How It's Made (2001–…): Season 6, Episode 12 - Residential Water Heaters/Air Bags/Jelly Beans/Ice Resurfacers - full transcript

Follow the production of residential water heaters, air bags, jelly beans and ice resurfacers.


Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

RESIDENTIAL WATER HEATERS...

...AIR BAGS...

...JELLY BEANS...

...AND ICE RESURFACERS.

THE RESIDENTIAL WATER HEATER
WAS INVENTED BACK IN 1889,

AND THE BASIC CONCEPT
STILL APPLIES TODAY.

IT HEATS WATER,
USUALLY WITH NATURAL GAS,

PROPANE, OR ELECTRICITY,

THEN KEEPS IT CONTINUOUSLY HOT

SO THAT YOU ALWAYS HAVE
A SUPPLY READY FOR THE BATHROOM,

KITCHEN,
OR ANYWHERE ELSE YOU NEED IT.

WATER HEATERS MAY LOOK PLAIN,

BUT THERE'S A LOT
GOING ON INSIDE.

TO MAKE ONE, A HYDRAULIC PRESS
TRANSFORMS A ROUND, STEEL BLANK

INTO A DOME SHAPE.

THIS DOME WILL FORM THE BASE
OF A GAS-HEATED TANK,

AND IT WILL HOLD THE BURNER.

NEXT, ROLLERS BEHIND AND ABOVE

CURL A SHEET OF STEEL
AROUND A CYLINDER.

THIS FORMS THE INNER-TANK SHAPE.

A SEAM-WELDER DEVICE

THEN PINCHES THE TWO ENDS
OF THE TANK SHAPE TOGETHER

AND WELDS THEM.

IN THE NEXT STEP,

A WORKER POSITIONS THE TANK BODY
UNDER A PROJECTION-WELDER.

HE SELECTS A THREADED FITTING,

PLACES IT ON THE TANK,

AND LOWERS THE WELDER.

THIS PROJECTION-WELDER
USES 10,000 VOLTS OF ELECTRICITY

TO FUSE FITTINGS
TO THE TANK BODY.

IT ALSO WELDS FITTINGS
TO THE TOP OF THE TANK.

VALVES AND OTHER PARTS

WILL BE SCREWED
INTO THESE FITTINGS LATER.

NEXT, A PRESS
APPLIES OVER 27 TONS OF FORCE

TO FIT A TOP ONTO THE TANK.

THEN THEY SPRAY LIQUID ENAMEL
INSIDE OF THE SPINNING TANK.

IT WILL BE BAKED IN
AT 1,650 FAHRENHEIT

FOR 45 MINUTES
TO PREVENT RUSTING.

NOW IT'S BACK TO THE BOTTOM
OF THE TANK.

A WORKER INSERTS A FLUE TUBE
IN A HOLE IN THE CENTER,

AND AN AUTOMATED WELDER
JOINS IT TO THE TANK BASE.

THE FLUE WILL VENT GASES
FROM THE BURNER.

AFTER ANTI-RUST ENAMEL COATING
IS BAKED ONTO THE BASE AND FLUE,

THEY LOWER THE TANK BODY
ONTO IT.

NEXT, ROBOTIC WELDING ARMS
WORK BOTH ENDS OF THE TANK.

ONE WELDS THE BASE TO IT,

THE OTHER BONDS THE FLUE
TO THE TOP.

NOW THE PRESSURE TEST.

THEY PUMP AIR INTO THE TANK

AND THEN POUR WATER
OVER THE OUTSIDE.

IF WATER BUBBLES ON THE TANK,

IT MEANS AIR IS ESCAPING

AND THERE'S A LEAK
THAT NEEDS TO BE FIXED.

HERE THEY INSTALL ELEMENTS
IN AN ELECTRIC WATER HEATER...

...AND THEY HOOK UP A THERMOSTAT
AND THE WIRES THAT RUN TO IT.

NOW IT'S TIME TO MAKE THE TANK'S
OUTER SHELL, OR JACKET.

AN OPERATOR SLIDES
A PAINTED-STEEL SHAPE

ONTO A MANDREL
SO THAT IT BECOMES CYLINDRICAL.

A LOCKFORMER
THEN MOVES ALONG A RAIL,

FOLDING AND PRESSING
THE SEAM TOGETHER.

NEXT, A ROLLFORMER
CRIMPS THE TOP AND BOTTOM EDGES

SO THAT LIDS
CAN BE EASILY INSTALLED.

HERE THEY DRAPE A PLASTIC APRON
OVER A TANK...

...AND THEN SLIDE ON ITS JACKET,
OR TANK SHELL,

WITH JUST THE ELECTRIC
COMPONENTS EXPOSED.

THEY SCREW A STEEL COVER
OVER THEM.

HERE'S A DEMONSTRATION
OF WHAT'S NEXT.

A CHEMICAL REACTION

CAUSES POLYURETHANE FOAM
TO EXPAND IN SECONDS.

THEY INJECT THIS EXPANDING FOAM
INTO THE PLASTIC APRON

THAT'S NOW BETWEEN THE TANK
AND OUTER SHELL.

THE FOAM WILL INSULATE THE TANK.

NOW THEY FINISH
INSTALLING THE WIRING

ON THIS ELECTRIC HEATER...

...AND THEN DO AN INSPECTION.

IT MAKES THE GRADE.

ON GAS HEATERS,

THEY SLIDE A BURNER
INTO THE DOME-SHAPED BASE

AND THEN CONNECT THE BURNER
TUBES TO THE GAS VALVE.

THEY ATTACH SOME WIRING

THAT CONTROLS
THE BURNER IGNITION...

AND THEN HOOK IT UP
TO THE GAS LINE FOR A TEST RUN.

THAT INNER GLOW
IS THE BURNER AT WORK.

THEY LIGHT A TORCH ON THE FLAME
AND PASS IT OVER THE VALVE

TO CHECK FOR LITTLE GAS LEAKS.

IT DIDN'T IGNITE,
SO THERE AREN'T ANY.

IT GETS THE SEAL OF APPROVAL,

AND NOW IT'S UP TO THE CONSUMER

TO TEST THE WATER
WHEN IT'S INSTALLED.

Narrator: THE AIR BAG
WAS INVENTED IN THE 1960s,

BUT IT ACTUALLY DIDN'T CATCH ON
UNTIL SEVERAL YEARS LATER.

BY THE 1980s,

AUTOMAKERS WERE INSTALLING THEM
IN MOST VEHICLES.

AIR BAGS DEPLOY WHEN SENSORS
DETECT A SUDDEN DECELERATION

AND INFLATE THEM,

GIVING VEHICLE OCCUPANTS
THE PROTECTION THEY NEED.

THIS SIDE-CURTAIN AIR BAG

INFLATES IN LESS THAN .020
OF A SECOND.

BLINK, AND YOU'LL MISS IT.

AIR BAGS DON'T HAVE ANY SEAMS

BECAUSE THEY'RE WOVEN
IN ONE PIECE.

BIG, COMPUTERIZED LOOMS
WEAVE AT A BLURRING SPEED --

600 REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE.

THEY'RE CALLED
AIR-JET LACQUERED LOOMS.

THEY LIFT AND LOWER
EACH NYLON YARN

TO MAKE AN INTRICATE
ONE-PIECE FABRIC.

UP TO 10,700 YARNS

COULD BE USED
TO MAKE THE MATERIAL.

IF EVEN ONE OF THE THOUSANDS
OF YARNS BREAK,

AN ELECTRICAL SENSOR
WILL DETECT IT

AND SHUT THE LOOM DOWN.

IT'S A STEP
TO ENSURE QUALITY CONTROL.

DESPITE THIS RAPID
WEAVING ACTION,

THE LOOM PRODUCES JUST OVER
26 FEET OF FABRIC AN HOUR.

THAT'S BECAUSE
IT'S VERY DENSE FABRIC.

THAT DENSITY
WILL ALLOW THE AIR BAG

TO STAND UP TO THE FORCE
OF DEPLOYMENT.

NOW THE WOVEN FABRIC GOES
THROUGH AN INSPECTION STATION.

AS AUTOMATED ROLLERS WIND IT UP,
A WORKER EXAMINES IT.

IF IT'S ACCEPTABLE,
HE SIGNS IT OFF.

NEXT, IT'S
ON TO THE SCOURING STATION.

HERE A MACHINE
UNWINDS THE AIR-BAG FABRIC

AS ROLLERS GUIDE IT TOWARDS
A WASH-AND-DRY SYSTEM

THAT'S 118 FEET LONG.

THE ROLLERS DRAW
THE AIR-BAG MATERIAL

THROUGH A NUMBER
OF BIG WASH TANKS

TO ENSURE A THOROUGH CLEANING.

THEN A SERIES OF HOT ROLLERS
DRY AND PRESS THE FABRIC.

THE FRESHLY LAUNDERED
AIR-BAG MATERIAL

MOVES THROUGH
THE COATING MACHINE.

A HOSE PUMPS LIQUID SILICONE
ONTO THE FABRIC,

AND A SCRAPER OVERHEAD
DISTRIBUTES IT.

AS A WORKER SCOOPS SOME UP,

YOU CAN SEE THAT IT'S AS THICK
AS MOLASSES.

THE SILICONE SEALS
THE AIR-BAG FABRIC.

BUT IT'S WET AND STICKY
AND NEEDS TO DRY,

SO IT PASSES THROUGH
A SERIES OF OVENS

HEATED TO ABOUT
370 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

AS IT DRIES, THE SILICONE CURES
TO THE FABRIC.

NOW A COMPUTER-GUIDED LASER
CUTS THE MATERIAL

WITH THE PRECISION AND SPEED

THAT NO HUMAN
COULD EVER REPLICATE.

BLACK LINES WOVEN
INTO THE FABRIC ASSIST THE LASER

AS IT CUTS THE AIR-BAG DESIGN.

AT ANY POINT IN TIME,

IT'S CUTTING MULTIPLE AIR BAGS
OUT OF THE FABRIC.

WHEN THE JOB IS DONE,

THE CONVEYOR BELT
MOVES THE AIR BAGS FORWARD.

AND NOW THEY'RE SCRUTINIZED
BY HUMANS.

A WORKER PULLS THE ONE-PIECE
AIR BAG ACROSS A TEMPLATE

AND EXAMINES IT TO MAKE SURE
THE DIMENSIONS MATCH.

THEN IT'S SENT OVER
TO THE SEWING STATION.

ALTHOUGH THE AIR BAGS
HAVE BEEN SEAMLESSLY WOVEN,

ATTACHMENT AND REINFORCEMENTS
STILL NEED TO SEWN ON.

THE STITCHING
IS COMPUTER-CONTROLLED.

A WORKER FEEDS THE FABRIC
TO THE SEWING MACHINE

AND THEN SIMPLY
PRESSES A BUTTON.

THE MACHINE
STITCHES TOGETHER THE TABS

THAT WILL CONNECT THE AIR BAG

TO THE INSIDE
OF THE VEHICLE FRAME

JUST ABOVE THE SIDE WINDOW.

HERE IT SEWS A TETHER
ONTO THE BAG.

THIS STRIP OF FABRIC
WILL ALSO BE USED

TO HOLD THE AIR BAG IN PLACE.

NOW IT'S TIME
TO TEST A SAMPLE AIR BAG

FROM THE PRODUCTION RUN.

AND, YES, IT WORKS PERFECTLY.

Narrator: THE JELLY BEAN
IS A COLORFUL TREAT.

BUT, UNFORTUNATELY,

NO ONE IS SURE EXACTLY WHEN THE
JELLY BEAN WAS INVENTED OR HOW.

IT'S BELIEVED
THAT THE JELLY CENTER

DATES BACK TO BIBLICAL TIMES AS
A CANDY CALLED TURKISH DELIGHT.

MANY CENTURIES LATER,
THE OUTER SHELL WAS ADDED,

THUS MAKING THE JELLY BEAN
WE KNOW TODAY.

THE JELLY BEAN IS VERY POPULAR.

BILLIONS ARE SOLD
AT EASTER ALONE.

TO MAKE JELLY BEANS,

THEY HEAT LIQUID SUGAR
IN A BIG KETTLE

TO 347 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THEY ADD GLUCOSE,

WHICH IS
A MORE CONCENTRATED SUGAR,

AND THEN STARCH.

AN AGITATING DEVICE
MIXES IT ALL TOGETHER...

WHILE ELSEWHERE IN THE FACTORY,

STARCH SPILLS OUT OF A DRUM
ONTO BIG TRAYS.

A LEVELER MOVES BACK AND FORTH

TO EVEN OUT THE STARCH
ON THE TRAYS.

THE TRAYS THEN MOVE FORWARD,

AND A BRUSH KNOCKS OFF
THE EXCESS STARCH.

IT WILL BE RECYCLED.

A MOLDING BOARD NOW PRESSES DOWN
INTO THE STARCH.

IT MAKES 756
JELLY-BEAN IMPRESSIONS

IN THE STARCH IN EACH TRAY.

THE IMPRESSIONS IN THE STARCH
WILL SERVE AS MOLDS

FOR THE JELLY-BEAN CENTERS.

NOZZLES INJECT
THE SUGAR-AND-STARCH MIX

COOKED IN THE KETTLE
INTO THE STARCH MOLDS.

THIS SYSTEM CAN MAKE ALMOST
A MILLION JELLY-BEAN CENTERS

AN HOUR.

NEXT, THE CONVEYOR BELT

TAKES THE JELLY-BEAN CENTERS
TO THE DRYING ROOM,

WHERE THEY STAY FOR 24 HOURS.

THIS SOLIDIFIES THEM.
THEY BECOME CHEWIER.

ARMS FLIP THE TRAYS
OF DRIED CANDY CENTERS IN STARCH

AND DUMP THEM INTO A BIG DRUM
THAT WILL SEPARATE THEM.

WHEN THE TRAYS FLIP BACK,

THEY'RE REFILLED WITH STARCH,

AND THE MOLDING PROCESS
BEGINS AGAIN.

MEANWHILE,
THE DRIED JELLY-BEAN CENTERS,

NOW SEPARATED FROM THE STARCH,

TUMBLE OUT OF THE DRUM ONTO
A WIRE-MESH CONVEYOR SYSTEM.

IT TRANSPORTS THEM
TO A STEAM BELT,

WHICH DAMPENS THEM.

THIS READIES THEM
FOR THE NEXT STEP --

SUGARCOATING.

THE JELLY-BEAN CENTERS
GO INTO A SANDER DRUM

THAT TOSSES THEM AROUND

WHILE NOZZLES SPRAY THEM
WITH SUGAR.

IN ANOTHER PART OF THE FACTORY,

LIQUID SUGAR FLOWS OUT
OF A KETTLE INTO A TUB.

A WORKER ADDS BLUE FOOD COLORING
TO THE SYRUP,

AND THEN HE BLENDS IT IN.

THIS MIX IS CALLED
ENGROSSING SYRUP.

HE ADDS THE ENGROSSING SYRUP,
ALONG WITH SOME FLAVORING,

TO THE JELLY-BEAN CENTERS

AS THEY TUMBLE AROUND
IN A TILTED, SPINNING PAN.

AFTER THEY TURN
A VERY STICKY BLUE,

THE WORKER DUMPS SOME SUGAR
INTO THE PAN.

THIS PROCESS
IS REPEATED FOUR TIMES

IN ORDER TO BUILD UP A COATING
AROUND THE GUMMY CENTER.

THE NEXT DAY,
WHEN THE BEANS HAVE HARDENED,

THEY ADD HOT SYRUP TO THE MIX
AND TOSS THE BEANS AROUND AGAIN.

THIS POLISHES THE JELLY BEANS.

THERE'S A LOT
OF SWEET STUFF HERE --

124,000 JELLY BEANS IN EACH PAN.

NOW HE ADDS A LITTLE WAX.

AND AS THE PAN SPINS,

THE BEANS RUB AGAINST EACH
OTHER, DISTRIBUTING THE WAX.

THIS ADDS GLOSS TO THE POLISH.

THEN THE PAN STOPS SPINNING,

AND THE JELLY BEANS AIR DRY
FOR 24 HOURS

TO ALLOW THE GLAZE TO SET.

IT'S THE FINISHING TOUCH.

AFTER 3 1/2 DAYS,

THIS BIG BATCH
OF JELLY BEANS IS READY.

THEY MOVE
IN A MULTI-COLORED MASS

ALONG A SERIES OF CONVEYORS.

THEY FALL INTO A SCALE SYSTEM

THAT PORTIONS THEM OUT
FOR SPECIFIC BAG SIZES.

THEN A TRAP DOOR OPENS,

AND THEY DROP DOWN A CHUTE
TO THE PACKAGING DEPARTMENT.

ONCE THEY'RE IN THE BAG,

THE JELLY BEANS ARE READY
TO SWEETEN YOUR DAY.

Narrator: IN JUST MINUTES,

AN ICE RESURFACER CAN SMOOTH
THE SURFACE

OF AN ICE-SKATING
OR HOCKEY RINK.

BEFORE IT WAS INVENTED IN 1949,

IT TOOK SEVERAL WORKERS OVER
AN HOUR TO RESURFACE THE ICE

USING SCRAPERS, SQUEEGEES,
AND HOSES.

TODAY, THESE MACHINES
PROVIDE QUICK, UNIFORM RESULTS.

IF YOU ICE-SKATE, YOU'RE
THANKFUL FOR THIS MACHINE.

IT SMOOTHS THE ICE IN JUST
A FEW TURNS AROUND THE RINK.

TO MAKE AN ICE RESURFACER,

THEY WELD TOGETHER STEEL PIECES
TO BUILD THE MAINFRAME.

THE FRAME HAS TO BE VERY STRONG

BECAUSE IT WILL SUPPORT
EVERYTHING FROM THE ENGINE

TO THE WATER TANK.

IT'S A LOAD OF ALMOST 3 TONS.

SPARKS FLY AS THEY GRIND SMOOTH
THE AREAS

WHERE PARTS WILL BE MOUNTED.

THE SPARKS ARE ACTUALLY STEEL
FRAGMENTS BEING SANDED OFF.

NEXT, THEY WELD SUPPORT BRACES
WITH HOLES IN THEM

TO THE CENTER OF THE WATER TANK.

THESE ARE CALLED BAFFLES,

AND THE HOLES WILL ALLOW
THE WATER

TO FLOW INTO BOTH ENDS
OF THE TANK.

NOW THEY SLIDE A PIECE
OF SPIRALING STEEL,

WHICH IS AUGER FLIGHTING,
ON ONE END OF A PIPE.

AND THEY SLIP A PIECE THAT
TWISTS IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION

ON THE OTHER END OF IT.

THEY WELD A U-SHAPED PADDLE
TO THE PIPE

BETWEEN THE TWO STEEL SPIRALS,
OR FLIGHTINGS.

THE PADDLE IS A CRITICAL PART.

THE FLIGHTINGS WILL FEED
ICE SHAVINGS TO IT,

AND THE PADDLE WILL
THEN TOSS THEM TO A BIN

MOUNTED ABOVE A WATER TANK
TO BE DISPOSED OF LATER.

NEXT, THE WORKER CLAMPS
THE FLIGHTING

TO A HYDRAULIC CYLINDER.

HE TURNS A LEVER, AND HYDRAULIC
ENERGY PULLS THE CLAMP,

DRAWING THE AUGER FLIGHTING
SNUGLY TO THE PIPE.

AS THE CLAMP HOLDS
THE FLIGHTING IN POSITION,

HE WELDS IT TO THE PIPE.

NOW THEY'RE SOLIDLY SEALED
TOGETHER.

NEXT, ANOTHER WORKER
PLACES A LONG STEEL BLADE

ON A MAGNETIC TABLE.

THE MAGNETS HOLD IT DOWN

WHILE A GRINDING MACHINE MOVES
OVER IT, SHARPENING THE EDGE.

BECAUSE THE GRINDING
GENERATES HEAT,

THE MACHINE ALSO FLOODS
THE BLADE WITH WATER.

THIS COOLS IT DOWN
SO THE STEEL STAYS HARD.

NOW, USING A CRANE, THEY LOWER
AN ENGINE ONTO THE FRAME

THAT WE SAW WELDED TOGETHER
EARLIER.

THEN THEY SLIDE
THE REAR DRIVE SHAFT INTO PLACE

AND BOLT IT DOWN
USING A PNEUMATIC WRENCH.

THE TIRES FOR AN ICE RESURFACER
WILL NEED SOME SERIOUS TRACTION.

EACH TIRE GETS 92
OF THESE METAL STUDS.

THEY DROP THE STUDS
INTO A REVOLVING FEEDER.

THE STUDS FUNNEL DOWN A TUBE
TO THE STUD GUN,

ENSURING THAT IT NEVER RUNS OUT
OF AMMUNITION.

THE ROAD THESE TIRES TRAVEL WILL
BE NOTHING BUT A SHEET OF ICE,

AND THESE STUDS SHOULD ALLOW
THEM TO STAY THE COURSE.

NEXT, USING A CRANE,

THEY TRANSFER THE WATER TANK
TO THE CENTER OF THE FRAME.

THE SNOW BIN, WHICH WILL HOLD
THE SCRAPED ICE, IS NEXT.

THEY PLACE IT ON PIVOT POINTS
AT THE FRONT.

THEN WORKERS SLIDE THE BLADE
INTO PLACE.

THE BOLT IT TIGHTLY,
WORKING FROM THE CENTER OUTWARD.

THE WORKERS ARE SHIELDED
FROM THE VERY SHARP BLADE

BY A PLASTIC SLEEVE
THAT SHEATHES THE EDGE.

WHEN THE BLADE IS SECURE,
THEY REMOVE THE PLASTIC.

NOW IT'S TIME TO GIVE
THE ICE RESURFACER A TEST RUN.

THE STEEL FLIGHTINGS
TWIST TOWARDS THE PADDLE

AT THE CENTER, AS THEY SHOULD.

HERE'S A CLOSE-UP
OF THAT RAZOR-SHARP BLADE

THAT WILL SHAVE THE ICE.

A RECTANGULAR SCRAPER SLIDES
OVER THE FLIGHTINGS,

PREVENTING SNOW FROM BUILDING UP
AND CLOGGING THE SYSTEM.

THIS ICE RESURFACER IS NOW READY
FOR THE RINK,

AND IT'S SURE TO SMOOTH THE ICE
FOR YEARS TO COME.

CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

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