 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THEN WARM WATER COOLS THEM DOWN.

THIS RAPID REDUCTION IN
TEMPERATURE IS CALLED QUENCHING.

IT'S WHAT HARDENS THE CHISELS
ENOUGH TO BE STRONG

AND STAY SHARP.

THE NEXT COIL HEATS THEM
TO ABOUT 700 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THIS STEP IS CALLED TEMPERING.

IT RELIEVES THE STRESSES

THAT THE QUENCHING PHASE
CREATED INSIDE THE METAL.

SPRING-LOADED CLAMPS NOW RELEASE
THE CHISELS FROM THE MACHINE,

AND THEY DROP INTO A CONTAINER
TO COOL OVERNIGHT.

THE NEXT DAY,

WORKERS CAN START TO POLISH
AND SHARPEN THE CHISELS.

THAT REMOVES
THE METAL DISCOLORATION

THE HEAT-TREATING CAUSED.

TO POLISH THE BARRELS,

THE ROUND AREAS JOINING
THE BLADE AND THE TANG,

WORKERS LOAD THE CHISELS
INTO DEVICES CALLED CHUCKS.

THESE CLAMP THE CHISELS
SECURELY BY THE BLADE

AS THE BARRELS SPIN AGAINST
A ROUGH-GRIT SANDING WHEEL.

AFTER ABOUT
SEVEN SECONDS OF SANDING,

THE BLADES ARE READY
FOR POLISHING.

A POWERFUL MAGNET LOCKS THEM
IN PLACE ON A ROUND TABLE.

IT ROTATES,

RUNNING THE BLADES AGAINST
AN ABRASIVE GRINDING WHEEL.

AS WATER COOLS THE METAL,

IT ALSO APPLIES A RUST-PROOFING
CHEMICAL TO THE STEEL.

THIS POLISHING CYCLE
TAKES ABOUT 20 SECONDS.

THE HIGHLY POLISHED FINISH
IS A KEY SELLING POINT.

NOW TO SHARPEN THE BLADES.

A WORKER LOADS THE CHISELS
INTO ANOTHER MACHINE.

IT MOVES THE CHISELS
BACK AND FORTH

AGAINST ANOTHER GRINDING WHEEL.

AFTER ABOUT FIVE MINUTES
OF THIS,

THE BLADES ARE RAZOR-SHARP.

ONLY THE LAST 1/2 INCH
OF THE CHISEL,

SLOPING AT A 22-DEGREE ANGLE,
IS THE CUTTING EDGE.

THIS FACTORY USES PREFORMED
EXTRUDED-PLASTIC HANDLES

FOR ITS CHISELS.

A HOT METAL DIE
WITH RAISED LETTERING

PRESSES AND MELTS A COLORED
PLASTIC RIBBON INTO EACH HANDLE.

THIS IMPRINTS THE COMPANY LOGO,
THE MODEL SIZE,

AND A REMINDER
TO WEAR SAFETY GOGGLES.

THE NEXT MACHINE
PUTS A STEEL CAP ON TOP

AND FORCES THE TANG
INSIDE THE HOLE.

THE CAP REINFORCES THE HANDLE
AGAINST HAMMER BLOWS.

THE TANG STAYS PUT BECAUSE
IT'S ACTUALLY A BIT BIGGER

THAN THE HOLE IT GOES INTO --

IN INDUSTRY LINGO,
AN INTERFERENCE FIT.

THE FINISHED TOOLS
COME OFF THE LINE.

NOW YOU CAN CHISEL YOUR CRAFTS
FOR YEARS TO COME.

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