How It's Made (2001–…): Season 2, Episode 6 - Diamond Cutting/Wood Doors/Paintballs/Newspapers - full transcript

Find out how wooden doors are fashioned, paintballs are produced, newspapers turned out and diamonds are cut.


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

...DIAMOND CUTTING...

WOOD DOORS...

PAINTBALLS...

AND NEWSPAPERS.

DIAMONDS ARE RARE CRYSTALS
COMPOSED MOSTLY OF CARBON.

THEY'RE THE HARDEST
NATURAL SUBSTANCE ON EARTH.

A SUPERB CUT MANIPULATES LIGHT

TO MAXIMIZE
A STONE'S BRILLIANCE.

THAT ENHANCES THE DIAMOND'S
BEAUTY AND INCREASES ITS VALUE.

DIAMONDS COME
IN A VARIETY OF COLORS,

THE MOST COMMON OF WHICH
FOR JEWELRY IS WHITE.

THEY BEGIN
AS A LARGER, ROUGH STONE.

THE GOAL IS TO CUT AS BIG
A DIAMOND AS POSSIBLE FROM IT

WHILE CUTTING AWAY
ANY IMPERFECTIONS

THAT LESSEN THE VALUE.

TO DO THIS PRECISION WORK,
MASTER DIAMOND CUTTERS

USE A MAGNIFYING GLASS THAT
ENLARGES THE STONE 10 TIMES.

THEY CAREFULLY EXAMINE AND
RE-EXAMINE THE ROUGH DIAMOND,

TRYING TO DETERMINE THE BEST WAY
TO DIVIDE THE STONE.

THEY MUST SAW THE DIAMOND
IN THE DIRECTION OF ITS GRAIN,

THEN, USING HOT GLUE,

SECURE THE ROUGH DIAMOND
INTO A HOLDER

POSITIONED OVER THE SAW.

THE SAW HAS
A VERY FINE BRONZE BLADE,

BUT IT CAN'T CUT
THROUGH THE DIAMOND ON ITS OWN.

ONLY DIAMOND CAN CUT DIAMOND,

SO THEY COAT THE BLADE IN A
MIXTURE OF DIAMOND DUST AND OIL.

SAWING AN AVERAGE-SIZE
ROUGH DIAMOND IN TWO

CAN TAKE UP TO FOUR HOURS.

THE SECOND STAGE OF DIAMOND
CUTTING IS CALLED POLISHING.

IT'S THE PROCESS
OF FORMING THE DIAMOND.

A SPECIAL MACHINE
FIRST TAILORS THE BASIC SHAPE.

THEN THE DIAMOND CUTTER
PUTS GLUE IN A MOUNTING TOOL

CALLED A DOP.

THIS WILL HOLD THE DIAMOND
FIRMLY IN PLACE.

HE PRESSES THE DIAMOND AGAINST
A SPINNING CAST-IRON WHEEL

COATED WITH A MIXTURE
OF DIAMOND DUST AND OIL.

FIRST, HE REMOVES ANY MARKS
THAT WERE LEFT BY THE SAW.

THEN, TO GIVE THE STONE
ITS BRILLIANCE,

HE FORMS FACETS --

A PARTICULAR PATTERN OF TINY,
FLAT SIDES OF VARIOUS SHAPES.

THE FACETS ARE DESIGNED
TO REFLECT LIGHT OFF EACH OTHER.

EACH ONE MUST BE EXACTLY
THE RIGHT SIZE AND SHAPE AND CUT

AT PRECISELY THE RIGHT ANGLE
IN RELATION TO THE OTHER FACETS

TO CREATE MAXIMUM BRILLIANCE.

HERE HE STARTS
WITH THE TABLE FACET,

WHICH IS THE FLAT TOP
OF THE DIAMOND.

HOW HE PROCEEDS

DEPENDS ON THE SIZE
AND CONDITION OF THE STONE.

THEN COME THE PAVILIONS --

THE ANGLED FACETS
THAT END IN A POINT

AT THE BOTTOM OF THE DIAMOND.

IF THEY'RE CUT
TOO DEEP OR TOO SHALLOW,

LIGHT WILL LEAK OUT THE BOTTOM,

MAKING THE DIAMOND DARK
IN THE CENTER AND DULL OVERALL.

THE IDEAL SLOPE
IS APPROXIMATELY 42 DEGREES.

THE DIAMOND CUTTER
USES SPECIALIZED TOOLS

TO MEASURE THE ANGLE.

NEXT, THE DIAMOND CUTTER
FASHIONS CROWN FACETS --

THE ONES CIRCLING THE DIAMOND
DIRECTLY UNDER THE TABLE.

USING ANOTHER TYPE OF DOP,

THE DIAMOND CUTTER FASHIONS
WHAT'S CALLED THE GIRDLE --

THE FACETED RIM
THAT SEPARATES THE CROWN FACETS

AROUND THE TOP HALF
OF THE DIAMOND

AND THE PAVILION FACETS BELOW.

DIAMONDS ARE WEIGHED USING
A MEASUREMENT CALLED KARATS.

ONE KARAT WEIGHS 0.007 OUNCES.

POLISHING A ONE-KARAT DIAMOND
CAN TAKE THREE OR FOUR HOURS.

WHEN IT'S DONE, THEY BOIL IT
IN ACID TO REMOVE ANY DEBRIS.

THIS FINISHED DIAMOND
HAS 58 FACETS.

IT'S CALLED A BRILLIANT CUT.

IT'S BY FAR
THE MOST COMMON STYLE OF CUT,

DATING BACK TO THE 1600s.

THE QUALITY OF THE CUT

IS A KEY FACTOR
IN GRADING DIAMONDS.

EXPERTS ALSO RATE
WHAT'S CALLED THE CLARITY --

THE DEGREE OF IMPERFECTIONS
IN THE STONE.

THEN THERE'S COLOR.

THE FINEST WHITE DIAMONDS
ARE COMPLETELY COLORLESS,

AND THE RAREST COLORS
ARE THE MOST VALUABLE.

Narrator: COMING SOON
TO A SUPERMARKET NEAR YOU --

FOOD THAT TELLS YOU
WHEN IT'S GONE BAD.

RESEARCHERS ARE DEVELOPING
ELECTRONIC DEVICES

THAT MONITOR FOOD FRESHNESS

AND DETECT POTENTIALLY
FATAL BACTERIA LIKE E. COLI.

THESE DEVICES ON THE PACKAGING

WOULD GIVE OFF A SIGNAL
WHEN THE FOOD INSIDE SPOILS.

WE OPEN AND CLOSE THEM
SEVERAL TIMES A DAY,

DAY IN AND DAY OUT

AND SELDOM GIVE THEM
A SECOND THOUGHT,

BUT IMAGINE YOUR HOME
WITHOUT DOORS.

FOR ONE THING, YOU'D
HAVE ABSOLUTELY NO PRIVACY.

AND WHAT WOULD YOU SLAM
WHEN YOU GET ANGRY?

THE FIRST FACTORY MAKES
THE DOOR'S PLYWOOD FACING.

THEY START BY LOADING LOGS INTO
STEAMING BASINS FOR THREE DAYS.

THIS DEICES THEM IN THE WINTER
AND SOFTENS THE WOOD FIBER.

INSIDE THE FACTORY, THE STEAMED
LOGS LINE UP FOR THE DEBARKER --

A MACHINE THAT REMOVES THE BARK.

THE OPERATOR
PROJECTS CONCENTRIC CIRCLES

AND USES A LASER TO CAREFULLY
CENTER THE LOG ON THE DEBARKER.

POSITIONING IS CRUCIAL
FOR TWO REASONS --

SO THAT AS LITTLE WOOD
AS POSSIBLE

COMES OFF WITH THE BARK

AND TO ENSURE THE DEBARKED LOG
ENDS UP PERFECTLY CYLINDRICAL.

THAT MAXIMIZES THE AMOUNT
OF WOOD VENEER A LOG WILL YIELD.

THE NEXT STEP
IS CALLED ROTARY CUTTING.

AS THE LOG SPINS, A LATHE
SKIMS OFF A SHEET OF WOOD VENEER

JUST 2/100 OF AN INCH THICK.

THE AVERAGE LOG YIELDS
440 LINEAR FEET OF VENEER.

NEXT, THEY UNROLL THE VENEER
AND CUT IT INTO SHEETS.

THEN THEY STACK THE SHEETS
BY IDENTICAL GRAIN PATTERNS.

USING A LASER
TO POSITION THE BLADE,

THEY CUT THROUGH THE STACK
TO TAKE OUT VISUAL DEFECTS.

THEN THEY GLUE
THE PIECES TOGETHER.

TO MAKE VENEER SHEETS

FOR THE FRONT
OF THE PLYWOOD FACING,

THE SIDE THAT WILL SHOW,

THEY LINE UP THE WOOD'S GRAIN

AND OTHER FEATURES
IN MIRROR IMAGE.

FOR THE BACK,
THE SIDE THAT WON'T SHOW,

THEY ASSEMBLE THE DEFECTIVE
PARTS THEY CUT OUT EARLIER.

THEY USE THREE VENEER SHEETS TO
MAKE UP THE PLYWOOD DOOR FACING.

THEY APPLY GLUE
TO BOTH SIDES OF ONE SHEET,

THEN SANDWICH IT
BETWEEN TWO OTHER SHEETS.

THEY FEED THE THREE SHEETS
THROUGH A HOT PRESS

AT MORE THAN
212 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

IN A MINUTE AND A HALF,
THE GLUE CURES,

AND THOSE THREE SHEETS OF VENEER
BECOME A 3-PLY PANEL OF PLYWOOD.

THEN THEY SAND THE PANEL.

PLYWOOD DOOR FACINGS
CAN BE MADE

FROM MORE THAN
15 DIFFERENT SPECIES OF WOOD

FROM BIRCH AND OAK
TO MAPLE AND MAHOGANY.

AT THE SECOND FACTORY,
THEY MAKE THE CORE OF THE DOOR.

THEY GLUE TOGETHER STRIPS
OF WOOD TO FORM THE MIDDLE,

THEN FRAME THEM
WITH PIECES OF WHITE PINE.

A PRESS PUSHES
THE CORE PIECES TOGETHER,

THEN ACTIVATES THE GLUE,

NOT BY HEAT AS MOST PRESSES DO,
BUT BY MICROWAVES.

NEXT, THEY SAND
AND CALIBRATE THE CORE.

AFTER THE GLUE MACHINE
COATS THE CORE,

THEY STICK A PLYWOOD DOOR FACING
ON EACH SIDE.

THEY STACK A FEW DOORS
AT A TIME INTO A COLD PRESS

FOR A HALF-HOUR.
UNTIL THE GLUE DRIES,

THEN SET THEM ASIDE
WHILE THE GLUE CURES

FOR ANOTHER EIGHT HOURS.

NEXT, THEY SIZE THE WIDTH AND
LENGTH TO THE FINAL DIMENSION,

BEVEL THE EDGES,

AND CUT
THE EXACT HEIGHT OF THE DOOR.

THEN THEY INSPECT THE DOOR
ON BOTH SIDES.

A MACHINE PREPARES
THE DOOR FOR HINGES.

THEN ANOTHER MACHINE
CUTS THE HOLE FOR THE KNOB.

THE FINISHING PROCESS
TAKES JUST 70 SECONDS PER DOOR.

ONE SIDE IS SANDED,
STAINED, AND SEALED,

THEN SANDED AGAIN
AND VARNISHED.

THE MACHINE
THEN FLIPS THE DOOR OVER

AND DOES THE SAME THING
TO THE OTHER SIDE.

Narrator: THE GAME OF PAINTBALL

IS A CROSS
BETWEEN TAG, HIDE-AND-SEEK,

AND CAPTURE THE FLAG.

YOU TRY TO STEAL
THE OTHER TEAM'S FLAG

AND ELIMINATE YOUR OPPONENTS
WITH AN AIR GUN

THAT SHOOTS AN EXPLODING PAINT
CAPSULE CALLED A PAINTBALL.

PAINTBALLS ARE MADE ENTIRELY OF
NONTOXIC FOOD-GRADE INGREDIENTS.

TO MAKE THE HOLLOW SHELL,

THEY FIRST POUR WATER INTO
A GIANT, HEATED MIXING BOWL.

THEY ADD A SWEETENER
AND A SECRET COMBINATION

OF FOOD INGREDIENTS
THE COMPANY WON'T DIVULGE.

THEN, FINALLY,
THE KEY INGREDIENT

THAT GIVES THE SHELL
ITS SHAPE -- GELATIN --

THE KIND USED
TO MAKE GUMMY BEARS.

THEY MELT AND MIX EVERYTHING
FOR A HALF AN HOUR...

...THEN LINE IT UP
FOR WHAT THEY CALL THE DROP --

TRANSFERRING THE GEL
FROM THE MIXER

INTO A HEATED VAT
CALLED THE GEL TOTE.

THEY FILTER OUT ANY GLOBS
THAT DIDN'T MELT.

ONCE THE GEL IS SECURELY
IN THE TOTE,

THEY LOWER IN A GIANT BLENDER.

THEY POUR IN FOOD DYE
AND BLEND FOR ABOUT 20 MINUTES.

ELSEWHERE IN THE FACTORY,

THEY USE THE SAME METHOD TO DYE
WHAT'S CALLED THE FILL --

THE PAINT THAT GOES INSIDE
THE SHELL OF THE PAINTBALL.

IT'S MADE
OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL --

THE INERT LIQUID IN COUGH SYRUP.

THEY THICKEN IT WITH CRAYON WAX.

THE GEL AND FILL
MEET THEIR MAKER

IN WHAT'S KNOWN
AS THE FEED ROOM.

HERE, THE VATS OF GEL AND FILL

FEED A CAPSULATION MACHINE
ONE FLOOR BELOW.

THIS MACHINE IS THE SAME KIND

USED TO MAKE BATH BEADS
AND GELCAP MEDICINE.

FIRST, THE MACHINE SPREADS OUT
THE GEL ONTO A COOL DRUM.

THIS CREATES A CONTINUOUS
THIN SHEET OF GEL

CALLED A GEL RIBBON.

THIS COOLING CURES THE GELATIN

TO THE POINT
WHERE IT CAN NOW BE MOLDED

INTO THE HOLLOW SHELL
OF THE BALL.

THE MACHINE PRESSES
THE GEL RIBBON INTO A DYE

WITH HALF-CIRCLE POCKETS,

EACH FORMING
ONE HALF OF A BALL SHELL.

THE MACHINE DOES THE NEXT
THREE STEPS IN ONE SHOT.

IT ALIGNS THE TWO HALF SHELLS
TOGETHER TO FORM A HOLLOW BALL,

INJECTS THE FILL, THEN SEALS
THE TWO HALF SHELLS TOGETHER.

THESE NEWLY MINTED PAINTBALLS
ARE STILL QUITE SOFT, THOUGH.

IF THEY'RE NOT DRIED OUT,
THEY'LL LOSE THEIR SHAPE,

SO THEY FALL DOWN
ONTO A CONVEYOR...

...THEN ROLL
INTO A TUMBLE DRYER.

FROM HERE, THEY'LL GO ONTO
A BAKERY-STYLE RACK

UNTIL THEY DRY OUT COMPLETELY.

TO MAKE DUAL-COLORED PAINTBALLS,
THEY USE THE EXACT SAME PROCESS

BUT FEED
TWO COLORS OF GEL RIBBON

INTO THE CAPSULATION MACHINE --

ONE COLOR FOR EACH HALF
OF THE SHELL.

THE FINISHED PAINTBALLS

GO THROUGH
AN AUTOMATIC COUNTING MACHINE.

THIS ONE IS SET TO COUNT OUT
AND PACKAGE 200 BALLS AT A TIME.

MANUFACTURING
THIS MESSY AMMUNITION

IS A PAINSTAKING PROCESS,

BUT WELL WORTH THE EFFORT

TO THE MILLIONS WHO LOVE
THE GAME OF PAINTBALL.

INVENTED JUST 15 YEARS AGO,

IT'S CAUGHT ON IN MORE
THAN 40 COUNTRIES WORLDWIDE,

AND IT'S NOT JUST FOR KIDS.

MORE AND MORE COMPANIES
ARE BOOKING PAINTBALL OUTINGS

FOR THEIR EMPLOYEES
TO HELP BUILD TEAMWORK.

Narrator: THERE WAS A TIME
WHEN OUR ONLY SOURCE OF NEWS

WAS THE NEWSPAPER.

TODAY, THOUGH, NEWSPAPERS
HAVE TO COMPETE

WITH RADIO, TELEVISION,
AND THE INTERNET.

STILL, TO GET CONTEXT
AND ANALYSIS OF NEWS EVENTS,

MOST STILL TURN
TO THE NEWSPAPER.

IN MEDIEVAL TIMES, PEOPLE
GOT THE NEWS OF THE KINGDOM

FROM THE TOWN CRIER

AND FROM OFFICIAL NOTICES
POSTED IN PUBLIC PLACES.

BY THE LATE 1400s,

THE FIRST PRINTED NEWS PAMPHLETS
APPEARED IN GERMANY.

THE FIRST ENGLISH-LANGUAGE
NEWSPAPER

HIT THE STANDS
IN LONDON IN 1622.

BY THE 1800s,
NEW PRINTING TECHNOLOGY

BROUGHT THE PRICE
OF NEWSPAPERS DOWN.

THIS FINALLY MADE THEM
AFFORDABLE TO THE MASSES,

WHO WERE BECOMING MORE LITERATE.

THE NEWS EDITOR SELECTS
THE STORIES AND PHOTOGRAPHS.

THEY COME FROM THE NEWSPAPER'S
OWN REPORTERS AND PHOTOGRAPHERS

AND FROM WIRE SERVICES.

THE NEWS EDITOR ACCESSES THE
WIRE SERVICES VIA THE INTERNET.

LOCAL REPORTERS
FILE THEIR STORIES

TO THE NEWSROOM COMPUTER SYSTEM.

THE PHOTO LAB SCANS
THE PHOTOGRAPHERS' PICTURES

INTO THE SYSTEM AS WELL.

THAT PUTS EVERYTHING
AT THE NEWS EDITOR'S FINGERTIPS.

IT'S JUST A MATTER
OF MOVING THE VARIOUS ITEMS

INTO THE PAGE LAYOUT.

ONCE THE LAYOUT'S COMPLETE,

THEY GROUP THE PAGES IN SETS
OF FOUR CALLED FLATS.

THE MANAGER
CHECKS EACH FLAT FOR ERRORS,

PAYING SPECIAL ATTENTION
TO THE ADVERTISEMENTS,

THE NEWSPAPER'S
MAIN SOURCE OF REVENUE.

NEXT, THEY PREPARE THE
PRINTING PLATES FOR EACH PAGE.

A PLATE IS A PLASTIC-COATED
SHEET OF ALUMINUM,

JUST 1/100 OF AN INCH THICK.

IT GOES INTO THE CYLINDER
OF A MACHINE CALLED THE IMAGER.

THE IMAGER'S LASER BEAM
SCANS THE PLATE,

HARDENING THE PLASTIC COATING

WHEREVER THE COMPUTER TELLS IT
THERE WILL BE TEXT OR PICTURES.

THE COATING IN THE BLANK AREAS
THAT DON'T HARDEN

THEN WASHES AWAY IN A SERIES
OF CHEMICAL BATHS.

IT TAKES ABOUT A MINUTE
FOR A PLATE

TO PASS THROUGH
THOSE PROCESSING BASINS.

NEXT, A MACHINE
PUNCHES REGISTRATION MARKS

ON EACH SIDE OF THE PLATE.

THE PRESS OPERATORS WILL USE
THOSE MARKS AS A GUIDE

TO CORRECTLY POSITION THE PLATE
ON THE PRINTING PRESS.

AFTER THEY OIL
THE PRESS CYLINDER,

THEY ATTACH THE PLATES.

THERE'S ONE PLATE PER PAGE
PER COLOR

TO A MAXIMUM OF FOUR COLORS.

THE NEWSPRINT
COMES IN JUMBO ROLLS

WEIGHING
ABOUT 1,900 POUNDS APIECE.

WORKERS FEED SEVERAL ROLLS

INTO THE REELING MACHINE
UNDER THE PRINTING PRESS.

2-SIDED TAPE CONNECTS
ONE ROLL TO THE NEXT,

ENSURING A CONTINUOUS,
UNINTERRUPTED RUN.

THIS IS
A 4-COLOR PRINTING PROCESS.

THERE'S A STATION
FOR EACH COLOR OF INK.

THE PAPER PASSES THROUGH
EACH COLOR ONE AT A TIME

LIKE A CAR GOING THROUGH
AN AUTOMATIC CAR WASH.

THE PRINTING STARTS OUT SLOWLY,

BUT WITHIN A FEW SECONDS REVS UP
TO 25 MILES PER HOUR.

PRESS OPERATORS
ADJUST THE COLORS AS NEEDED.

EACH LINE OF THE PRESS
PRINTS A 4-PAGE FLAT.

THEN IT CUTS THE SHEET
IN HALF LENGTHWISE,

SEPARATING TWO AND TWO.

THEN IT CUTS
THE CONTINUOUS LENGTHS WIDTHWISE

INTO A 2-PAGE SPREAD.

MACHINES AUTOMATICALLY
ASSEMBLE THE PAGES IN ORDER,

THEN SEND THEM OFF
TO THE SHIPPING DEPARTMENT.

THE STACKER MAKES PILES
OF 50 COPIES FOR DELIVERY.

THEN WORKERS HAND-STUFF
THE INSERTS ONE BY ONE.

IF YOU HAVE ANY COMMENTS
ABOUT THE SHOW,

OR IF YOU'D LIKE TO SUGGEST
TOPICS FOR FUTURE SHOWS,

DROP US A LINE AT...