The Missing Evidence (2014): Season 1, Episode 4 - The Loch Ness Monster - full transcript

Tales of a monster haunting Loch Ness go back for nearly 1,500 years, but only in the last century did the legend truly take off. Since the 1930s, over 1,000 eye witnesses have used mysterious photographs, eerie videos and unexplained sonar readings to back up their accounts of seeing the beast. The evidence is always tantalising but never definitive. At St Andrews University, Dr Charles Paxton, an expert on large marine creatures, has now compiled a unique database of every sighting of the creature ever reported. His team hope through detailed analysis of this astonishing database to finally explain the truth behind the myth of the Loch Ness monster. The programme looks at how hopes of finding a surviving dinosaur were dashed by a hoax that fooled everyone. In a sophisticated laboratory, staff explain the science behind the sightings of multiple-humped monsters on Loch Ness. Elsewhere, fabled Nessie hunter Adrian Shine recounts his decades-long search for the elusive beast. Historian Albert Jack believes that the mystery was kick-started by the sight of bathing circus elephants, which could account for reports of humped bodies, dark wrinkled skin and eel-like trunks. This intriguing theory fails to account for all the sightings, however, and psychologist Chris French believes that he has the answer. Using Dr Paxton's unique database, French reveals that the peaks and troughs in sightings over the last century coincide perfectly with dramatic events in popular culture. The real source of the Loch Ness monster, he posits, lies in the complex interaction between media reports of hoaxes, natural phenomena and everyday animals and our own monstrous imaginations.

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Narrator: IN THE HEART
OF THE SCOTTISH HIGHLANDS

LIES THE MOST FAMOUS LAKE
ON EARTH.

LOCH NESS.

TALES OF A MONSTER HAVE HAUNTED
THESE DARK WATERS

FOR NEARLY 1,500 YEARS.

YET IN THE LAST CENTURY,
THE REPORTS HAVE INTENSIFIED

WITH OVER 1,000
RECORDED SIGHTINGS.

Man: MY GUT FEELING

IS THAT A VAST MAJORITY
OF WITNESSES ARE SINCERE.

Narrator: MYSTERIOUS OBJECTS
ARE CAUGHT ON CAMERA

ALONG WITH UNEXPLAINED
SONAR TARGETS.



Man: THIS THING IS CLEAR,
IT'S STARK, IT'S CHALLENGING.

THIS THING IS NOT A MISTAKE.

Narrator: BUT IS IT A MONSTER?

A CASE OF MISTAKEN IDENTITY?

OR SOMETHING ELSE?

NOW THE MOST DETAILED STUDY

OF EYEWITNESS REPORTS
EVER UNDERTAKEN

EXPOSES THE TRUTH BEHIND
THE LOCH NESS PHENOMENON.

Man: THAT PROVIDES THE KEY
TO FULLY UNDERSTANDING.

Narrator: THE COLD, FORBIDDING
WATERS OF LOCH NESS

HAVE BECOME A GLOBAL OBSESSION.

FOR CENTURIES,
PEOPLE HAVE CLAIMED

A MONSTROUS CREATURE
LURKS IN ITS DEPTHS.

KNOWN AS NESSIE, IT CONTINUES
TO DEFY FREEZING CONDITIONS



AND TREACHEROUS TERRAIN

TO ATTRACT SCIENTISTS
AND ENTHUSIASTS TO EXPLAIN IT.

Gordon Holmes: I'VE CERTAINLY
GOT THE NESSIE BUG,

I CAN'T DENY THAT.

Narrator: RETIRED ENGINEER
GORDON HOLMES

HAS SPENT THE PAST DECADE
SEARCHING FOR NESSIE.

FOR YEARS HE HAS SCANNED
THE WATERS BY DAY.

NOW, SUSPECTING THE CREATURE
MAY BE NOCTURNAL,

HE SEARCHES AT NIGHT.

Gordon: THERE'S NO REASON
WHY NESSIE SHOULD BE

AN OFFICE STAFF HOURS MONSTER,

BUT INSTEAD COULD BE, YOU KNOW,

A 10 O'CLOCK TO 6 O'CLOCK
IN THE MORNING MONSTER.

YOU KNOW, NOBODY KNOWS,

SO IT'S CERTAINLY WORTH
AN INVESTIGATION.

Narrator: GORDON SCANS THE LOCH,

HOPING TO CATCH A GLIMPSE
OF THE MONSTER AS IT SURFACES.

HE BELIEVES HE'S ALREADY SEEN
THE CREATURE

AS IT SURFACED BRIEFLY
ONE EVENING.

Gordon: I SAW SOMETHING
COMING TOWARDS ME

ABOUT 200 YARDS OUT.

IT LOOKED
INCREDIBLY AERODYNAMIC.

I STILL DON'T KNOW WHAT I SAW

ON THAT NIGHT
OF THE 26th OF MAY 2007.

Narrator: ONE LEGEND PLACES
THE FIRST SIGHTING

IN THE 6th CENTURY

WHEN SAINT COLUMBA,

WHO IS SAID TO HAVE INTRODUCED
CHRISTIANITY TO SCOTLAND,

SAVED A MAN
FROM A MONSTER'S JAWS.

IN THE CENTURIES THAT FOLLOWED,

REPORTS OF A LARGE, UNIDENTIFIED
CREATURE IN THE LOCH

HAVE POURED IN FROM WITNESSES
OF ALL WALKS OF LIFE.

Man: I'VE NEVER SEEN
ANYTHING LIKE IT IN MY LIFE.

Man: IT CAME UP
AND WENT DOWN AGAIN.

Man: NOW HALF A SECOND BEFORE

I WASN'T A BELIEVER
IN THE LOCH NESS MONSTER,

AND HALF A SECOND LATER I WAS.

Narrator: WHAT IS THE TRUTH

BEHIND THESE
EXTRAORDINARY CLAIMS?

DESPITE 80 YEARS
OF SEARCHING THE LOCH,

NO HARD EVIDENCE
HAS BEEN UNCOVERED.

NOW, THE QUEST FOR NESSIE

HAS TAKEN AN ENTIRELY DIFFERENT
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH--

LED BY STATISTICAL ECOLOGIST
DR. CHARLES PAXTON.

Charles Paxton: MY GUT FEELING

IS THAT THE VAST MAJORITY
OF WITNESSES ARE SINCERE.

MY JOB AS A SCIENTIST
IS TO TRY AND WORK OUT

WHAT THEY ACTUALLY DID SEE
AND WHAT THAT COULD REPRESENT.

Narrator: AS PART OF AN EPIC
THREE-YEAR INVESTIGATION,

PAXTON HAS ANALYZED THOUSANDS
OF EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS

IN THE HOPE OF FINDING
THE MISSING EVIDENCE

BEHIND THE LOCH NESS MYSTERY.

Paxton:
NO ONE HAS EVER CONSIDERED

LOOKING AT THE LOCH NESS MONSTER
PHENOMENA IN THIS WAY BEFORE,

AND SO THEREFORE IT OFFERS
A GREAT OPPORTUNITY

TO REALLY UNDERSTAND THE
UNDERLYING SIGNAL IN THE DATA.

Narrator: FOR THE FIRST TIME,
HIS UNIQUE ANALYSIS

WILL ENABLE EXPERTS
IN ALL FIELDS

TO SCIENTIFICALLY INTERPRET
THE EYEWITNESS EVIDENCE.

AS THE RESULTS COME IN,

A PATTERN IMMEDIATELY
LEAPS OUT OF THE DATA.

Paxton: HERE WE'VE GOT A GRAPH
OF WHEN PEOPLE SAID

THAT THEY ENCOUNTERED
THE LOCH NESS MONSTER.

AND WE CAN SEE
VERY FEW SIGHTINGS

COMING UP TO THE PERIOD
OF 1930, 1933,

AND THEN IN 1933 THE NUMBER OF
ENCOUNTERS MASSIVELY INCREASES.

Narrator: THE 1933 PEAK
COINCIDES WITH THE OPENING

OF THE A-82, A HIGHWAY ALONG
THE LOCH'S NORTHERN SHORE.

THE IMPROVED ROAD NOT ONLY MADE
LOCH NESS MORE ACCESSIBLE,

BUT TREE REMOVAL
FOR ITS CONSTRUCTION

LEFT AN UNOBSTRUCTED VIEW,

AND SIGHTINGS OF NESSIE
ROCKETED.

BUT WHAT WERE THEY SEEING?

Paxton: I'VE GOT MY OWN IDEAS
ABOUT WHAT THE DATA SAYS,

BUT I'D BE REALLY INTRIGUED
TO FIND OUT

WHAT EXPERTS LIKE ADRIAN SHINE,
HOW THEY INTERPRET THE DATA.

Narrator:
NATURALIST ADRIAN SHINE

HAS BEEN STUDYING LOCH NESS
FOR THE LAST 41 YEARS.

HE'S LED NUMEROUS
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

INTO ITS ZOOLOGICAL SECRETS.

Adrian Shine: THIS IS ARGUABLY
THE MOST FAMOUS LAKE

IN THE WORLD.

BUT IT ISN'T NECESSARILY
THE BEST UNDERSTOOD.

AND THEREIN, OF COURSE,
LIES THE MYSTERY.

Narrator:
TO UNDERSTAND THE MYSTERY,

SHINE BELIEVES FIRST YOU HAVE TO
UNDERSTAND THE LOCH ITSELF.

Shine: NOW, IT LIES WITHIN

THE GREAT GLEN FAULT LINE
OF SCOTLAND,

WHICH CUTS THE HIGHLANDS IN TWO.

YOU CAN SEE IT ON ANY MAP,

AND BECAUSE IT'S A FAULT LINE,

LOCH NESS HAS SOME
SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS.

IT'S LONG AND STRAIGHT
AND NARROW,

AND IT'S DEEP, IT'S VERY DEEP.

Narrator:
LOCH NESS HOLDS MORE WATER

THAN ALL THE LAKES
IN ENGLAND AND WALES COMBINED...

ENOUGH TO HOLD EVERY HUMAN BEING
ON EARTH THREE TIMES OVER.

Shine: SO THERE IS ROOM
FOR A FEW MYSTERIES,

AND THIS IS AFTER ALL
DRAGON COUNTRY.

LOOK AT THE SURROUNDING HILLS,
LOOK AT THE DARK WATER,

STAINED BY THE PEAT BOGS.

IT'S A HOSTILE PLACE.

IT'S A SORT OF A LOST WORLD.

Narrator: BUT COULD THE VAST,
BLACK DEPTHS OF LOCH NESS

HIDE A LARGE,
UNIDENTIFIED SPECIES?

LAKE MONSTERS HAVE ANCIENT ROOTS
IN HIGHLAND FOLKLORE.

FOR CENTURIES TALES
OF A WATER HORSE OR DEMON

WERE USED TO EXPLAIN DROWNINGS

OR TO KEEP CHILDREN
FROM THE WATER'S EDGE.

BUT PAXTON'S DATABASE REVEALS
AN EVENT AT LOCH NESS

IN JULY 1933

THAT TRANSFORMED THE LEGEND
INTO A MODERN PHENOMENON.

Shine: IT WAS THE EXPERIENCE
OF AN ENGLISH COUPLE

CALLED THE SPICERS

WHICH REALLY TURNED WATER HORSES
INTO SOMETHING PREHISTORIC.

Narrator: DRIVING HOME
ALONG THE EDGE OF THE LOCH,

GEORGE SPICER AND HIS WIFE
FIND THEIR WAY BLOCKED

BY SOMETHING TRULY INEXPLICABLE.

Shine: MR. SPICER SAW CROSSING
THE ROAD IN FRONT OF HIM

A LONG-NECKED CREATURE,

WHICH HE SAID RESEMBLED
A DINOSAUR.

Narrator: THE SPICERS' SIGHTING
MARKED A TURNING POINT.

THE WATER HORSE
OF ANCIENT FOLKLORE DIED

AND THE MODERN MYTH

OF A LONG-NECKED PREHISTORIC
MONSTER WAS BORN.

Newsreel announcer: LOCH NESS,

ON WHICH THE EYES
OF THE WORLD ARE FOCUSED,

THE REPUTED HAUNT
OF A PREHISTORIC MONSTER

OR MONSTERS

AND THE NEWLY FOUND ADVENTURE
GROUND OF MODERN GULLIVERS.

Narrator: BIG GAME HUNTERS
ARRIVED WITH HARPOON GUNS,

AND THE NESSIE FRENZY
MET NEW HEIGHTS

WHEN THE ENTERPRISING
CIRCUS OWNER BERTRAM MILLS

PUT UP A 20,000-POUND REWARD--

OVER A MILLION DOLLARS
IN TODAY'S MONEY--

IF ANYONE COULD CAPTURE
THE CREATURE.

THE HUNTERS WENT HOME
EMPTY-HANDED.

BUT IN APRIL 1934

A LONDON SURGEON CAPTURED
THE NEXT BEST THING...

THIS ICONIC IMAGE.

THE PUBLIC DEMANDED
AN EXPLANATION.

BUT NO LIVING AQUATIC SPECIES
FIT THE BILL.

IN FACT, ONLY ONE ANIMAL
IN EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY DID.

A 40-FOOT MARINE PREDATOR

WITH A NECK UP TO HALF
ITS BODY LENGTH.

A PLESIOSAUR.

Shine: THIS IS A REALLY SPLENDID
SPECIMEN OF A PLESIOSAUR,

AND IN MANY WAYS IT EPITOMIZES
PEOPLE'S IMAGE

OF THE LOCH NESS MONSTER.

Narrator: PLESIOSAURS NOT ONLY
FIT WITNESS DESCRIPTIONS

OF A LONG NECK,

BUT WERE COMMON IN THE WARM,
TROPICAL SEAS

SURROUNDING WHAT WOULD BECOME
SCOTLAND

BETWEEN 200
AND 66 MILLION YEARS AGO.

Shine: YOU SEE, THERE'S NOTHING
LIKE IT IN TODAY'S WORLD.

THIS, AS IT WAS DESCRIBED
BY AN EARLY PALEONTOLOGIST,

A SNAKE THREADED
THROUGH A TURTLE.

ABOVE EVERYTHING, IT ISN'T
SO MUCH THE HUMPED BACK--

IT'S ONLY GOT ONE HUMP,
AFTER ALL--

IT IS THIS LONG NECK,

WHICH WAS SEEN AS SINUOUS
AND FLEXIBLE

AND INDEED SEEN
AS THE DIAGNOSTIC FACTOR

IN THE SURGEON'S PHOTOGRAPH...

THE ONE THAT WOULD BE RECOGNIZED
THROUGHOUT THE WORLD

AS THE LOCH NESS MONSTER.

Narrator: WITH NEW DISCOVERIES
CHALLENGING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

IN THE EARLY 20th CENTURY,

THE IDEA OF LIVING PLESIOSAURS
SEEMED INCREASINGLY PLAUSIBLE.

IN 1922 AN EXPEDITION
IN SEARCH OF A PLESIOSAUR

WAS LAUNCHED IN PATAGONIA.

THE EXPEDITION FAILED--

BUT IN 1977 A GROUP
OF JAPANESE FISHERMEN HAULED UP

WHAT APPEARED TO BE
A 33-FOOT PLESIOSAUR CARCASS.

THE DIRECTOR OF THE TOKYO
NATIONAL SCIENCE MUSEUM

DESCRIBED THE CREATURE
AS A REPTILE,

AND A SCIENTIST AT YOKOHAMA
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CONCLUDED

PLESIOSAURS MUST STILL BE
LIVING OFF NEW ZEALAND.

HOWEVER, AFTER MONTHS
OF TESTING,

IT WAS FINALLY IDENTIFIED
THE FOLLOWING YEAR

AS DECOMPOSING SHARK,

PROBABLY A BASKING SHARK.

Shine: WE'RE FASCINATED WITH THE
IDEA OF PREHISTORIC CREATURES.

AND THEY ARE MORE PLAUSIBLE
IN LOST WORLDS,

INACCESSIBLE ENVIRONMENTS--

YETIS IN THE HIMALAYAN SNOWS,

SASQUATCHES
IN THE NORTH AMERICAN WOODS.

LOCH NESS IS A LOST WORLD
BECAUSE IT'S SO DEEP AND DARK.

Narrator: PLESIOSAURS WERE
THOUGHT TO HAVE DIED OUT

WITH THE DINOSAURS,

BUT IN THE LAST CENTURY,

ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCHERS HAVE BEEN
DEALT SEVERAL SURPRISES.

A SIX-FOOT COELACANTH,

PRESUMED EXTINCT
FOR THE LAST 65 MILLION YEARS,

WAS CAUGHT BY A FISHERMAN
IN 1938.

AND EVEN LARGE ANIMALS LIKE
THE 16-FOOT-LONG MEGAMOUTH SHARK

WERE COMPLETELY UNKNOWN
TO SCIENCE

BEFORE THEIR DISCOVERY
IN HAWAII IN 1976.

Shine: THERE ARE CREATURES

WHICH THE REPORTS ARE RECEIVED
WITH SKEPTICISM

AND TURN OUT TO BE REAL.

AND AN EXAMPLE WAS THE CREATURE

WITH AN ANTELOPE'S HEAD
AND THE BACKSIDE OF A ZEBRA,

AND IT TURNED OUT TO BE
AN OKAPI.

SO SOMETIMES THESE ANECDOTES,
AS SCIENCE WOULD SEE IT,

CAN BE SEEN TO HAVE
A REAL FOUNDATION.

Narrator: IT'S WORTH REMEMBERING

REPORTS OF GIANT SQUID
AND KANGAROOS

WERE BOTH INITIALLY DISMISSED
AS MYTHICAL

UNTIL HARD EVIDENCE LIKE
A SKELETON PROVED OTHERWISE.

IT IS BELIEVED

THAT THE 1.5 MILLION
KNOWN SPECIES OF ANIMALS

REPRESENT A FRACTION
OF THE TOTAL DIVERSITY,

ALTHOUGH MOST NEW DISCOVERIES
ARE INSECTS,

AND DISCOVERIES OF LARGE
CREATURES ARE VERY RARE.

A UNIQUE SURVEY
BY CHARLES PAXTON

SUGGESTS BIG UNKNOWN SPECIES
COULD STILL BE OUT THERE.

Paxton: MY FIRST INVESTIGATION

WAS AN INVESTIGATION
OF THE DISCOVERY RATES

OF GIANT MARINE ANIMALS
GREATER THAN SEVEN FOOT LONG.

AND AT FIRST WE DISCOVER ANIMALS
AT A VERY RAPID RATE.

AND AS TIME PROGRESSES, WE FIND
FEWER AND FEWER LARGE ANIMALS.

WHILST THE GRAPH
IS FLATTENING OFF,

IT HASN'T COMPLETELY
FLATTENED OFF,

INDICATING THERE COULD STILL
BE ANIMALS

AWAITING DISCOVERY BY SCIENCE.

Narrator:
PAXTON'S BRAND NEW ANALYSIS

SUGGESTS UP TO 10 CREATURES
LARGER THAN 7 FEET LONG

MAY STILL BE UNACCOUNTED FOR.

COULD A LOCH NESS PLESIOSAUR
BE ONE OF THEM?

THE SURGEON'S PHOTO
SEEMED TO SUGGEST SO.

THIS ICONIC IMAGE TAKEN IN 1934

WAS HAILED AS THE FIRST
HARD EVIDENCE

OF A PREHISTORIC PLESIOSAUR
IN LOCH NESS.

Shine:
THE SURGEON'S PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS

A LONG, UPRAISED, SWAN-LIKE
HEAD AND NECK,

AND THAT IS THE PICTURE
WHICH HAS ALWAYS ASSOCIATED

LOCH NESS MONSTERS
WITH PLESIOSAURS.

Narrator: BUT DESPITE APPEARING
THE PERFECT FIT FOR A PHOTOGRAPH

AND A REPORTED SIGHTING IN 1933

OF A CREATURE
WITH A LONG RAISED NECK,

A CLOSER LOOK
AT THE PLESIOSAUR'S ANATOMY

REVEALS A MAJOR PROBLEM.

Shine: THE REAL PROBLEM LIES
IN THESE NEURAL SPINES,

THE SPINOUS PROCESSES,
THE LUMPS ON TOP OF THE SPINE.

IF THE PLESIOSAUR
IS BENDING ITS HEAD DOWN,

AS IN THE CASE OF THIS SPECIMEN,

THERE'S NO PROBLEM--
THESE LUMPS MOVE APART.

BUT IF IT WERE TO ATTEMPT
TO RAISE ITS HEAD AND NECK,

THEY WOULD LOCK TOGETHER

AND PREVENT
ANY FURTHER MOVEMENT UP.

SO, THE DIAGNOSTIC FEATURE
OF THE SURGEON'S PICTURE

AND OF THE SIGHTINGS
OF UPRAISED HEAD AND NECKS

ARE PORTRAYING THE ONE THING
THAT A PLESIOSAUR COULD NOT DO.

Narrator: THE LOCH'S
FREEZING TEMPERATURES

AND MEAGER FISH STOCKS

SHED FURTHER DOUBT,

AND NO LARGE REPTILE
WOULD HAVE LIVED LONG

UNDER THE 100-METER-THICK
ICE SHEETS

THAT COVERED THE LOCH
DURING THE LAST ICE AGE.

SO WHAT HAD
THE SURGEON CAPTURED?

FORENSIC IMAGE EXPERT
MIKE HARTSHORNE

HAS BEEN TRYING TO FIND OUT.

Mike Hartshorne: I'D ONLY SEEN
THIS IMAGE UNTIL QUITE RECENTLY,

WHICH IS QUITE WELL CROPPED,

AND IF YOU LOOK AT THE LARGER
IMAGE WHERE IT CAME FROM,

THEN MY EYES CERTAINLY START
TO RING SOME ALARM BELLS.

IT DOES TEND TO SUGGEST
THIS IS A SMALLER OBJECT

THAT'S QUITE CLOSE TO THE CAMERA

RATHER THAN A LARGER OBJECT
THAT'S FURTHER AWAY.

Narrator: THE SURGEON,
DR. ROBERT WILSON,

CLAIMED TO HAVE TAKEN THE IMAGE

FROM A HEIGHT OF 4 FEET
AND A DISTANCE OF 1,200 FEET.

BUT THE RATIO
OF THE RIPPLE ELLIPSES

REVEALS THE CAMERA ANGLE
TO THE HORIZON IS 19 DEGREES.

IF WILSON REALLY WAS
ONLY 4 FEET ABOVE THE LOCH,

THE MONSTER COULDN'T HAVE BEEN
MORE THAN 12 FEET AWAY.

SOMETHING DOESN'T ADD UP.

ADRIAN SHINE'S BEEN DOING
SOME INVESTIGATING OF HIS OWN.

AND HE NOW KNOWS JUST HOW BIG

WILSON'S LOCH NESS MONSTER
REALLY WAS.

Shine: SO IT ISN'T
THAT DIFFICULT TO DEMONSTRATE

THAT THE SURGEON'S PHOTOGRAPH
CAN BE A VERY SMALL OBJECT

IF YOU DON'T HAVE CUES
TO DISTANCE.

Narrator: AFTER 60 YEARS
AS THE FACE OF NESSIE,

A MODEL MAKER
NAMED CHRISTIAN SPURLING

FINALLY ADMITTED
THE PHOTOGRAPH WAS A HOAX.

HE AND HIS STEPFATHER ATTACHED
A MODEL NECK TO A TOY SUBMARINE

AND PHOTOGRAPHED
IN ONLY A FEW FEET OF WATER

BEFORE GIVING THE PLATES
TO DR. WILSON TO DEVELOP.

Shine: HERE WE ARE,
THE SURGEON'S PHOTO MONSTER.

THAT'S ALL YOU NEED,

PROVIDED YOU CAN REMOVE
THE CUES TO SCALE.

Narrator: THE FRAUDULENT IMAGE

MAY HAVE PROMOTED
THE NESSIE MYTH,

BUT IT STILL FAILED TO EXPLAIN
WHAT WAS REALLY GOING ON.

PAXTON'S DATABASE REVEALS
THAT BY 1962

NEARLY 700 REPORTS
HAD BEEN MADE.

POLITICIAN DAVID JAMES CALLED
FOR SERIOUS INVESTIGATION

AND ESTABLISHED THE LOCH NESS
INVESTIGATION BUREAU.

SO BEGAN A DECADE
OF SCIENTIFIC SURVEILLANCE

WHERE TEAMS OF VOLUNTEERS
WATCHED THE LOCH WITH CAMERAS

AND COLLECTED DETAILED
STATEMENTS FROM WITNESSES.

THE INVESTIGATION BUREAU
FAILED TO FIND A MONSTER,

BUT 40 YEARS LATER

THEIR METICULOUSLY DETAILED
EYEWITNESS ARCHIVE

HAS PROVED INVALUABLE
TO CHARLES PAXTON.

Paxton:
THIS IS A TREMENDOUS RESOURCE

FOR ANYBODY WANTING TO STUDY
LOCH NESS MONSTER REPORTS.

THEY'RE FIRST-HAND ACCOUNTS,
YOU KNOW,

THE VERY BEST ACCOUNTS
THAT WE CAN HAVE.

THESE ARE THE ACTUAL WORDS
AND HANDWRITING OF THE WITNESS.

Narrator: THESE UNIQUE DOCUMENTS
ARE THE KEYSTONE

OF CHARLES PAXTON'S DATABASE

AND ENABLE HIM TO IDENTIFY
COMMON FEATURES DESCRIBED.

Paxton: BY FAR THE MOST COMMON
CATEGORY IS A SINGLE DARK HUMP,

OFTEN DESCRIBED AS BEING
LOOKING LIKE AN UPTURNED BOAT.

PROBABLY THE SECOND
MOST COMMON CATEGORY

IS SEEING MULTIPLE DARK HUMPS.

Narrator: ADRIAN SHINE BELIEVES

THE HUMPED MONSTERS
BEING DESCRIBED

HARK BACK TO A FAR MORE ANCIENT
MYTHICAL CREATURE THAN NESSIE.

Shine:
WE'RE TALKING ABOUT HUMPS,

AND INEVITABLY THAT
BRINGS ME TO THINKING

ABOUT THE SEA SERPENT FORM
OF LOCH NESS MONSTER,

WHICH IS A ROW OF MULTI HUMPS.

Narrator: THROUGHOUT
THE 18th AND 19th CENTURY

MARINERS RETURNED
WITH SIMILAR TALES

OF MULTI-HUMPED
SERPENT-LIKE MONSTERS

REACHING HUNDREDS OF FEET
IN LENGTH.

THE 30-FOOT OARFISH
IS THE ONLY KNOWN SPECIES

THAT COMES CLOSE
TO THEIR DESCRIPTIONS.

BUT EVEN THESE DEEP-SEA GIANTS

CAN'T UNDULATE THEIR BODY
HORIZONTALLY TO CREATE HUMPS.

SO WHAT WAS THE TRUTH

BEHIND THE SEA-SERPENT CLAIMS
ON LOCH NESS?

A CLOSER LOOK AT PAXTON'S
ANALYSIS HOLDS A VITAL CLUE.

LIKE THE SEA SERPENTS OF OLD,

MULTIPLE-HUMPED MONSTERS
ON LOCH NESS

ONLY TEND TO APPEAR
IN CALM WEATHER,

AND THERE IS
ONE OTHER PHENOMENON

THAT ALSO ONLY
BECOMES NOTICEABLE

ON THE SURFACE
IN STILL CONDITIONS.

DR. TOM DAVEY MANAGES
THE FLOWAVE TEST TANK

AT EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY.

HE KNOWS JUST HOW EXTRAORDINARY
WAVE INTERACTIONS CAN APPEAR.

Tom Davey: WAVES CAN COMBINE
TO PRODUCE QUITE COMPLEX SHAPES,

YOU CAN GET QUITE SURPRISING
SHAPES FORMING

EVEN IF THEY ONLY EXIST
FOR A BRIEF PERIOD OF TIME.

Narrator: FLOWAVE'S
$16 MILLION WAVE LAB

IS ONE OF THE MOST SOPHISTICATED
ON EARTH.

THE UNIQUE CIRCULAR SYSTEM
IS CAPABLE OF REPLICATING

ALMOST ANY WAVE ENVIRONMENT
AT 1/20 THE SCALE.

Davey: THIS FACILITY
HAS BEEN CONSTRUCTED

PRIMARILY TO LOOK AT BEHAVIORS
IN REAL OCEAN CONDITIONS.

TODAY WE'RE GOING TO DO
SOMETHING A BIT DIFFERENT

AND PERHAPS LOOK AT WHAT MAY
HAVE BEEN OBSERVED IN LOCH NESS.

Narrator: ONE OF THE FACTORS

CONTRIBUTING TO BIZARRE
WAVE FORMATIONS ON LOCH NESS

IS ITS PROFILE.

THE STEEP, ROCKY SIDES

ENCOURAGE WAVES TO BE REFLECTED
IN DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS.

Davey: WAVES FROM
MULTIPLE DIRECTIONS CAN COMBINE

TO PRODUCE
PARTICULARLY LARGE WAVES.

IN THE LAB WE CHOOSE
EXACTLY WHEN

WE'RE GOING TO GENERATE
THESE WAVES,

AND WE DETERMINE WHERE
THEY'RE GOING TO FOCUS.

IN NATURE YOU WOULDN'T GET
EXACTLY THE SHAPE YOU SEE HERE,

BUT THE SIMILAR PHYSICS APPLY.

Narrator: MERGING WAVES
FROM DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS

CAN RESULT
IN ASTONISHING FORMATIONS.

BUT EVEN COMBINING TWO WAVES

CAN GIVE RISE
TO STRANGE HUMPED SHAPES.

Davey: SO IF WE HAVE WAVES
FROM OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS

WE CAN BUILD UP A STANDING WAVE.

YOU HAVE A SEQUENCE OF HUMPS
WHICH APPEAR TO STAY STILL.

HERE WE HAVE TWO IDENTICAL WAVES
COMING AT EXACTLY 90 DEGREES,

AND WHERE THE CRESTS
ARE COMBINED

WE GET THESE HUMPS FORMING,

AND THE RELATIVE MOTION
OF THEM AS WELL

GOES FROM RIGHT TO LEFT,

YOU COULD GET THIS
OVER A SMALL AREA, FOR EXAMPLE,

IF YOU HAD TWO BOAT WAKES
COMBINING.

Narrator: FOR ADRIAN SHINE

THE HUMPED SHAPES CREATED
AT FLOWAVE

ARE ALL TOO SIMILAR TO
THE SEA SERPENT-SHAPED MONSTERS

DESCRIBED ON LOCH NESS.

Shine: MULTI-HUMP SEA SERPENTS
IN LOCH NESS ARE BOAT WAKES,

SIMPLE AS THAT.

THE BOAT WAKES HAVE BEEN THERE
SINCE 1820,

BUT ONLY AFTER THE IDEA
OF SEA SERPENTS IN LOCH NESS

WOULD THEY BE PERCEIVED
AS SEA SERPENTS.

Narrator:
THE MULTIPLE-HUMPED MONSTERS
FINALLY HAD AN IDENTITY.

BUT HUNDREDS OF OTHER MONSTER
DESCRIPTIONS REMAINED A MYSTERY.

Man: WE SAW THIS GREAT NECK
EMERGE FROM THE WATER.

Man: I SAW THE HEAD, THE NECK,
AND THE HUGE BODY,

WHICH I'D SAY WAS
ABOUT 30 FEET LONG.

Narrator: TO GET TO THE TRUTH,

INVESTIGATORS
WOULD HAVE TO VENTURE

BENEATH THE LOCH'S
DECEPTIVE SURFACE.

A DECADE OF SURVEILLANCE
ON LOCH NESS IN THE 1960s

FAILED TO FIND EVIDENCE
OF A MONSTER.

BUT EYEWITNESS REPORTS
OF A MYSTERIOUS CREATURE

CONTINUED UNABATED.

AS THE NEW DECADE DAWNED,

INVESTIGATORS TOOK
THE SCIENTIFIC QUEST FOR NESSIE

TO THE NEXT LEVEL...

AND HEADED UNDER WATER.

VETERAN LOCH NESS INVESTIGATOR
ADRIAN SHINE WAS AMONG THEM.

Shine: THAT'S WHERE
THE UNDERWATER CAMERAS CAME IN,

THE SUBMARINES CAME IN.

I CAN THINK OF ALL SORTS
OF WEIRD AND WONDERFUL THINGS

THAT WERE TRIED,
CAPTURE TECHNIQUES,

GREAT CAGES WERE BUILT,

BAITING OF DIFFERENT SORTS
WAS TRIED.

Narrator: ONE ENTHUSIAST
EVEN HIRED A PERFUMER

TO CONCOCT A SCENT
TO ATTRACT THE CREATURE.

Shine: JUST ABOUT ANYTHING
YOU COULD THINK OF

HAS ACTUALLY BEEN TRIED.

Narrator: FINALLY, IN 1972,
A MILESTONE MOMENT OCCURRED...

Man: WE FEEL SO STRONGLY

WITH REGARD TO THE REALITY
OF WHAT WE HAVE

TO WARN THE SCOTTISH AUTHORITIES
AND THE BRITISH AUTHORITIES

TO LOOK CAREFULLY INTO
THE MATTER OF CONSERVATION

AND PROTECTION
OF THE ENVIRONMENT,

SO THAT WE THINK IS

THE 10th WONDER OF THE WORLD,
IF YOU WILL.

Narrator:
AN EXPEDITION BY THE AMERICAN
ACADEMY OF APPLIED SCIENCES

CLAIMED TO HAVE CAPTURED IMAGES
OF A PLESIOSAUR-SHAPED CREATURE

USING A REMOTELY-CONTROLLED
UNDERWATER CAMERA.

THE EXTRAORDINARY PHOTOGRAPHS,
DESCRIBED AS A FLIPPER,

GARGOYLE'S HEAD
AND CLASSIC PLESIOSAUR,

WERE PRESENTED
TO HOUSE OF COMMONS

AND PUBLISHED
IN A SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL.

BUT FOR SOME THEY SEEMED
TOO GOOD TO BE TRUE.

Man: CAN DR. RHINES GIVE US
AN ABSOLUTE GUARANTEE

THAT THERE IS NO HOAXING
ABOUT THIS?

Man: ABSOLUTELY.

Shine: I COULDN'T BELIEVE

THAT A HOUSE OF COMMONS
PRESENTATION

HAD JUST TAKEN PLACE

ON THE BASIS OF PICTURES WHICH
WERE LUMPS OF MUD AND DEBRIS.

Narrator: ALTHOUGH THE FLIPPER,

ESTIMATED AT BEING
OVER 6 FEET LONG,

LOOKED NOTHING LIKE
A PLESIOSAUR'S FLIPPER,

THE TEAM NAMED THE RARE SPECIES
NESSITERAS RHOMBOPTERYX--

THE DIAMOND-FINNED MONSTER
OF NESS.

THE ORIGINAL PHOTOGRAPH
HAD BEEN ENHANCED

BY PHOTOGRAPHIC SPECIALISTS
TO REDUCE ITS GRAININESS.

BUT USING THE LATEST
IN MODERN TECHNOLOGY,

MIKE HARTSHORNE IS STRUGGLING
TO RECREATE THEIR RESULTS.

Mike: THERE'S
THE ORIGINAL IMAGE.

I DROPPED A LOT OF THE GREEN
IN ORDER TO GET SOME CONTRAST,

I THEN INCREASED
THE MID-RANGE GRAYS AND STUFF

TO TRY AND BRING OUT THE IMAGE
THAT YOU CAN SEE.

AND ONCE I'VE CROPPED
AND ROTATED IT

TO MATCH THEIR IMAGE,

THAT'S AS GOOD AS I COULD GET

USING THE BEST KIT
WE'VE GOT IN 2014.

Narrator: MIKE BELIEVES THERE IS
ONLY ONE WAY TO GET THIS FLIPPER

FROM THE ORIGINAL PHOTOGRAPH.

Mike: I'VE LITERALLY USED
A PAINTBRUSH TOOL

TO TRY AND MAKE IT LOOK
MORE LIKE THIS,

WHICH REALLY LEADS ME TO BELIEVE

THAT THEY MAYBE USED SOMETHING
MORE ARTY THAN ENHANCEMENT.

THERE IS A WELL-KNOWN QUESTION:

WHERE DOES ENHANCEMENT FINISH
AND DRAWING START?

Narrator:
FURTHER CONTROVERSY AROSE

WHEN A LONDON PAPER POINTED OUT

THAT THE NAME
NESSITERAS RHOMBOPTERYX

GIVEN BY SIR PETER SCOTT

WAS ALSO AN ANAGRAM FOR
"MONSTER HOAX BY SIR PETER S."

FINALLY, IN 1989,

THE MAN BEHIND
THE ORIGINAL ENHANCEMENT,

CHARLES WYCKOFF,
CONFESSED THAT THE EDGES

THAT MAKE THE IMAGE
SO UNMISTAKABLY A FLIPPER

WERE NEVER PART
OF HIS ORIGINAL ANALYSIS.

SOMEONE HAD DRAWN THEM ON

AFTER THE IMAGE WAS SUBMITTED
FOR PUBLICATION.

WHO WAS RESPONSIBLE
REMAINS A MYSTERY.

BUT PSYCHOLOGIST CHRIS FRENCH
BELIEVES

THAT RATHER THAN BEING A HOAX,
THE '70s PHOTOGRAPHS

HIGHLIGHT OUR SUSCEPTIBILITY
TO SEE WHAT WE WANT TO BELIEVE.

Chris French: ONCE YOU
SAY "LOCH NESS MONSTER,"

YEAH, YOU CAN KIND OF SEE
A MONSTER-TYPE SHAPE THERE--

THIS IS THE BODY WITH
A LONG NECK AND A HEAD HERE.

WELL, IN FACT
THERE'S A GAP THERE,

BUT WE AUTOMATICALLY FILL IN
THOSE GAPS--

THAT'S THE WAY THAT KIND
OF PERCEPTION WORKS.

BUT WITHOUT THE CONTEXT

IT'S NOT VERY STRONG EVIDENCE
AT ALL.

Narrator: TREE TRUNKS AND
CLOUDS OF SILT ON THE LOCH BED

ARE A MORE LIKELY SOURCE
FOR THE AMBIGUOUS IMAGES.

FURTHERMORE CHRIS BELIEVES
THE EYEWITNESS DATA

HOLDS THE KEY TO A FAR MORE
PERSONAL AND DEEP-ROOTED FLAW--

OUR MEMORY.

Chris: I STRONGLY SUSPECT
THAT THE VAST MAJORITY OF PEOPLE

WHO CLAIM THAT THEY HAVE SEEN
THE MONSTER

ARE 100% SINCERE
IN MAKING THAT CLAIM,

BUT JUST BEING HONEST

DOESN'T MAKE IT NECESSARILY
TRUE AND ACCURATE.

Narrator: EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY

IS THE STRONGEST EVIDENCE
FOR NESSIE,

BUT IT'S NOTORIOUSLY

ONE OF THE LEAST RELIABLE
FORMS OF EVIDENCE.

Chris: ONE STRIKING EXAMPLE

OF THE WAY THAT MEMORY
CAN FOOL PEOPLE

IS THE NUMBER OF NEW YORKERS

WHO CLAIM THAT THEY
DIRECTLY WITNESSED THE PLANES

SMASHING INTO THE TWIN TOWERS.

IT'S JUST UNFEASIBLY LARGE.

WHAT'S HAPPENED OF COURSE

IS THAT WE'RE ALL FAMILIAR
WITH THE, THE IMAGES

FROM THAT AWFUL DISASTER

THAT IF YOU ACTUALLY LIVE
IN NEW YORK,

IT WOULD APPEAR FEASIBLE

THAT MAYBE YOU DID ACTUALLY
DIRECTLY WITNESS IT.

Narrator: TO UNDERSTAND
IF FALSE MEMORY PLAYS A ROLE

IN THE LOCH NESS MYSTERY,

CHRIS AND HIS COLLEAGUE
FIONA GABBERT

ARE CONDUCTING AN EXPERIMENT.

Fiona Gabbert:
WE RAN A STUDY TODAY,

LOOKING AT THE SUGGESTIBILITY
OF MEMORY.

WE BROUGHT TWO PEOPLE IN

AND WE SHOWED THEM A MOCK
CRIME EVENT THAT WAS A ROBBERY.

Woman: GLORIA.
Fiona: GLORIA.

Woman: LUCY.
Fiona: AND LUCY.

Fiona: WHAT WE DIDN'T TELL
OUR REAL PARTICIPANTS

WAS THAT THE PERSON
THAT THEY WERE WORKING WITH

WAS IN FACT A STOOGE,

SHE WAS A CONFEDERATE CALLED
GLORIA, WHO WAS WORKING FOR ME.

Gloria: HI. GLORIA.
Man: HOW ARE YOU DOING? ROBERT.

Fiona: I SHOWED THEM THE VIDEO
OF THE ROBBERY,

AND THEY BOTH SAT NEXT
TO EACH OTHER AND ENCODED THAT.

[MAN SHOUTING]

THEN THEY DISCUSSED
THEIR MEMORIES TOGETHER

ABOUT WHAT THEY COULD
REMEMBER SEEING.

Man: THE OTHER ONE HAD
ONE OF THOSE MASKS

WITH THE HOLES,
EYE HOLES IN IT.

Gloria: YEAH, AND THE ONE
WITH THE HAT...

Narrator: AFTER A 5-MINUTE
DISCUSSION WITH GLORIA,

THE PARTICIPANT
IS ASKED TO RECALL

EXACTLY WHAT THEY
REMEMBER SEEING

AS ACCURATELY AS POSSIBLE.

Fiona: WERE THERE
ANY WEAPONS INVOLVED?

Lucy: UM, YEAH, THERE WAS A GUN.

Man: I THINK ONE OF THEM
HAD A GUN,

JUST LIKE A HANDGUN.

Man: AND THE SLIGHTLY TALLER,
SKINNY ONE

HAD A LEATHER JACKET ON.

Fiona: OK.

WHAT WAS THE EMPLOYEE DOING
THROUGHOUT THE WHOLE THING?

Man: LIKE STACKING SHELVES.

Narrator: BUT DESPITE
THE CONFIDENCE OF THEIR CLAIMS,

NONE OF THESE EVENTS
ACTUALLY OCCURRED.

THERE WAS NO GUN,
NO LEATHER JACKET,

NO OWNER STACKING SHELVES.

WHAT HAD CAUSED THE MEMORIES
OF 75% OF PARTICIPANTS

TO CHANGE SO RADICALLY
ONLY IN FIVE MINUTES

AFTER WATCHING THE EVENT?

Gloria:
HE WAS DEFINITELY WEARING

LIKE A BLACK LEATHER JACKET.

Man: YEAH...
Gloria: YEAH.

Gloria: WHAT DID THE ROBBER
BY THE DOOR HAVE IN HIS HAND?

UM, HE HAD THE GUN.

Lucy: YEAH.
Gloria: YEAH.

Fiona: THE STUDY
THAT WE RAN TODAY

FOUND THAT A LARGE MAJORITY
OF OUR PARTICIPANTS

WERE REALLY EASILY MISLED,

NOT JUST ABOUT ONE THING,

BUT SOMETIMES THEY REPORTED
A NUMBER OF THINGS

THAT WE KNOW THAT THEY DIDN'T
ACTUALLY SEE THEMSELVES,

AND SO IT IS
A GREAT DEMONSTRATION

OF HOW SUGGESTIBLE
OUR MEMORIES ARE.

I THINK THAT'S PROBABLY QUITE
SURPRISING TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC

BECAUSE MOST PEOPLE
REALLY DO BELIEVE

THAT OUR MEMORIES OPERATE
LIKE A VIDEO RECORDER.

Narrator:
THE IMAGERY WE ENCOUNTER

FROM THE INTERNET, ADS, FILMS
AND MAGAZINES

UNCONSCIOUSLY ALTERS
OUR MEMORIES.

Fiona: IT'S VERY APPLICABLE
TO THEN THINK

ABOUT WHAT KIND OF MEMORY ERRORS
MIGHT BE HAPPENING

AT LOCH NESS, UM, FOR PEOPLE.

THEY KNOW EXACTLY WHAT THAT
MONSTER SHOULD LOOK LIKE,

THEY'VE GOT A LOT
OF VISUAL IMAGERY

THAT THEY CAN VERY EASILY ACCESS

WHEN THEY'RE INTERPRETING
SOMETHING

AND ACTUALLY DEVELOP
THIS FALSE MEMORY

IN THE SAME WAY
AS OUR PARTICIPANTS.

Narrator: BUT A CLOSER LOOK
AT PAXTON'S DATA

REVEALS FALSE MEMORY
MAY NOT BE PLAYING

AS BIG A ROLE AT LOCH NESS
AS CHRIS AND FIONA SUSPECT.

Paxton: WE HAVE
A MASSIVE DATABASE HERE

WITH 1,900 REPORTS,

BUT THERE IS NOT EVEN A HINT OF
MEMORY EXAGGERATION IN THE DATA.

MY EXPECTATION WAS THAT
AS TIME PROGRESSED

AND PEOPLE WERE REPORTING
A MONSTER THEY SAW 30 YEARS AGO,

IT'LL BECOME BIGGER,
IT WOULD BECOME CLOSER.

BUT YOU DON'T SEE THIS PATTERN
IN THE DATA.

THIS FOR ME REMAINS A MYSTERY
OF THE LOCH NESS MONSTER.

Fiona: I NEED MORE EVIDENCE
TO CONVINCE ME

THAT NESSIE IS ACTUALLY REAL,

AS MUCH AS I WANT TO BELIEVE
NESSIE'S REAL.

Narrator: BUT THERE WAS STILL
ONE LINE OF EVIDENCE TO EXPLORE

FROM AN UNBIASED PIECE
OF TECHNOLOGY

THAT COULDN'T BE MISLED
OR MANIPULATED--

SONAR.

WITH THE ADVANCES IN TECHNOLOGY
OF THE 1960s AND '70s,

SONAR EXPEDITIONS BECAME
INCREASINGLY COMMON

ON LOCH NESS.

BY THE BEGINNING OF THE 1980s
OVER HALF OF ALL SONAR SEARCHES

HAD RETURNED WITH LARGE,
UNEXPLAINED TARGETS.

WERE THESE PROOF OF A MONSTER
OR SIMPLY FALSE RETURNS?

WITH A DECADE
OF LOCH NESS EXPEDITIONS

ALREADY UNDER HIS BELT,

NO ONE WAS MORE QUALIFIED TO
INVESTIGATE THAN ADRIAN SHINE.

Shine: BECAUSE IT WAS
A CATEGORY OF EVIDENCE

THAT WAS UNEXPLAINED,

IT WAS PART OF MY DUTY
TO ATTEMPT TO RESOLVE IT.

BUT IT WAS VERY DIFFICULT
TO WORK OUT

WHETHER THE CONTACTS
WERE TRULY MOVING,

IN OTHER WORDS, ANIMATE.

Narrator: SONAR DETECTS OBJECTS
IN THE WATER

THROUGH THE ECHOES OF
SOUND WAVES REFLECTED OFF THEM.

BUT TEMPERATURE INVERSIONS AND
REFLECTIONS OFF THE LOCH'S SIDES

CAN ALSO REFLECT SOUND WAVES
FROM INDIVIDUAL ECHO SOUNDERS,

GIVING MISLEADING READINGS.

ADRIAN'S SOLUTION
WAS BOLD AND AMBITIOUS,

AND IT WOULD REDUCE THE CHANCES
OF TEMPERATURE INVERSION

BEING MISTAKEN FOR A LARGE
OBJECT MOVING IN LOCH NESS.

Shine: SO WHAT DID WE DO?

WE GOT OURSELVES A FLEET
OF ECHO SOUNDERS,

AND WE MADE A SONAR CURTAIN
WITH A FLEET OF VESSELS

AND MOVED FROM ONE END
OF THE LOCH TO THE OTHER.

IT HAD THE SMELL
OF DECISION ABOUT IT,

THE INESCAPABLE WALL OF SOUND.

Narrator: THIS WAS
OPERATION DEEP SCAN...

THE LARGEST SONAR INVESTIGATION
IN THE LOCH'S HISTORY.

EACH ECHO SOUNDER WAS CALIBRATED

TO ONLY DETECT OBJECTS
BIGGER THAN THE LARGEST FISH.

IF THERE WAS A MONSTER
IN LOCH NESS,

DEEP SCAN WOULD FIND IT.

Shine: I HAD 120 CREW
IN MY FLEET,

BUT THERE WERE 326
ACCREDITED PRESS.

SO THE WORLD WAITED.

Narrator: THE RESULTS
WERE TANTALIZING.

DEEP SCAN DETECTED
THREE MOVING TARGETS,

INFERRED BY SONAR EXPERTS
AS BEING OF A SIZE

SMALLER THAN A WHALE,
BUT LARGER THAN A SHARK.

Shine: THE ISSUE IS, OF COURSE,
WHAT ARE THEY?

I DON'T ACTUALLY KNOW.

I DON'T UNDERSTAND THEM.

Narrator:
LARGE FISH LIKE STURGEON

HAVE BEEN KNOWN TO ENTER RIVERS
AND LAKES IN THE BRITISH ISLES,

YET STURGEON MAY NOT BE THE
STRANGEST NON-NATIVE SPECIES

TO SWIM IN THE LOCH.

A RADICAL NEW THEORY

SEEMED TO OFFER A NEW SUSPECT

TO ADD TO THE DRAMATIC
PEAK IN SIGHTINGS

IN THE 1930s.

Paxton:
CLEARLY THE LOCH NESS PHENOMENA

IS BIGGER THAN ANY OTHER TIME
IN ITS HISTORY

IN THE PERIOD 1933
AND, ABOVE ALL, 1934.

Narrator: A SURGE IN VISITORS

ACCOMPANIED THE OPENING
OF A NEW ROAD

ALONGSIDE THE LOCH IN 1933.

AND MANY REPORTED SEEING

A STRANGE,
INEXPLICABLE CREATURE.

80 YEARS ON, BESTSELLING AUTHOR
AND HISTORIAN ALBERT JACK

THINKS HE CAN FINALLY REVEAL
THE EXOTIC BEAST

BEHIND THE DRAMATIC PEAK
IN PAXTON'S ANALYSIS.

HE'S COME TO WOBURN SAFARI PARK
TO SEE IT CLOSE UP.

Albert Jack: I GET A CHANCE
TO LOOK AT THE THEORIES I'VE HAD

ABOUT THE LOCH NESS MONSTER,

AND HOPEFULLY WE'LL FIND OUT
HOW CLOSE I WAS TO THE TRUTH.

Narrator:
ALBERT BELIEVES THE MONSTER
SO MANY PEOPLE WITNESSED

WAS A CREATURE NO ONE
WOULD EXPECT TO SEE

IN A SCOTTISH LOCH--

YET PAXTON'S DATABASE IS RIDDLED
WITH CLUES TO ITS TRUE IDENTITY.

Albert: DON'T THEY LOOK
FANTASTIC?

YOU CAN SEE THE SKIN,

IT LOOKS EXACTLY LIKE SO MANY
OF THE DESCRIPTIONS WE'VE HAD

FROM THE 1930s AND 1940s
OF THE LOCH NESS MONSTER.

IMAGINE THIS IF YOU WERE
500, 600 YARDS AWAY,

AND IT'S A DIM, DULL EVENING,
THE SUN'S GOING DOWN,

YOU WOULD NEVER TELL
THE DIFFERENCE.

Narrator: BUT CONTINENTS AWAY
FROM ITS NATURAL HABITAT--

HOW WOULD AN ELEPHANT
END UP IN LOCH NESS?

ALBERT BELIEVES THE ANSWER LIES

WITH INTREPID SHOWMAN
BERTRAM MILLS.

Albert: BERTRAM MILLS WAS A VERY
WELL-KNOWN CIRCUS ENTREPRENEUR,

AND I WAS ABLE TO TRACE
BERTRAM MILLS' CIRCUS

TO INVERNESS DURING
THE VERY SAME YEARS

THAT THE ALL-IMPORTANT A-82 ROAD
WAS FIRST OPENED,

THAT RAN ALONGSIDE THE LOCH.

AND THAT, OF COURSE, COINCIDED
WITH AN INCREASE IN SIGHTINGS.

Narrator:
MILLS WAS ONE OF THE FIRST

TO INTRODUCE CIRCUS ELEPHANTS
TO SCOTLAND.

BUT HE ALSO TOOK AN ACTIVE
INTEREST IN THE LOCH NESS MYTH,

OFFERING A REWARD BIG ENOUGH
TO BANKRUPT HIM

TO ANYONE WHO CAPTURED
THE BEAST.

BUT WAS HE REALLY
BEING RECKLESS?

Albert: WE KNOW WE HAD ELEPHANTS
DURING 1933 AND 1934

UP AT INVERNESS
AS PART OF THE CIRCUS.

AND IT'S DOCUMENTED THAT HE
USED TO BATH THEM IN THE LOCH.

Narrator:
NEWSPAPER REPORTS CONFIRM

MILLS BATHED CIRCUS CREATURES
IN LOCH NESS.

AND ALTHOUGH THERE IS
NO EVIDENCE

THIS INCLUDED HIS ELEPHANTS,

THE ACTIVITY IS WELL-DOCUMENTED
ELSEWHERE,

LIKE IN THE SEA AT BLACKPOOL
AND THE RIVER AT LYMINGTON SPA.

THE HUMPS, THE NECK, THE SKIN,
AND GIGANTIC SIZE--

IS IT FEASIBLE
VISITORS TO LOCH NESS

WERE SIMPLY SEEING
BERTRAM MILLS' ELEPHANTS

GOING FOR A SWIM?

Albert: THESE FACTORS
COME TOGETHER FOR ME,

TO CREATE A MYTH THAT HAS SINCE
GROWN AND GROWN AND DEVELOPED

AND GONE OFF IN DIFFERENT
DIRECTIONS FOR SURE,

BUT BEGAN THERE.

Narrator:
IT'S A FASCINATING THEORY,

BUT NOT WITHOUT ITS PROBLEMS.

ELEPHANT BATHING IN PUBLIC
WAS USUALLY DONE

AS A PUBLICITY STUNT
RATHER THAN KEPT SECRET.

AND BERTRAM MILLS' ELEPHANTS
COULD ONLY ACCOUNT

FOR A BRIEF PERIOD OF SIGHTINGS.

BUT ALBERT JACK BELIEVES THAT
SIGHTINGS OF SWIMMING PACHYDERMS

COULD HAVE INSPIRED
PART OF THE MODERN MYTH.

Albert: THE MYTH CONTINUES.

THERE IS SOMETHING ELSE
THAT'S COME IN TO REPLACE IT.

WE NEED TO FIND OUT
WHAT THAT IS.

Narrator: IN 2007 VIDEO FOOTAGE
ONCE AGAIN RAISED THE PROSPECT

OF AN AQUATIC CREATURE.

THE INCREDIBLE STAMINA
OF NESSIE HUNTER GORDON HOLMES

APPEARED TO HAVE FINALLY
PAID DIVIDENDS.

Gordon: I SAW SOMETHING
COMING TOWARDS ME,

ABOUT 200 YARDS OUT
FROM THIS POSITION.

I ZOOMED IN,
AND WHATEVER IT WAS,

IT LOOKED INCREDIBLY
AERODYNAMIC,

IT WAS I RECKON 1 OR 2 FOOT
ABOVE THE WATER.

IT WAS WAS MOVING
AT SUCH A SPEED

THAT THE WATER
WAS FLOWING OVER IT.

Narrator:
CLEARLY NOT AN ELEPHANT,

BOAT WAKE
OR CAMERA MANIPULATION,

IT'S ONE OF THE MOST COMPELLING
IMAGES OF NESSIE EVER RECORDED.

FORENSIC IMAGE EXPERT
MIKE HARTSHORNE

HAS BEEN TRYING TO DETERMINE
WHAT IT SHOWS.

Mike: ONCE I STABILIZED IT

I WAS ABLE TO GRASP A LOT MORE
HOW THIS OBJECT MOVES.

YOU CAN SEE THAT IT'S
A DARK OBJECT

THAT IS MOVING
AGAINST THE WAVES,

IT'S DEFINITELY QUITE SIZEABLE

AND MOVING IN AN ANIMATED WAY
UNDER ITS OWN STEAM.

Narrator: BUT FURTHER ANALYSIS
REVEALS AN EVEN BIGGER SURPRISE,

A DETAIL THAT COULD HELP
UNLOCK OTHER EXPLANATIONS

FOR THE 1930 PEAK IN SIGHTINGS.

Mike: IF YOU LOOK CAREFULLY,

IN THE BACKGROUND THERE'S
WHAT SEEMS TO BE A SECOND LINE.

I'VE PUT SOME HIGHLIGHTS
ROUND SO YOU CAN SEE IT.

AND THERE IT IS,
SO IF IT IS NESSIE,

NESSIE'S GOT A FRIEND.

Narrator: THE DATABASE REVEALS
THAT THE AVERAGE ESTIMATE

FOR THE LENGTH OF NESSIE
IS 16 FEET.

BUT THE LOCH'S LARGEST
NATIVE SPECIES

ARE OTTERS AND ARCTIC CHAR.

HOWEVER, ADRIAN SHINE KNOWS
ONE FEATURE OF THE LOCH

THAT COULD PROVIDE AN ANSWER.

HE'S HEADING DOWN THE RIVER NESS
TO EXPOSE ITS SECRET.

Shine: IT'S OFTEN THOUGHT
THAT LOCH NESS

IS CUT OFF FROM EVERYTHING ELSE,

BUT IT ISN'T,
IT'S CONNECTED TO THE SEA

BY THE SEVEN-MILE-LONG
RIVER NESS.

Narrator:
MANY PEOPLE HAVE SUGGESTED

THAT THE CREATURE IN LOCH NESS

FOUND ITS WAY IN
FROM THE DEEP SEA.

ADRIAN AGREES, BUT HE SUSPECTS
SOMETHING MORE FAMILIAR

IS BEHIND MANY OF THE SIGHTINGS.

[SEAL BARKING]

Shine: WE'VE GOT A MIXTURE
OF SEALS HERE ACTUALLY,

AND THEY HAVE, WE NOW KNOW,
GOT INTO LOCH NESS.

IN 1985, A COMMON SEAL
DID GET INTO LOCH NESS,

WAS PHOTOGRAPHED,
AND IN MANY YEARS SINCE THEN

WE'VE HAD EITHER COMMON
OR GRAY SEALS IN THE LOCH.

Narrator: SEALS FEED ON SALMON

AND CAN BE LURED INTO LOCH NESS
DURING THE ANNUAL SALMON RUN.

Shine: NOW THEY COULD ACCOUNT
FOR SOME OF THE SIGHTINGS,

PARTICULARLY THE SORT
OF SINGLE HUMP SIGHTINGS.

THERE HAVE BEEN SOME
OF A LABRADOR DOG-LIKE HEAD.

THAT WOULD BE MOST LIKELY
A COMMON SEAL.

AND THERE HAVE BEEN
LAND SIGHTINGS AS WELL,

SOMETIMES IN THE DARK,

OF THESE THINGS HAULING
THEMSELVES ACROSS THE ROAD

IN FRONT OF PONY CARTS
AND THINGS LIKE THAT.

Narrator:
COULD GORDON HOLMES' VIDEO

HAVE CAPTURED A PAIR OF SEALS?

HE'S CERTAINLY OPEN TO THE IDEA.

Gordon: PEOPLE SUGGESTED
IT COULD BE A SEAL.

THERE WAS A REPORT WITHIN
A YEAR OR TWO OF MY SIGHTING

THAT THERE WAS TWO SEALS LOOSE
IN THE LOCH,

WHICH DOES PUT A KIND
OF QUESTION MARK ON IT.

Narrator: AND HOLMES
MAY NOT BE THE FIRST PERSON

TO CONFUSE SEALS WITH NESSIE.

IT COULD HAVE HAPPENED
BACK IN THE 1930s, TOO.

Shine: THEY COULD BE CANDIDATES,

AND I BELIEVE
PROBABLY WERE IN 1934,

BECAUSE THERE WERE SOME REPORTS
OF SEALS AT THE VERY TIME

WHEN SOME OF THE CLASSIC
MONSTER SIGHTINGS OCCURRED.

SO SEALS AND THEIR ABILITY
TO ENTER UP THE RIVER NESS

IS A LESSON TO US,

SO IF LARGE CREATURES
UNUSUAL TO LOCH NESS

ARE SEEN IN LOCH NESS,

THEN I WOULD HAVE TO LOOK
TO THE SEAL.

Narrator: BOTH ELEPHANTS
AND SEALS MAY HAVE CONTRIBUTED

TO THE LOCH NESS PHENOMENON
IN THE 1930s,

BUT THEY ONLY TELL
PART OF THE STORY.

TO UNDERSTAND THE WHOLE
LOCH NESS PHENOMENON,

WE NEED TO EXAMINE
ALL THE EVIDENCE.

PAXTON'S ANALYSIS HAS
FINALLY MADE THIS POSSIBLE

AND REVEALS THE EXTRAORDINARY
TRUTH BEHIND THE MYTH.

FOR OVER 80 YEARS

REPORTS OF THE LOCH NESS MONSTER
HAVE CAPTURED GLOBAL ATTENTION.

BOAT WAKES, MARINE VISITORS,
AND EVEN CIRCUS ELEPHANTS

HAVE BEEN PUT FORWARD
AS EXPLANATIONS.

BUT NO ONE THEORY CAN ACCOUNT
FOR ALL THE CLAIMS.

NOW, FOR THE FIRST TIME,
A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

HAS BROUGHT ALL
THE WITNESS EVIDENCE TOGETHER

IN THE HOPE OF FINDING
THE TRUTH.

Chris: THIS REALLY
COULD BE CRUCIAL

IN TERMS OF PROVIDING
THE KEY TO EXPLAINING

WHAT'S BEHIND THE STORY
OF THE LOCH NESS MONSTER.

Narrator:
USING THIS UNIQUE DATA SET,

PSYCHOLOGIST DR. CHRIS FRENCH

THINKS HE'S FIGURED OUT
WHAT'S DRIVING THE MYSTERY.

AND THE CLUE LIES
IN A PARANORMAL PHENOMENON

A WORLD AWAY FROM LOCH NESS.

UFO SIGHTINGS IN THE UK SOARED
AFTER THE RELEASE

OF "CLOSE ENCOUNTERS
OF THE THIRD KIND"

IN 1978

AND PEAKED AGAIN FOLLOWING
"THE X-FILES" IN 1998.

LOOKING AT THE PATTERN OF
MONSTER SIGHTINGS AT LOCH NESS,

CHRIS NOW BELIEVES THAT
THE SAME THING IS GOING ON.

Chris: LOOKING AT THIS GRAPH,
THE FIRST THING THAT HITS YOU

IS THIS HUGE PEAK
IN THE EARLY 1930s,

YOU HAD THE RELEASE IN 1933
OF "KING KONG,"

A MASSIVELY SUCCESSFUL FILM.

THERE'S A SCENE IN THAT

WHERE KING KONG IS FIGHTING

WITH A PLESIOSAUR-LIKE DINOSAUR,

WHICH I'M SURE WOULD HAVE HAD
A MASSIVE INFLUENCE

IN TERMS OF PROVIDING
THE KIND OF BASIC IMAGERY

FOR PEOPLE TO THINK ABOUT

WHEN THEY THINK THEY'VE SEEN
SOMETHING IN THE LOCH.

Narrator: GEORGE SPICER,
THE FIRST WITNESS

CLAIMING TO SEE A PREHISTORIC
MONSTER IN LOCH NESS,

EVEN COMPARED IT TO THE DINOSAUR
HE HAD SEEN IN "KING KONG."

FROM THE 1930s ONWARD,
IMAGERY IN POPULAR CULTURE

APPEARS TO REPEATEDLY INFLUENCE
MONSTER SIGHTINGS ON LOCH NESS.

Chris: MOST NOTABLY OF ALL

THERE WAS THE FAMOUS
SURGEON'S PHOTOGRAPH,

AND THAT'S PROVIDED
THE KIND OF ARCHETYPAL IMAGE

FOR THE LOCH NESS MONSTER,

SO I THINK THAT PEAK THERE
CORRESPONDS BEAUTIFULLY TO THAT.

NOT SURPRISINGLY WE LOOK THEN

INTO THE KIND OF
WORLD WAR TWO PERIOD,

PEOPLE WERE PREOCCUPIED
WITH OTHER THINGS.

THERE ARE NOT GOING TO BE
SO MANY SIGHTINGS.

Narrator: PEACE SEES
THE RETURN OF NESSIE,

AND IN THE 1960s
SIGHTINGS PEAK ONCE AGAIN

FOLLOWING THE RELEASE
OF "THE GIANT BEHEMOTH"

AND THE INFLUENTIAL BOOK
"MORE THAN A LEGEND,"

DETAILING OVER 100
MONSTER SIGHTINGS.

Chris: AND THERE WAS ALSO THE
LOCH NESS INVESTIGATION BUREAU,

SO SUDDENLY THE WHOLE IDEA
OF THE LOCH NESS MONSTER

TAKES ON THIS KIND OF AIR
OF SCIENTIFIC RESPECTABILITY.

THAT VERY MUCH
SUPPORTS THE NOTION

THAT NESSIE IS ACTUALLY
A KIND OF PRODUCT OF CULTURE,

RATHER THAN AN ACTUAL
LIVING CREATURE IN LOCH NESS.

Narrator:
BUT PEOPLE LIKE GORDON HOLMES

CLING TO THE MYSTERY

OF THE UNEXPLAINED VIDEOS
AND SONAR TARGETS.

Gordon: DO WE WANT A SOLUTION?

DO WE WANT TO BE ABLE TO NAIL
THE LOCH NESS MONSTER

AND SAY THIS IS WHAT IT IS
OR THIS IS WHAT IT IS NOT,

IT DOESN'T EXIST,
ONE OR THE OTHER?

THE ELEMENT OF MYSTERY,

PERHAPS WE SHOULD LEAVE IT
AS THINGS ARE

AND ALLOW THAT MYSTERY
TO CONTINUE.

Narrator: THE FACT REMAINS

THAT DESPITE DECADES OF AMATEUR
AND PROFESSIONAL ATTEMPTS

TO FIND A MONSTER,

NO ONE HAS IDENTIFIED
POSITIVE PHYSICAL EVIDENCE

TO PROVE ITS EXISTENCE.

Shine: IN A SHRINKING WORLD,

AND ONE THAT WE THINK
WE UNDERSTAND MORE AND MORE,

WE'D LIKE TO THINK
THERE WAS SOMETHING

FIERCER AND WORSE THAN WE ARE.

Narrator: SO HAS THE MYSTERY
FINALLY BEEN SOLVED?

DOES THE ANSWER LIE NOT
BENEATH THE WATERS OF LOCH NESS

BUT DEEP IN OUR
COLLECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY?

Chris: THE TRUTH IS THAT
IT'S ACTUALLY TELLING US

MUCH MORE ABOUT OURSELVES,
ABOUT OUR OWN PSYCHOLOGY,

ABOUT HUMAN NATURE,

THAN IT IS ABOUT
THE LOCH NESS MONSTER,

AND I MEAN, THEY USED TO SAY
ON "THE X-FILES"

THAT THE TRUTH IS OUT THERE.

WELL, I THINK
THAT THE REAL ANSWER