How It's Made (2001–…): Season 4, Episode 13 - Putty Knives/Garage Doors/Electric Motors/Wool - full transcript

Discover what it takes to make putty knives, garage doors, electric motors, and wool.


Narrator:
TODAY, ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

...PUTTY KNIVES...

...GARAGE DOORS...

...ELECTRIC MOTORS...

...AND WOOL.

RUMMAGE THROUGH
A DO-IT-YOURSELFER'S TOOLBOX,

AND CHANCES ARE, YOU'LL COME
ACROSS A PUTTY KNIFE OR TWO.

THEY COME IN SEVERAL WIDTHS.

SO WHETHER YOU'RE
SCRAPING OFF PAINT,

OLD WALLPAPER,
OR INSTALLING DRYWALL,

THERE'S A PUTTY KNIFE

THAT'S THE RIGHT SIZE AND SHAPE
FOR THE JOB.

THESE PUTTY-KNIFE BLADES
ARE MADE OF STEEL

THAT'S FLEXIBLE AND DURABLE,

DUE IN PART
TO ITS HIGH CARBON CONTENT.

PRODUCTION BEGINS WITH WORKERS
FEEDING STEEL SHEETS

INTO A PRESS ONE BY ONE.

THE PRESS'S CUTTING GUY
PUNCHES OUT A BLADE

FOR THE TYPE OF PUTTY KNIFE
THEY'RE PRODUCING.

THE NEXT PRESS
PUNCHES THREE RIVET HOLES

IN THE HANDLE PORTION
OF THE BLADE.

THESE ARE FOR ATTACHING
A HARD PLASTIC HANDLE.

FOR MODELS
THAT'LL HAVE A HANDLE

MADE OF A SOFTER,
RUBBERLIKE PLASTIC,

THEY FISHBONE THE HANDLE PORTION
OF THE BLADE,

SO THAT IT'LL GRIP THE PLASTIC.

STEEL HAS TO BE HEAT-TREATED

TO GAIN ITS FULL FLEXIBILITY
AND STRENGTH.

FIRST, THEY SUBMERGE THE BLADES
IN A BATH OF MOLTEN SALT.

THE HEAT IS INTENSE --
1,400 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THE BLADES SOAK
FOR ABOUT A MINUTE --

THE TIME IT TAKES
FOR THE METAL TEMPERATURE

TO RISE TO THAT OF THE TANK.

AS IT DOES,

THE STEEL'S MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
BEGINS TO CHANGE.

FROM HERE,
THEY TRANSFER THE BLADES

TO TWO SUCCESSIVELY COOLER
SALT BATHS.

THAT QUENCHING, AS IT'S CALLED,
FURTHER HARDENS THE STEEL.

THE BLADES ARE THEN TEMPERED
IN AN OVEN FOR EIGHT HOURS

AT 400 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THIS GIVES THE STEEL MEMORY,

MEANING THE BLADE WILL REVERT
TO ITS ORIGINAL SHAPE WHEN BENT.

AFTER HEAT TREATMENT,
LUKEWARM WATER JETS

RINSE OFF THE SALT RESIDUE

AND COOL THE METAL
TO ROOM TEMPERATURE.

NOW THAT THE METAL
HAS THE REQUIRED PROPERTIES,

THE BLADES
NEED THE RIGHT PROFILE.

A WORKER LAYS THEM ON A MAGNETIC
PLATE THAT ANGLES THEM DOWNWARD.

THE PLATE SPINS, RUNNING THE
BLADES AGAINST A GRINDING WHEEL.

IT TAKES ABOUT 30 SECONDS
OF GRINDING

TO PROFILE EACH BLADE
AND FORM THE FLEX POINT --

THE THINNEST
AND MOST FLEXIBLE PART

THAT'S 1 1/2 INCHES
FROM THE END OF THE BLADE.

BLADE PROFILES VARY,

BECAUSE SOME JOBS REQUIRE A MORE
FLEXIBLE TOOL THAN OTHERS.

NOW THEY CLEAN THE BLADES

IN A REVOLVING DRUM
FILLED WITH ABSORBENT SAND.

THIS REMOVES OIL
AND OTHER RESIDUES

LEFT BY THE PRODUCTION PROCESS,
AND IT PREPS THE SURFACE

FOR THE PROTECTIVE LAYER
OF LACQUER THAT'S APPLIED NEXT.

AFTER COATING THE BLADES
IN LACQUER,

THEY DRY THEM IN AN OVEN.

THIS SEALS THE METAL,
PREVENTING RUST.

ASSEMBLY
IS COMPLETELY AUTOMATED.

THE FIRST MACHINE
SLIPS ON THE PLASTIC HANDLE.

THE NEXT MACHINE RIVETS IT ON.

THE FOLLOWING MACHINE
SLAPS ON A LABEL,

WHICH IDENTIFIES THE SIZE
AND TYPE OF PUTTY KNIFE.

PROFESSIONAL-QUALITY
PUTTY KNIVES

HAVE A THICKER, STIFFER BLADE.

THE HANDLE
IS MADE UP OF TWO HALVES.

THE MACHINE POSITIONS THEM ONTO
THE HANDLE PORTION OF THE BLADE,

THEN ATTACHES THEM
WITH A HOLLOW RIBBON.

THIS ENABLES THE KNIFE
TO BE HUNG UP.

THIS FACTORY ALSO PRODUCES
RETRACTABLE UTILITY KNIVES.

IT PUTS THE CAST ALUMINUM
HANDLES THROUGH A MACHINE

THAT USES POLISHING STONES
TO REMOVE ANY SHARDS OF METAL.

WORKERS ASSEMBLE
THE UTILITY KNIVES MANUALLY,

FIRST INSTALLING THE PUSH BUTTON
THAT MOVES THE BLADE IN AND OUT.

AFTER PUTTING IN A SPARE BLADE,

THEY CLOSE UP THE HANDLE
WITH ONE SCREW.

THIS FACTORY PRODUCES

150 DIFFERENT
PAINT-PREPARATION TOOLS

FOR A WIDE RANGE OF USES,
FROM SCRAPING TO FILLING

TO SMOOTHING OUT TAPE
ON WALL JOINTS.

Narrator:
GARAGE DOORS COME IN MANY
STYLES, COLORS, AND MATERIALS.

THEY CAN BE MADE OF STEEL,
ALUMINUM, WOOD, OR VINYL.

WHETHER YOU CHOOSE A STYLE
THAT'S PLAIN, PANELED, SMOOTH,

OR TEXTURED, QUALITY
GARAGE DOORS ARE LIGHTWEIGHT,

WELL-INSULATED, AND AIRTIGHT.

THE TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL GARAGE
DOOR IS MADE UP OF FOUR PANELS.

EACH ONE BEGINS AS A SHEET
OF EITHER ALUMINUM OR STEEL --

TWO METALS THAT CAN TOLERATE
HARSH CLIMATES.

THE SIDE THAT WILL SHOW

HAS A BAKED-ON COAT
OF POLYESTER PAINT.

DEPENDING ON THE MODEL,
THE SHEET PASSES THROUGH ROLLERS

THAT IMPRINT A TEXTURE,
SUCH AS A SIMULATED WOOD GRAIN.

THEN IT GOES THROUGH A PRESS
THAT IMPRINTS A DESIGN.

THIS MODEL
WILL HAVE RAISED RECTANGLES.

OTHERS HAVE HORIZONTAL STRIPES
OR NO DESIGN AT ALL.

AFTER AN AUTOMATED MACHINE

CUTS THE CONTINUOUS SHEET
TO GARAGE-DOOR WIDTHS,

ANOTHER MACHINE
FOLDS OVER THE EDGES.

THIS CREATES HALF-INCH JOINTS
FOR ATTACHING THE PANELS.

THE POLYESTER PAINT IS ELASTIC,

SO IT SIMPLY STRETCHES
WITH THE BENDING.

NOW ON THE BACK SIDE
OF THE SHEETS,

THEY HOT-GLUE METAL PLATES

TO REINFORCE
THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS

THEY'LL LATER SCREW
INTO THE GARAGE DOOR,

PARTS SUCH AS THE LIFT HANDLES,
THE HINGE,

AND THE BRACKET FOR
THE ELECTRIC OPENER MECHANISM.

THEY ALSO DRILL A HOLE

THROUGH WHICH
THEY'LL LATER INJECT INSULATION.

NOW THEY SLIDE TWO SHEETS
TOGETHER TO FORM A PANEL.

THEY CLOSE OFF THE ENDS
WITH BLOCKS OF PINE.

THIS WILL PREVENT COLD AIR
FROM PENETRATING INSIDE.

THEY APPLY VARIOUS STICKERS

WITH INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE,
AND SAFETY INFORMATION.

ORANGE STICK-ON DOTS MARK
THE LOCATION OF THE METAL PLATES

INTO WHICH THE INSTALLER
WILL SCREW THE HINGES

AND LIFT HANDLES.

THEY ATTACH AN ALUMINUM BAR
TO THE LONG ENDS OF EACH PANEL.

THIS HOLDS THE PANEL STEADY
DURING THE INJECTION PROCESS.

AFTER INJECTION,
THE BARS COME OFF.

THEY LOAD THE PANELS ONTO
A CAROUSEL AND BEGIN THE PROCESS

OF FILLING THE HOLLOW
INTERIOR CAVITY WITH INSULATION.

THROUGH THE HOLE
THEY DRILLED EARLIER,

THEY INJECT POLYURETHANE FOAM,

AN EXPANDING,
PLASTIC INSULATION MATERIAL

THAT'S SPECIALLY DESIGNED TO
PENETRATE HARD-TO-ACCESS SPACES.

AS WE SEE IN THIS DEMONSTRATION,

THE POLYURETHANE EXPANDS
AND BECOMES RIGID.

THIS CREATES A SOLID CORE
INSIDE THE GARAGE DOOR.

POLYURETHANE IS ONE OF THE
LIGHTEST TYPES OF INSULATION,

SO IT DOESN'T MAKE
THE GARAGE DOOR HEAVY.

HERE'S WHAT THE INSIDE
OF A PANEL LOOKS LIKE

ONCE THE FOAM HARDENS.

NOW WORKERS INSTALL
VARIOUS COMPONENTS,

SUCH AS THE RUBBER WEATHER SEAL
ON THE BOTTOM PANEL.

THIS SEAL PREVENTS COLD AIR
AND WATER

FROM ENTERING THE GARAGE
UNDER THE DOOR.

SOME GARAGE-DOOR MODELS
HAVE WINDOWS

TO ALLOW IN NATURAL LIGHT.

WORKERS FIRST USE
A HIGH-SPEED ROUTER

TO REMOVE THE RECTANGLES WHERE
THESE WINDOWS WILL BE INSTALLED.

THEN THEY INSERT ONE OF
SEVERAL WINDOW STYLES AVAILABLE.

THESE ARE
DOUBLE-SEALED WINDOWS --

TWO THERMAL PANES WITH
AN ALUMINUM SPACER IN BETWEEN.

THE FRAMING AROUND THE GLASS
COMES IN DIFFERENT COLORS.

IT'S MADE OF PVC -- A SYNTHETIC
RESIN THAT DOESN'T DISCOLOR.

THE FRAME PREVENTS
WATER AND COLD AIR

FROM PENETRATING
THROUGH THE WINDOW.

WORKERS PACK
THE INSTALLATION HARDWARE.

THEN THEY WEIGH THE BOX
TO ENSURE NO PART WAS LEFT OUT.

AT INSTALLATION TIME,

THEY ATTACH THE DOOR PANELS
AT THE JOINTS WITH HINGES.

A SYSTEM OF SPRINGS
ENSURES THE GARAGE DOOR

IS PERFECTLY BALANCED
AND MOVES SMOOTHLY.

IF PROPERLY INSTALLED,
YOU SHOULD BE ABLE

TO LIFT OR LOWER THE GARAGE DOOR
USING TWO FINGERS.

Narrator: ELECTRIC MOTORS ARE
MADE OF TWO MAIN COMPONENTS --

ONE STATIONARY,
CALLED THE STATOR,

THE OTHER A ROTOR
THAT MOVES INSIDE THE STATOR.

THE STATOR
HAS MULTIPLE WIRE COILS.

RUNNING ELECTRICITY THROUGH THEM

CREATES A CONCENTRATED
MAGNETIC FIELD

THAT TURNS THE ROTOR,
CREATING MECHANICAL POWER.

THE STATOR IS LINED WITH SLOTS,

EACH OF WHICH
HOLDS A COPPER COIL.

THE MORE POWERFUL THE MOTOR,

THE BIGGER THE STATOR
AND THE LARGER THE SLOTS.

THE FIRST STEP IS TO LINE
THE SLOTS WITH INSULATION.

THIS INSULATION WILL KEEP THE
VOLTAGE CONFINED TO THE COILS.

THE COILS ARE MADE
FROM SEVERAL COPPER WIRES

WOUND TOGETHER
BY PROGRAMMABLE MACHINES.

THE BIGGER THE MOTOR,
THE MORE WIRES PER COIL.

IN THIS MOTOR,

EACH COIL CONSISTS
OF 13 STRANDS OF COPPER WIRE.

NOW WORKERS TIE THE COILS.

THIS PREVENTS THE WIRES
FROM UNRAVELING

WHILE BEING INSERTED
INTO THE STATOR SLOTS.

WORKERS CAP EACH COIL
WITH FIBERGLASS INSULATION.

THEN THEY INSULATE
THE PORTION OF THE COIL

LEFT OUTSIDE THE SLOTS
WITH FIBERGLASS SHEETS.

FIBERGLASS WEDGES ARE INSERTED,

LOCKING THE COILS
INSIDE THE SLOTS.

ONCE ALL THE COILS
ARE INSERTED AND INSULATED,

WORKERS BEGIN PREPARING
THE CONNECTION.

THEY SLIP
AN ACRYLIC INSULATION SLEEVE

OVER BOTH ENDS OF EACH COIL --
13 COILS, 26 ENDS.

THEN THEY GROUP THESE INSULATED
WIRES INTO LARGE POWER CABLES.

THE NUMBER OF WIRES
PER CABLE VARIES

ACCORDING TO THE SPEED
AND VOLTAGE OF THE MOTOR.

THEY SOLDER
THE GROUPED WIRES TOGETHER,

THEN INSULATE THE CABLES.

THEY TUCK SOME INSIDE THE STATOR
AND LEAVE OTHERS ACCESSIBLE

TO BE ATTACHED TO A POWER SOURCE
WHEN THE MOTOR IS INSTALLED.

NOW, USING A CORD

MADE OF HEAT- AND
CHEMICAL-RESISTANT POLYESTER,

THEY BIND THE COILS TIGHTLY

TO ENSURE THEY WON'T MOVE
WHEN THE MOTOR SPINS.

THIS UNIT OF BOUND COILS
IS KNOWN AS THE STATOR COIL.

THEY NOW SUBMERGE THE STATOR
IN A POLYESTER-BASED VARNISH

AND VACUUM IT RIGHT THROUGH.

THIS THOROUGH PENETRATION

MAKES THE STATOR COIL
MOISTURE-RESISTANT.

THE STATOR IS PUT INTO AN OVEN
FOR SIX HOURS

AT 280 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THE VARNISH HARDENS,
MAKING THE STATOR COIL RIGID.

NOW THEY HAVE
TO BALANCE THE ROTOR.

IF IT'S OFF-KILTER,
THE MOTOR WILL VIBRATE,

HAMPERING PERFORMANCE.

THEY BALANCE IT THE SAME WAY
A MECHANIC BALANCES CAR TIRES,

ONLY WITH 100 TIMES
GREATER PRECISION.

NOW THEY SLOWLY SLIDE THE ROTOR
INTO THE STATOR,

CAREFUL NOT TO DAMAGE
THE STATOR COIL.

THE ROTOR WILL TURN
ON STEEL BEARINGS.

THEY HEAT THESE BEARINGS
TO EXPAND THEM,

SO THEY'LL INSTALL EASILY.

THEN THEY BLOW ON COLD AIR
TO SHRINK THEM TO A TIGHT FIT.

IT'S THE SAME PROCESS
WITH THE MOTOR'S BACK COVER.

NOW THEY HEAT THE FAN AND
INSTALL IT OVER THE BACK COVER.

THE FAN'S JOB IS TO COOL
THE RUNNING MOTOR

SO THAT IT DOESN'T OVERHEAT
AND BREAK DOWN.

THEY COVER THE FAN
WITH A SAFETY GUARD,

THEN INSTALL A COVER ON
THE FRONT OF THE MOTOR AS WELL.

THEY RUN THE FINISHED MOTOR
THROUGH VARIOUS TESTS TO ASSESS,

AMONG OTHER THINGS, INSULATION
STRENGTH AND PERFORMANCE.

THESE INDUSTRIAL MOTORS ARE
DESIGNED FOR USE IN FACTORIES,

FOR RUNNING MACHINERY,
SUCH AS CONVEYER BELTS,

PUMPS, FANS, AND COMPRESSORS.

Narrator: WHAT DO WOOL
AND HAND CREAM HAVE IN COMMON?

WELL, A SHEEP'S FLEECE
HAS AN OILY PROTECTIVE COATING

WHICH CONTAINS A SUBSTANCE
CALLED WOOL GREASE.

WHEN FACTORIES MAKE YARN,

THEY FIRST CLEAN THE WOOL
WITH DETERGENTS.

THE GREASE IS PROCESSED
INTO LANOLIN --

A COMMON INGREDIENT
IN HAND CREAMS.

HISTORIANS BELIEVE
THAT PEOPLE BEGAN RAISING SHEEP

FOR FOOD AND CLOTHING
ABOUT 10,000 YEARS AGO.

AND AROUND 4,000 B.C.,

THEY STARTED SPINNING THE WOOL
INTO YARN FOR WEAVING FABRIC.

THE ROMANS BROUGHT
WOOL PRODUCTION TO ENGLAND

IN ABOUT 50 A.D.

WOOLEN FABRICS WOULD BECOME

THE COUNTRY'S CHIEF EXPORT
FOR CENTURIES.

IN 1797, BRITAIN SHIPPED
13 SHEEP TO AUSTRALIA,

STARTING WHAT WOULD BECOME

THE LARGEST WOOL INDUSTRY
IN THE WORLD TODAY.

WOOL FABRIC IS DURABLE,
WRINKLE-PROOF,

AND HOLDS ITS SHAPE WELL.

IT ABSORBS MOISTURE AND
INSULATES AGAINST HEAT AND COLD.

THAT'S WHY WOOL IS IDEAL

FOR CLOTHING
LIKE SWEATERS AND COATS.

SHEEP SHEARERS USE POWER SHEARS,

REMOVING THE FLEECE
IN ONE PIECE.

THEY DISCARD ANY STAINED
OR INFERIOR WOOL

AND THEN SORT THE REST ACCORDING
TO THE QUALITY OF THE FIBERS.

THIS GRADING IS BASED ON LENGTH,
COLOR, WAVINESS, AND FINENESS.

THE WOOL IS CLEANED WITH
DETERGENTS BEFORE PROCESSING.

THE WOOL ARRIVES AT THE FACTORY
IN COMPRESSED BALES.

WORKERS UNTIE THEM AND FEED THE
WOOL INTO THE OPENING EQUIPMENT,

WHOSE METAL TOOTH ROLLERS COMB
OUT AND SEPARATE THE FIBERS.

FROM THERE, THE FIBERS
GO INTO THE BLENDING ROOM,

WHERE AIR CURRENTS
MIX DIFFERENT GRADES OF WOOL

TO GET THE DESIRED TEXTURE.

IF THEY'LL BE WEAVING
A WOOL BLEND,

THEY MIX THE WOOL FIBERS
WITH OTHER MATERIAL,

SUCH AS POLYESTER FIBERS.

A THOROUGH BLENDING
TAKES ABOUT AN HOUR.

AN AIR PIPE TRANSPORTS
THE BLENDED FIBERS

TO THE NEXT STATION.

ON THE WAY, SPRAYERS LUBRICATE
THEM WITH A MINERAL-OIL MIXTURE

TO MAKE PROCESSING EASIER.

THE FIBERS ARRIVE
AT THE CARDING MACHINE,

WHERE THEY PASS THROUGH A SERIES
OF ROLLERS WITH THIN WIRE TEETH.

THIS UNTANGLES THE FIBERS

AND LINES THEM UP PARALLEL
TO EACH OTHER.

THIS PROCESS ALSO REMOVES
ANY PIECES OF DEBRIS

CAUGHT IN THE FIBERS.

THE CARDING PROCESS PRODUCES A
SMOOTH, FLAT SHEET CALLED A WEB.

THE EQUIPMENT DIVIDES THIS WEB
INTO THIN, FLAT STRIPS.

THESE STRIPS
GO THROUGH RUB APRONS --

TWO ROLLERS THAT TWIRL THEM

INTO THINNER, ROUNDED STRIPS,
CALLED ROVINGS.

THE ROVINGS WIND ONTO A SPOOL.

ROVINGS LOOK LIKE YARN.

BUT IF YOU PULL ON THEM,
THEY SIMPLY TEAR.

THEY HAVEN'T BEEN SPUN,
SO THEY HAVE NO STRENGTH.

EACH ROVING GOES INTO A DEVICE
CALLED A SPINNING FRAME.

IT STRETCHES THE ROVING
AND SPINS IT TIGHTLY,

PRODUCING WOOL YARN.

THE YARN WINDS ONTO A BOBBIN.

SPINNING GIVES
THE YARN STRENGTH.

NOW THEY CAN WEAVE IT
INTO WOOL FABRIC.

A FULLY AUTOMATED LOOM
DOES IT ALL.

WATCH IN SLOW MOTION AS
IT INSERTS ONE STRAND AT A TIME

CROSSWISE THROUGH STATIONARY
LENGTHWISE STRANDS.

IT'S COMPUTER-PROGRAMMED
TO THREAD

IN A SPECIFIC
UNDER/OVER CONFIGURATION,

ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF WEAVE.

THE LOOM INSERTS
400 STRANDS PER MINUTE.

AFTER WEAVING,
THEY BURN OFF VEGETAL MATTER,

SUCH AS STRAW FRAGMENTS,

THEN THEY DYE
AND DRY THE FABRIC.

ALL WOOL FABRICS
UNDERGO FINISHING

TO GIVE THEM A PARTICULAR
APPEARANCE AND FEEL.

THESE SPIKED ROLLERS
CREATED A PLUSH FINISH.

WOOL FABRICS CAN ALSO HAVE
A SHEERED OR FLAT FINISH.

CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

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