How It's Made (2001–…): Season 4, Episode 12 - Architectural Mouldings/Pulleys/Industrial Rubber Hose/Sheet Vinyl Flooring - full transcript


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

DECORATIVE MOLDINGS.

COMMERCIAL PULLEYS.

INDUSTRIAL RUBBER HOSE.

AND SHEET VINYL FLOORING.

WHEN YOU CONSIDER THE HIGH COST
OF RENOVATIONS,

ARCHITECTURAL MOLDINGS
ARE AN EASY WAY

TO GET A LOT OF DECORATIVE BANG
FOR YOUR BUCK.

BY ADDING A CROWN MOLDING
ALONG THE CEILING,

BASEBOARD MOLDING, CASINGS,

AND MAYBE EVEN
A CHAIR-RAIL MOLDING,

YOU CAN TAKE A ROOM FROM DRAB
TO DAZZLING

WITHOUT BREAKING THE BANK.

DECORATIVE MOLDINGS
CAN BE MADE OF SOLID WOOD,

MEDIUM-DENSITY FIBERBOARD,
OR FINGER-JOINTED PINE.

THESE PLANKS OF EASTERN
WHITE PINE ARE ON THEIR WAY

TO BECOMING
FINGER-JOINTED MOLDING.

THEY'VE JUST
COME OUT OF THE KILN.

A HYGROMETER MEASURES
THE HUMIDITY IN EACH PLANK

TO ENSURE THE WOOD
IS DRY ENOUGH TO CUT CLEANLY.

A WORKER DIRECTS A LASER

TO READ THE DIMENSIONS
OF EACH AND EVERY PLANK.

THE LASER TRANSMITS
THAT INFORMATION TO A COMPUTER,

WHICH GUIDES A PLANE
FURTHER UP THE LINE

TO SHAVE THE PLANK
TO THE REQUIRED WIDTH

AND SQUARE IT.

THIS PROCESS TRANSFORMS
THE PLANK INTO A BLOCK.

THE BLOCKS NOW ENTER
A HIGH-TECH PIECE OF EQUIPMENT

THAT IDENTIFIES DEFECTS.

AS EACH BLOCK
ENTERS THE MACHINE,

A SCANNER RECORDS
ALL ITS FEATURES.

IT SENDS THAT INFORMATION
TO A COMPUTER

WHICH CALCULATES A CUTTING PLAN.

GUIDED BY THE COMPUTER,

A SAW CHOPS OUT ANY KNOTS
OR POOR-QUALITY WOOD.

THE MACHINE'S KICKERS,
AS THEY'RE CALLED,

BOOT THE CUTOFFS
FROM THE CONVEYER.

THE BLOCKS CONTINUE ON,

RUNNING AGAINST
RAZOR-SHARP ROTATING HEADS

THAT CARVE FINGER JOINTS
ON THE ENDS.

THE NEXT STATION
COATS THE JOINTS

WITH INDUSTRIAL-STRENGTH
CARPENTER'S GLUE.

THE CONVEYER PICKS UP SPEED NOW

AND BUTTS THE BLOCKS TOGETHER
WITH HIGH PRESSURE.

THE JOINTS LOCK IN A TIGHT FIT.

WHEN THE GLUE DRIES, THE JOINTS
STRENGTHEN EVEN MORE.

THE JOINTED BLOCKS ARE CONNECTED
IN A CONTINUOUS UNIT.

A SAW NOW CUTS IT
INTO STANDARD MOLDING LENGTHS.

THESE LENGTHS ARE KNOWN
AS FINGER-JOINTED BLANKS

BECAUSE THEY HAVEN'T
BEEN SHAPED.

A SAW NOW CUTS
THE BLANKS LENGTHWISE

TO THE THICKNESS OF THE SPECIFIC
MOLDING THEY'RE PRODUCING.

THE FINAL STEP
IS TO PROFILE THE BLANKS.

A MACHINE CALLED A MOLDER
USES ROTATING STEEL KNIVES

TO CARVE THE WOOD
TO THE REQUIRED SHAPE.

THERE'S A DIFFERENT KNIFE
FOR EACH STYLE OF MOLDING.

THE MOLDER TRANSFORMS
THE BLANKS TO MOLDINGS

AT A RATE OF 100 FEET
PER MINUTE.

MOLDINGS MADE
OF FINGER-JOINTED PINE

OR MEDIUM-DENSITY FIBERBOARD

ARE THE LEAST EXPENSIVE
ON THE MARKET,

BUT YOU CAN'T STAIN THEM LIKE
MOLDINGS MADE OF SOLID WOOD.

THEY HAVE TO BE PAINTED.

Narrator:
A PULLEY IS A WHEEL

WITH A GROOVED OR BARRELED RIM

IN WHICH YOU CAN RUN
A ROPE OR BELT.

IT'S A SIMPLE DEVICE
USED TO LIFT A LOAD

THAT'S HARD TO ACCESS
OR TOO HEAVY TO MOVE BY HAND.

PULLEYS
AND MULTIPLE-PULLEY SYSTEMS

ARE VITAL COMPONENTS
OF MANY TYPES OF MACHINES.

THESE PULLEYS ARE DESIGNED
FOR USE

IN SMALL- TO LARGE-SCALE
ELECTRIC MOTORS --

FOR EXAMPLE, FAN BELTS
IN THE AIR-CIRCULATION SYSTEMS

OF OFFICE BUILDINGS,
FACTORIES, AND MINES.

THE FACTORY MAKES ITS PULLEYS

FROM A 50/50 MIX
OF SCRAP IRON AND STEEL.

THE FURNACE HEATS THE METAL
TO 2,500 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT,

SLIGHTLY ABOVE
THE METAL'S MELTING POINT.

WORKERS ADJUST
THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

BY ADDING CARBON AND SILICON.

THE RIGHT RECIPE IS ESSENTIAL
FOR PRODUCING QUALITY METAL.

IN THE FURNACE,
THE METAL'S IMPURITIES,

CALLED SLAG,
RISE TO THE SURFACE.

WORKERS USE GIANT PADDLES
TO SKIM IT OFF.

ONCE THE LAB ANALYZES
AND APPROVES THE SAMPLE,

THEY TRANSFER
THE MOLTEN METAL BY LADLE

TO A 30-TON HOLDING FURNACE.

THIS FURNACE MAINTAINS THE METAL

AT A CONSTANT
2,500 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT,

THE REQUIRED TEMPERATURE
FOR A PROPER CASTING.

YOU CAN'T POUR METAL THIS HOT
INTO A METAL MOLD.

THE MOLD WOULD JUST MELT.

SO INSTEAD,
THE FACTORY USES DAMP SAND.

SAND WITHSTANDS INTENSE HEAT
BY ABSORBING IT.

THE MACHINE FORMS THE MOLDS

MUCH THE WAY YOU'D USE
A PAIL TO FORM A SAND CASTLE.

IT FIRST CONSTRUCTS
THE BOTTOM HALF OF THE MOLD.

THIS FILTER WILL SCREEN OUT
ANY SLAG PARTICLES

THE MOLTEN METAL
MAY STILL CONTAIN.

AND THESE CORES CREATE EMPTY
SPACES WITHIN A PART.

NOW THE MACHINE FORMS
THE TOP HALF OF THE MOLD.

THEY SLIP
A WEIGHTED METAL JACKET

AROUND THE FINISHED SAND MOLD.

THIS KEEPS IT FROM COLLAPSING
UNDER THE WEIGHT OF THE METAL.

WORKERS FILL THE MOLDS
RIGHT TO THE TOP.

IT TAKES FROM 30 TO 45 MINUTES

FOR THE MOLTEN METAL
TO SOLIDIFY.

THEY REMOVE
THE WEIGHTED METAL JACKET...

...THEN DUMP THE MOLD
INTO WHAT'S CALL THE SHAKEOUT.

THE VIBRATION BREAKS
THE SAND MOLD APART,

RELEASING THE METAL PULLEYS.

WHILE THE PULLEYS GO OFF
TO BE CLEANED,

THE SAND IS RECYCLED
INTO NEW MOLDS.

THE PULLEYS ARE IN ROUGH FORM.

THEY STILL HAVE TO BE MACHINED
TO SPECIFICATIONS.

A ROBOT PLACES EACH ONE
UNDER A COMPUTERIZED CAMERA.

A VISUAL-RECOGNITION PROGRAM
GUIDES THE ROBOT

TO POSITION THE PULLEY PROPERLY

INTO VARIOUS
AUTOMATED-TOOLING MACHINES.

THIS FIRST MACHINE
MAKES THE PULLEY'S GROOVES.

THE NEXT MACHINE
WILL DRILL HOLES IN THE HUB

FOR INSTALLING THE SCREWS.

AT THE END
OF THE MACHINING PROCESS,

A GAUGING SYSTEM
TAKES PRECISE MEASUREMENTS

AND GUIDES THE EQUIPMENT
TO CORRECT ANY ERRORS.

THIS IS A TWO-PART PULLEY,
KNOWN AS A VARIABLE PULLEY,

BECAUSE IT CAN RUN A BELT
AT VARIABLE SPEEDS.

THIS TOOLING MACHINE

PERFORMS SEVERAL OPERATIONS
ON THE MALE COMPONENT.

IT MACHINES THE FACE AND OUTSIDE
DIAMETER ON ONE SIDE,

THEN FLIPS THE PULLEY OVER
TO MAKE THE BORE AND THREADS

ON THE OTHER SIDE.

THE LAST OPERATION DRILLS HOLES
FOR TWO SCREWS

THAT WILL AFFIX THE PULLEY TO
THE SHAFT OF THE ELECTRIC MOTOR.

A TOUCH OF LUBRICANT,

AND THE NEXT MACHINE ASSEMBLES
THE MALE AND FEMALE PARTS.

AFTER SETTING THE PROPER SPEED,

THE USER LOCKS THE PARTS
IN POSITION WITH A SCREW.

Narrator:
MANY INDUSTRIES USE RUBBER HOSE

IN THEIR DAY-TO-DAY OPERATIONS.

THEY USE IT TO REMOVE WATER,
CLEAR OUT WASTE,

OR SUPPLY CERTAIN MACHINES

WITH AIR, WATER,
OR RAW MATERIALS.

FOR INSTANCE, FOOD PRODUCERS
MIGHT FEED INGREDIENTS

THROUGH A RUBBER HOSE
INTO A MIXER.

THIS COMPANY MAKES LOW-PRESSURE

AND MEDIUM-PRESSURE
RUBBER HOSES.

THE INTENDED USE

IS WHAT DETERMINES
THE RUBBER COMPOSITION.

FUNCTION ALSO DETERMINES
THE COLOR,

BECAUSE INDUSTRIAL HOSES
ARE OFTEN COLOR-CODED.

THE RUBBER ARRIVES
AT THE FACTORY

FROM THE SUPPLIER
IN ROUGH STRIPS.

THE FIRST STEP IS
TO RUN IT THROUGH A MILL.

THE ROLLERS HEAT THE RUBBER,

SOFTENING AND SMOOTHING IT
TO AN EVEN TEXTURE.

THE NEXT MACHINE CUTS
THE RUBBER IN STRIPS

TO THE PRECISE WIDTH
AND THICKNESS

REQUIRED FOR THE SIZE OF HOSE
THEY'RE GOING TO CONSTRUCT.

WORKERS LUBRICATE
A STEEL MANDREL

THAT'S THE EXACT SIZE
OF THE HOSE'S BORE.

AS THE MANDREL SPINS, THEY WRAP
A RUBBER STRIP AROUND IT,

MEASURING AND LAYERING TO BUILD
THE NECESSARY THICKNESS.

NEXT, THEY ADD ONE OR MORE
REINFORCEMENT LAYERS.

THIS STRIP IS MADE OF
A HIGH-STRENGTH SYNTHETIC FABRIC

THAT'S BEEN COATED IN RUBBER.

IT'S DESIGNED
TO WITHSTAND THE PRESSURE

TO WHICH THE HOSE
WILL BE SUBJECTED.

THE LAST LAYER OF RUBBER FORMS
THE HOSE'S OUTSIDE COVERING.

AFTER VERIFYING THE FINAL
DIAMETER IS CORRECT,

THEY WRAP THE ENTIRE HOSE
CONSTRUCTION TIGHTLY

IN WET NYLON TAPE.

THE TAPE WILL LATER SHRINK

AND COMPRESS
ALL THE MATERIALS TOGETHER.

THIS FACTORY ALSO MAKES HOSES

WITH A BUILT-IN ATTACHMENT
ON THE END.

THEY POSITION IT ON THE MANDREL,

THEN GLUE THE FIRST LAYER
OF RUBBER TO IT.

THIS BOND IS REINFORCED
WITH SPECIAL TEXTILE STRIPS

AND TIGHTLY WOUND,

HIGH-STRENGTH,
CARBON-STEEL WIRE.

THEY CONTINUE THE WIRE

MORE LOOSELY DOWN THE BODY
OF THE HOSE

AT A SPECIFIC ANGLE DESIGNED
TO WITHSTAND VACUUM PRESSURE.

THEN THEY WRAP THE HOSE
IN A SOFT, STRETCHY RUBBER STRIP

THAT FILLS THE GAPS
BETWEEN THE WIRES.

NEXT COMES A LAYER

OF HIGH-STRENGTH,
RUBBER-COATED FABRIC,

THEN, FINALLY,
THE EXTERIOR COVERING --

LIGHT BLUE RUBBER
FOR THIS MODEL.

AGAIN, THE HOSE
IS PRESSURE-WRAPPED

WITH WET NYLON TAPE.

THEN, TO MAKE
THE HOSE MORE FLEXIBLE,

THEY CREATE CORRUGATIONS
BY WRAPPING IT TIGHTLY IN ROPE.

WHAT'S UNDER THE ROPE COMPACTS,
CREATING A DIP.

THEY ADD ANOTHER LAYER
OF NYLON TAPE

TO HOLD THE ROPE IN PLACE.

WHEN CONSTRUCTION IS FINISHED,
THE HOSES,

ON THEIR RESPECTIVE MANDRELS,
GO INTO AN AUTOCLAVE,

A CYLINDRICAL CHAMBER

INTO WHICH THEY FEED HOT STEAM
AT HIGH PRESSURE.

THIS VULCANIZATION PROCESS,
AS IT'S CALLED,

TRIGGERS A CHEMICAL REACTION

THAT CURES THE RUBBER,
MAKING IT ELASTIC.

ONCE THE HOSES COME OUT
AND COOL,

WORKERS REMOVE THE TAPE.

THE LAYERS
ARE SOLIDLY COMPRESSED.

THEY WASH THE NYLON TAPE,
THEN REWIND AND REUSE IT.

NOW WORKERS BEGIN THE PROCESS

OF REMOVING THE HOSE
FROM THE MANDREL.

THEY TIE ONE END WITH THE ROPE
TO CREATE PRESSURE,

THEN GENTLY PUMP WATER
BETWEEN THE MANDREL AND RUBBER.

THE LUBRICANT
THEY APPLIED EARLIER

HAS PREVENTED THE RUBBER
FROM STICKING TO THE STEEL,

SO THE HOSE SEPARATES EASILY.

THEY SIMPLY SLIDE IT
OFF THE MANDREL.

WORKERS WILL NOW TRIM THE ENDS,

CUT THE HOSE TO THE LENGTH
THE CUSTOMER ORDERED,

THEN COIL AND PACKAGE THE HOSE.

THIS FACTORY MAKES A WIDE RANGE
OF INDUSTRIAL RUBBER HOSE

IN DIFFERENT DIAMETERS,
DIFFERENT BORE SIZES,

AND VARYING DEGREES
OF FLEXIBILITY.

SOME HOSES HAVE
SPECIALTY FEATURES,

SUCH AS HEAT-RESISTANT FABRICS

INCORPORATED
RIGHT INTO THE RUBBER LAYERS.

Narrator: IN 1860,
AN ENGLISHMAN INVENTED LINOLEUM,

A REVOLUTIONARY FLOOR COVERING

MADE OF LINSEED OIL, PIGMENTS,
PINE ROSIN, AND PINE FLOWER.

A CENTURY LATER IN THE 1960s,
VINYL FLOORING WAS INTRODUCED

AND EVENTUALLY RENDERED
LINOLEUM FLOORING OBSOLETE.

VINYL FLOORING
OWES ITS EXISTENCE

TO A GERMAN CHEMIST
WHO, IN 1872,

INVENTED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE,
OR PVC.

PVC WAS CONSIDERED
A THOROUGHLY USELESS SUBSTANCE

UNTIL THE 1920s,

WHEN AN AMERICAN RESEARCHER
TRIED TO MAKE IT USEFUL

BY TURNING IT INTO AN ADHESIVE.

HE DIDN'T SUCCEED,
BUT, IN THE PROCESS,

HE ACCIDENTLY DISCOVERED
THAT HEATING PVC IN A SOLVENT

TRANSFORMED IT
INTO A FLEXIBLE PLASTIC,

WHAT WE KNOW TODAY AS VINYL.

SHEET-VINYL FLOORING COMES
IN A WIDE RANGE OF DESIGNS,

SOME OF WHICH SIMULATE CERAMIC
TILES OR HARDWOOD FLOORING.

AS WE SEE HERE
UNDER A MICROSCOPE,

VINYL FLOORING IS COMPRISED
OF THREE COMPONENTS --

A FELT-PAPER BACKING
ON THE BOTTOM,

A LAYER OF VINYL FOAM
IN THE MIDDLE,

ON WHICH THEY PRINT THE DESIGN,

AND A PROTECTIVE LAYER
OF TRANSPARENT VINYL ON TOP.

TO CREATE TEXTURE, THE FACTORY
APPLIES AN INHIBITOR

TO PREVENT THE FOAM
FROM EXPANDING IN SELECT AREAS.

TO MAKE THAT VINYL FOAM,

THEY FIRST MIX
THE POWDERED INGREDIENTS --

POLYVINYL CHLORIDE RESINS,
OR PVC, WHITE PIGMENT,

AND CALCIUM CARBONATE,
WHICH ACTS AS A FILLER,

BUT ALSO HELPS COLOR
THE MIXTURE WHITE.

IN A SEPARATE MIXER,
THE LIQUID INGREDIENTS --

PLASTICIZER TO MAKE
THE VINYL FLEXIBLE,

FUNGICIDE TO PREVENT
MOLD GROWTH,

U.V. STABILIZERS
TO PREVENT FADING,

AND A BLOWING AGENT,
WHICH THEY LATER ACTIVATE

TO INFLATE THE FOAM.

THEY COMBINE THE LIQUID
AND POWDERS

AND MIX FOR ANOTHER 15 MINUTES.

AFTER FILTERING THE MIXTURE

TO REMOVE ANY LUMPS
OR PAPER-BAG FRAGMENTS,

THE LIQUID FOAM GOES
TO THE PRODUCTION LINE.

THERE, A LARGE COATER
APPLIES AN EVEN LAYER

TO A CONTINUOUS SHEET
OF FELT-PAPER BACKING.

THE COATED BACKING
THEN PASSES THROUGH AN OVEN

FOR ABOUT 15 SECONDS.

THE HEAT --
430 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT --

SOLIDIFIES THE LIQUID FOAM,

FUSING THE PVC
TO THE BACKING.

AT THIS POINT, IT'S CRITICAL NOT
TO ACTIVATE THE BLOWING AGENT.

THE FLOOR'S DESIGN

WILL BE PRINTED DIRECTLY
ON THIS FOAM SURFACE.

A GRAPHIC DESIGNER CREATES
THE ARTWORK BY COMPUTER.

THEN A COLORIST EXPERIMENTS WITH
DOZENS OF COLOR COMBINATIONS

BEFORE DECIDING
ON WHICH ONES TO USE.

THE COMPUTER BREAKS DOWN
THE FINAL DESIGN BY COLOR

IN ORDER TO PRODUCE
AN ENGRAVED PLATE FOR EACH ONE.

THEY TEST OUT THE DESIGN
ON A PIECE OF FOAM,

PRINTING ONE COLOR AFTER ANOTHER
UNTIL THE DESIGN IS COMPLETE.

ON THE PRODUCTION LINE,
PRINTING WORKS THE SAME WAY.

BUT BECAUSE
IT'S A CONTINUOUS PROCESS,

THEY USE ROTATING CYLINDERS
RATHER THAN ENGRAVED PLATES.

THE FLOORING JUST ROLLS
RIGHT THROUGH THEM,

RECEIVING UP TO SIX INK COLORS
ONE AT A TIME.

A DRIER DRIES THE INK
IN BETWEEN APPLICATIONS.

NOW IT'S TIME TO APPLY
THE FLOOR'S TOP LAYER.

THIS COAT OF VINYL IS KNOWN
AS THE WEAR LAYER

BECAUSE IT WILL BE SUBJECTED
TO THE WEAR AND TEAR OF WALKING.

THE WEAR LAYER
PROTECTS THE DESIGN

PRINTED ON
THE VINYL FOAM UNDERNEATH.

MADE OF PVC RESINS
AND PLASTICIZER,

IT GOES ON WHITE
BUT TURNS TRANSPARENT

WHEN FUSED IN THE OVEN
AT 430 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

AT THE SAME TIME,
THE HEAT OF THE OVEN

ACTIVATES THE BLOWING AGENT
IN THE VINYL FOAM UNDERNEATH,

EXPANDING IT.

TO CREATE A TEXTURE,

THEY USE A PROCESS CALLED
CHEMICAL EMBOSSING,

IN WHICH SELECT INK COLORS
CONTAIN A CHEMICAL INHIBITOR

TO SUPPRESS FOAM EXPANSION.

WHEREVER THEY PRINT THOSE
COLORS, THE FOAM REMAINS FLAT.

THESE HEIGHT VARIATIONS
CREATE RELIEF

AND SIMULATE GROUT LINES
IN IMITATION-TILE DESIGNS.

TO GIVE THE SURFACE A SHARPER,
MORE NATURAL LOOK,

THE FLOORING PROCEEDS

TO A SECOND PROCESS
CALLED MECHANICAL EMBOSSING,

IN WHICH AN ENGRAVED ROLLER

IMPRINTS ITS PATTERN
ONTO THE SURFACE.

THE GLOSS LEVEL OF THE FLOORING

VARIES WITH THE CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION OF THE WEAR LAYER.

WORKERS INSPECT
THE FINISHED FLOORING

AS IT ROLLS OFF
THE PRODUCTION LINE.

IT'S 12 FEET WIDE,

WIDE ENOUGH FOR SEAMLESS
INSTALLATION IN MOST ROOMS.

THE PACKAGING
IS ENTIRELY AUTOMATED.

THIS EQUIPMENT WINDS 100 FEET

OF SHEET-VINYL FLOORING
PER ROLL.

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