Nova (1974–…): Season 27, Episode 9 - Secrets of Lost Empires: Roman Bath - full transcript

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Narrator:
MIST RISES OFF THESE WATERS
AS IT HAS FOR CENTURIES.

HOT SPRINGS BUBBLE
INTO A LEAD-LINED POOL.

AGAINST THIS ANCIENT BACKDROP

AN UNUSUAL GATHERING
IS TAKING PLACE.

ALTHOUGH MOST OF THESE PEOPLE
HAVE NEVER MET

TOGETHER THEY WILL TAKE
A JOURNEY INTO HISTORY...

WHEN THE PUBLIC BATH

WAS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT
BUILDINGS IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

2,000 YEARS AGO

THE BATH WAS NOT JUST
A PLACE FOR THE HIGHBORN.

IT WAS A COMMUNITY CENTER



AND A DAILY RITUAL THAT DEFINED
WHAT IT MEANT TO BE ROMAN.

Man:
IT MUST HAVE BEEN A SIGHT

THE LIKE OF WHICH THE MODERN
MIND FINDS DIFFICULT TO IMAGINE.

NOT ONLY IS THERE SPLENDOR
OF THE ENVIRONMENT

BUT CROWDS OF PEOPLE.

THERE IS FIRM EVIDENCE
THAT MEN AND WOMEN

DID BATHE
COMPLETELY NAKED TOGETHER.

AND ALL THE TIME, NOISE.

ROMANS LOVED TO CONVERSE
AND ARGUE AND DISCUSS.

PEOPLE WOULD BE
SHOUTING AND LAUGHING.

PEOPLE WOULD BE DRINKING.

SOME PEOPLE
WOULD HAVE DRUNK TOO MUCH.

PEOPLE WOULD BE
SINGING IN THE BATH.

Narrator:
UNDERLYING ALL THE LUXURY
WERE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES...



COPIOUS SUPPLIES OF HOT AND COLD
WATER PIPED IN FROM MILES AWAY

ROOMS OF INTOXICATING WARMTH

MADE POSSIBLE BY
SOPHISTICATED HEATING SYSTEMS.

BUT WHEN THE ROMAN
EMPIRE COLLAPSED

THE WORLD FELL INTO DARKNESS

AND THE ART AND SCIENCE
OF THE BATHS WAS LOST...

UNTIL NOW.

AFTER 2,000 YEARS,
NOVA WILL BUILD A ROMAN BATH

AND STRIVE TO UNCOVER
THE SECRETS

OF THE MOST TECHNOLOGICALLY
ADVANCED BUILDING

OF THE ANCIENT WORLD.

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by PARK FOUNDATION, CNET

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Keach:
THE ROMAN BATH WAS ONCE
A TECHNOLOGICAL MARVEL.

TODAY IT'S
A TECHNOLOGICAL MYSTERY.

A MYSTERY THAT
THIS GROUP OF ENGINEERS

ARCHEOLOGISTS AND HISTORIANS
ARE HOPING TO SOLVE

AS THEY JOURNEY INTO THE MIND
OF THE ANCIENT BUILDERS.

Man:
I DON'T THINK
THE ROMANS

WOULD HABITUALLY HAVE BUILT
SOMETHING THAT DIDN'T WORK.

THEY MIGHT HAVE MADE
MISTAKES OCCASIONALLY.

Keach:
FIKRET YEGUL IS AN ARCHITECT
AND EXPERT ON ANCIENT BATHS.

IS NOT A DESIGN
THAT WE CREATED.

WE DON'T EVEN TAKE...

Keach:
AFTER A LIFETIME OF STUDY

HE IS DESIGNING
HIS FIRST ROMAN BATH

WITH HELP FROM
TEOMAN YALCINKAYA

AN ENGINEER WHO WILL BUILD IT.

BUT THE ROMANS LEFT
NO BLUEPRINTS

NO TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.

ALL THEY HAVE TO GO ON

ARE THE RUINS THAT REMAIN
AFTER 2,000 YEARS...

CRUMBLING EVIDENCE
OF HEATING SYSTEMS

THAT REVEAL LITTLE
OF HOW THEY WORKED;

REMNANTS OF PIPE
THAT SUGGEST COMPLEX PLUMBING.

EVEN THE POOLS WHERE THE ROMANS
BATHED HAVE FALLEN INTO RUIN.

Yegul:
THIS IS REALLY AN IMITATION

OF A TYPE OF ROMAN BATH

THAT I HAVE SEEN AND WORKED
AGAIN AND AGAIN AND AGAIN.

THAT'S INTERESTING,
BECAUSE I HAVEN'T.

Keach:
AMONG HIS COLLEAGUES HERE,
FIKRET'S DESIGN IS PROBLEMATIC.

MOST OF THEM THINK
IT WON'T WORK.

I THINK WE'RE RATHER A LONG WAY
AWAY FROM THE ROMANS HERE.

Keach:
WHO WERE THESE ROMAN BUILDERS?

EMANATING FROM THE CITY OF ROME

THEIR EMPIRE SPANNED
MORE THAN 3,000 MILES

FROM SYRIA TO SCOTLAND

AND REIGNED SUPREME
FOR A THOUSAND YEARS.

FEW CIVILIZATIONS
BEFORE OR SINCE

HAVE BUILT WITH SUCH INTENSITY...

SPECTACULAR FEATS OF ENGINEERING
AND MAGNIFICENT MONUMENTS.

BUILDING WAS INGRAINED
IN THE ROMAN CHARACTER.

Yegul:
UNLIKE THE GREEKS

WHO WERE PROBABLY
MORE INTERESTED

IN THE PRISTINE BEAUTY OF THINGS

ROMANS WERE MORE
FUNCTIONAL PEOPLE.

THEY WERE PROUD TO BRING WATER
TO THEIR CITIES.

THEY WERE PROUD
TO OPEN COMFORTABLE

AND SAFE HIGHWAYS TO TRAVEL ON

AND BRIDGES TO CROSS VALLEYS
AND RIVERBEDS.

Keach:
BUT THE REAL GENIUS
OF THE ROMAN ENGINEERS

WAS EXPLOITING WHAT THEY LEARNED
FROM OTHER CULTURES.

Man:
AS THEY SPREAD ACROSS
THE MEDITERRANEAN

COMING INTO CONTACT

AND ACTUALLY CONQUERING
ONE LAND AFTER ANOTHER

THEY WOULD ABSORB
A LOT OF THE IDEAS

AND DEVELOP
SOME OF THE TECHNOLOGIES

THAT HAD BEEN STARTED
IN OTHER LANDS.

Keach:
WITH IDEAS, MONEY
AND SLAVE LABOR

APPROPRIATED FROM
CONQUERED NATIONS

THE EMPERORS OF ROME BUILT
INCREASINGLY COMPLEX STRUCTURES.

AMONG THEM, THE BATHS.

THE ROMANS BUILT SO MANY OF THEM

THE BATHS BECAME
AN EXPERIMENTAL LABORATORY

TO TEST OUT NEW CONCEPTS.

Yegul:
THE BATHS OCCUPY
A SPECIAL POSITION

IN THE COURSE OF ROMAN
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE.

IT'S A BUILDING TYPE

EXTREMELY ADVANCED
IN ITS VAULTING TECHNIQUES

WATER SUPPLY
AND HEATING TECHNIQUES

AND SOME OF
THE EARLIEST EXPERIMENTS

IN ROMAN CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY.

Keach:
IN MODERN-DAY TURKEY

LIES AN ANCIENT ROMAN CITY
CALLED SARDIS.

IT'S HERE, IN THE SHADOW
OF THE BATH AT SARDIS

THAT NOVA WILL TRY TO UNCOVER

THE SECRETS THAT HAVE BEEN LOST
FOR CENTURIES.

BUILDING A ROMAN BATH

BEGINS THE SAME WAY IT DID
2,000 YEARS AGO...

WITH A GOOD PIECE OF LAND.

FIKRET YEGUL HAS ARRIVED
WITH TEOMAN YALCINKAYA

AN ENGINEER WITH
AN INTERESTING SIDELINE.

I THINK THIS SITE

MAY BE
THE IDEAL PLACE

FOR THE PLACEMENT
OF THE BATH.

Keach:
FOR 30 YEARS,
TEOMAN HAS ALSO BEEN A MEMBER

OF THE SARDIS EXCAVATION TEAM.

NOW, THE SUN
IS RISING HERE...

FROM THE EAST,
FROM OVER THERE

AND GOING TO
THE WEST OVER THERE.

Keach:
THE ROMANS UNDERSTOOD
SOLAR HEATING

AND MADE BEST USE OF THE SUN'S
WARMTH BY ORIENTING THE WINDOWS

OF THE HOTTEST ROOM
TOWARD THE SOUTH.

WITH AN EXPOSURE

TO THE SOUTH
AND THE WEST

WE HAVE THE IDEAL
ROMAN WAY OF DOING THINGS.

Keach:
THE NEXT STEP IS TO MARK

THE FOOTPRINT OF THE BUILDING
IN THE GROUND.

THIS BATH WILL BE SMALL,
LIKE THE PRIVATE BATHS

ATTACHED TO THE HOMES
OF VERY RICH ROMANS.

THE SHEEP ARE ABOUT TO LOSE

THEIR FAVORITE GRAZING AREA
TO AN EXPERIMENT IN HISTORY.

IT WILL TAKE ALL DAY JUST TO
MARK AND PREPARE THE FOUNDATION.

IN THE MEANTIME, GARRETT FAGAN
HAS ALSO ARRIVED IN TURKEY.

AN EXPERT IN ROMAN CULTURE

HE IS HERE TO EXPERIENCE
A TURKISH HAMAM

A DIRECT DESCENDANT OF
THE ROMAN BATH.

Fagan:
THIS IS A HOT ROOM.

IT'S OVER 100 DEGREES IN HERE

AND I HAVE TO PERSPIRE IN HERE.

WHAT I DO IS
I LIE DOWN ON THIS SLAB

AND FOR ABOUT TEN MINUTES,
AND RELAX AND SWEAT.

IN THE ROMAN BATH,
THE SYSTEM WAS QUITE DIFFERENT.

THEY WOULD COME INTO
A MEDIUM HEATED ROOM

WHERE THEY WOULD BE OILED DOWN
BY A SLAVE.

THEY MIGHT HAVE DIRT
THROWN ON THEM AT THAT STAGE

IF THEY WANTED
TO WRESTLE OUTSIDE.

THE NEXT PROCESS
WAS TO GO OUTSIDE

INTO THE EXERCISE YARD,
THE PALAESTRA.

Keach:
THE EXERCISE WASN'T STRENUOUS.

IT WAS JUST MEANT
TO WORK UP A SWEAT.

THE ROMANS WOULD HAVE COME IN
FROM THE EXERCISE GROUND

COVERED IN THEIR OIL
AND SWEAT...

AND THERE THEY
WOULD HAVE BEEN STRIGILED

IN THIS RATHER UNUSUAL PROCESS

INVOLVING THESE IMPLEMENTS
CALLED STRIGILS.

Keach:
ROMANS DID NOT HAVE SOAP.

THEY JUST SCRAPED OFF
THE DIRT AND OIL.

Fagan:
THEN THEY WOULD FLICK IT
ONTO THE GROUND

AND ONTO THE WALLS OF THE BATH.

IMAGINE THE GERMS AND BACTERIA

THAT ACCUMULATED
IN THIS SUBSTANCE

THAT THE GREEKS CALLED "GLOIOS."

Keach:
UNAWARE OF GERMS

ROMAN DOCTORS COLLECTED
THE GLOIOS FROM THE FLOOR

AND MIXED IT
INTO MEDICINAL OINTMENTS.

AFTER SPONGING DOWN

THE NEXT STEP WAS
DECIDEDLY LESS PLEASANT.

BODY HAIR WAS NOT FASHIONABLE
IN ANCIENT ROME

SO THE BATHER COULD HIRE
A DEPILATOR... A HAIR PLUCKER.

Fagan:
AND THEY WOULD
PLUCK OUT THE HAIRS

EVEN THEIR UNDERARM HAIRS.

AND, IN FACT, SENECA THE YOUNGER

HE DESCRIBES THE HOWLS
OF THE DEPILATORS

WHO ARE LOOKING FOR CUSTOMERS

WHICH ARE ONLY EXCEEDED

BY THE HOWLS OF THE CUSTOMERS
WHO ARE BEING PLUCKED.

Keach:
AFTER A GENTLE SOAPING,
GARRETT'S HAMAM WILL BE OVER.

BUT A ROMAN BATH
LASTED SEVERAL HOURS

CULMINATING IN THE CALDARIUM

WHERE THE FLOOR WAS SO HOT

WOODEN SANDALS
WERE AN ABSOLUTE NECESSITY.

THE REST OF THE AFTERNOON
WAS SPENT SOCIALIZING

AND ARRANGING
THE EVENING'S ACTIVITY.

GARRETT ALSO HOPES
TO EXPERIENCE A ROMAN BATH...

BUT HE'LL HAVE TO WAIT
UNTIL IT'S BUILT.

AS GROUNDBREAKING BEGINS

TEOMAN HAS A TOUGH JOB
AHEAD OF HIM.

LIMITED TO THE TOOLS
AND TECHNIQUES

KNOWN IN ANCIENT TIMES

HE HAS AGREED TO BUILD
THE BATH IN SEVEN WEEKS.

FOR THE ROMANS,
IT MIGHT HAVE TAKEN MONTHS.

NOVA SET UP A TIME-LAPSE CAMERA

TO CAPTURE EVERY MINUTE
OF THE ACTION.

THE STONES HAVE BEEN DELIVERED

AND THE FOUNDATION
BEGINS TO TAKE SHAPE.

THERE WILL BE THREE ROOMS...

THE BARE NECESSITY
FOR A PROPER ROMAN BATH.

THE FRIGIDARIUM, OR COLD ROOM

WILL HAVE A ROUND
COLD POOL IN THE APSE.

THE TEPIDARIUM, OR WARM ROOM

IS WHERE THE BATHERS
WILL CHANGE THEIR CLOTHES

AND HAVE A MASSAGE.

AND IN THE CALDARIUM,
OR HOT ROOM

THERE IS A HEATED POOL
TOWARD THE BACK.

FROM COLD TO WARM TO HOT...

IT'S ALL A PRODUCT
OF THE HEATING SYSTEM.

BELOW THE HOT POOL

A FIREPLACE OR FURNACE
WILL HEAT THE FLOOR

THREE WALLS OF THE CALDARIUM,
AND ONE WALL OF THE TEPIDARIUM.

WHETHER THE HEATING SYSTEM
WILL WORK OR NOT

REMAINS TO BE SEEN.

THE WALLS MUST GO UP.

TWO WEEKS OF WORK
IS COLLAPSED INTO 20 SECONDS.

HERE, ONE OF ROME'S GREATEST
ENGINEERING ACHIEVEMENTS

IS BEGINNING TO TAKE SHAPE.

THE VAULTED OR DOMED ROOF

WAS A TECHNOLOGICAL
LEAP FORWARD IN ARCHITECTURE.

BEFORE THE ROMANS, THE GREEKS
ALSO BUILT LARGE BUILDINGS.

THE INTERIORS
WERE FILLED WITH COLUMNS

TO SUPPORT THE HEAVY
FLAT ROOF ABOVE.

BUT THE ROMANS PERFECTED
A BETTER IDEA.

THEY BUILT THE ROOF
IN SECTIONS FORMING A CURVE.

AT THE TOP,
A KEYSTONE IS DROPPED IN.

THE DOWNWARD THRUST
OF THE KEYSTONE

PUSHES THE SECTIONS OUTWARD

CREATING A PRESSURE THAT HOLDS
THE ENTIRE ROOF TOGETHER.

WITH THE CURVED ROOF,
THE COLUMNS ARE UNNECESSARY.

THE ROOF SUPPORTS ITSELF

FREEING AN ENORMOUS AMOUNT
OF INTERIOR SPACE.

BY THE SECOND CENTURY A.D.

THE ROMANS HAD ENGINEERED
THE ULTIMATE DOME...

THE PANTHEON,
A TEMPLE TO ALL THE GODS.

FOR 1,500 YEARS IT STOOD

AS THE LARGEST OPEN
INTERIOR SPACE IN THE WORLD.

THIS REMARKABLE BUILDING
OWES ITS EXISTENCE

TO THE THOUSANDS OF BATHS
BUILT BEFORE IT.

WITH EACH ONE

THE ROMANS PERFECTED
THE ART AND SCIENCE OF THE DOME.

Yegul:
THE GREAT DOME OF THE PANTHEON
HAD ALREADY BEEN EXPERIMENTED

BY DOMES REACHING
HALF THAT SIZE...

WHICH IS STILL RESPECTABLE...

IN BATH BUILDINGS
THAT WERE BUILT

A GOOD 60, 70 YEARS
BEFORE THE PANTHEON.

THEY WERE REALLY THE FORERUNNERS
IN ROMAN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

AND VERITABLE LABORATORIES
OF WORKING WITH VAULTING.

Keach:
OUR VAULTED ROOF
IS MADE OF BRICK.

THE WOOD FORMS MAINTAIN
THE DOMED SHAPE

AND HOLD THE BRICKS IN PLACE
UNTIL THE ROOF IS FINISHED.

A THIN PIECE OF WOOD

ENSURES THE CORRECT DISTANCE
AND ANGLE BETWEEN BRICKS.

IT WILL TAKE SEVERAL DAYS
TO COMPLETE THE ROOF.

MEANWHILE, TONY ROOK AND
HIS COLLEAGUE, BRYAN SCOTT,
HAVE ARRIVED.

HELLO, LOVELY
TO SEE YOU, LOVELY.

GOOD TO SEE YOU.

MY PLEASURE, FIKRET.

FIRST TIME
IN TURKEY, EH?

YES.

Keach:
AT THEIR FIRST MEETING

TONY WAS SKEPTICAL
OF FIKRET'S DESIGN...

ESPECIALLY THE HEATING SYSTEM.

NOW, I THINK WHAT WE'VE GOT...
WHAT WE'RE TRYING TO DO HERE...

IS CONSTRUCT SOMETHING THAT
THE ROMANS WOULD HAVE BUILT.

Keach:
TONY THOUGHT IT WOULD NEVER
HEAT UP PROPERLY

AND SOON ENOUGH HE WILL FIND OUT
IF HE WAS RIGHT.

Rook:
THE CALDARIUM ON THE NORTH SIDE.

Keach:
BEFORE HE STUDIED ARCHEOLOGY

TONY WAS
A BUILDING MATERIALS SPECIALIST.

OUR RUBBLE IS
A LOT MORE RUBBLELY

BECAUSE WE USE FLINT.

Yegul:
YEAH, I KNOW WHAT
YOU'RE TALKING ABOUT.

Keach:
AND ONE MATERIAL IN PARTICULAR
NOW GOING ON THE VAULTED ROOF

IS CONSIDERED BY MANY

TO BE ROME'S GREATEST
CONTRIBUTION TO ENGINEERING...

CHEAP, DURABLE,
VERSATILE CONCRETE.

CONCRETE ENABLED THE ROMANS
TO BECOME SPECTACULAR BUILDERS.

WITHOUT IT, THE COLISEUM
WOULD NOT EXIST

NOR WOULD THE PANTHEON.

Rook:
CONCRETE HAS GREAT ADVANTAGE
OF BEING CAST.

IN OTHER WORDS, YOU CAN MAKE IT
ANY SHAPE YOU LIKE.

IT HAS THE GREAT ADVANTAGE
OF BEING STRONG

SO YOU CAN MAKE SHAPES
WHICH BRIDGE LARGE SPACES

AND THEREFORE YOU CAN MAKE
THINGS LIKE GREAT, BIG
PUBLIC BATHS.

Keach:
THE RECIPE FOR CONCRETE
WAS WRITTEN DOWN

BY THE ROMAN
ARCHITECT, VITRUVIUS,
IN THE FIRST CENTURY B.C.

THE MAIN INGREDIENT COMES FROM
ONE OF THE MOST COMMON MATERIALS
IN THE WORLD, LIMESTONE.

BUT IF YOU TAKE
ORDINARY LIMESTONE...

WHICH IS A PRETTY HEAVY
SORT OF STUFF...

AND HEAT IT TO RED HOT

AND LEAVE IT LONG ENOUGH
AT RED HOT

WHEN IT'S FINISH, YOU GET
STUFF WHICH IS LIKE THIS.

WHICH IS A VERY,
VERY LIGHT MATERIAL

AND THAT'S CALLED QUICKLIME.

Keach:
QUICKLIME IS CHEMICALLY
VERY DIFFERENT FROM LIMESTONE;

ALL THE CARBON DIOXIDE
HAS BEEN BURNED OFF.

THEN, WHEN WATER IS ADDED

SOMETHING STRANGE
STARTS TO HAPPEN.

Rook:
YOU CAN HEAR IT'S STARTING
TO DO SOMETHING...

IT STARTS CRACKLING.

ALL THE HISSING
IS JUST STEAM COMING OUT OF IT.

EACH INDIVIDUAL BIT IS SWELLING
AND TURNING INTO A NEW MATERIAL

BECAUSE IT IS
VERY, VERY HOT NOW.

IN FACT, YOU WOULDN'T BE ABLE TO
PUT YOUR HAND CLOSE TO IT NOW.

IT'S SLOWLY TURNING ITSELF

INTO ONE OF THE FINEST POWDERS
YOU CAN MAKE

WHICH IS CALLED HYDRATED LIME,
OR JUST LIME.

Keach:
AS MORE WATER IS ADDED,
THE POWDER TURNS INTO A PUTTY

ADHESIVE ENOUGH TO BOND
THE COURSE MATERIALS

THAT MAKE UP CONCRETE

Rook:
LOOK, IT'S ACTUALLY BOILING
IN FRONT OF ME NOW

AND BLOWING UP
NICE BUBBLES OF STEAM.

Keach:
ADDED TO THE LIME,
SAND AND AN AGGREGATE OF ROCK.

TO MAKE THE CONCRETE WATERPROOF

THE ROMANS ALSO MIXED
IN CRUSHED TILE.

THEY PREFERRED VOLCANIC ASH

BUT IT WASN'T AVAILABLE
IN MOST PLACES.

YOU FINISH UP WITH
A BEAUTIFUL PINK CONCRETE

ABSOLUTELY
CHARACTERISTICALLY ROMAN.

YOU FIND IT IN HYPOCAUSTS...
YOU FIND IT IN BATHS...

PLACES WHERE
IT'S GOING TO BE UNDERWATER

WHERE YOU WANT
A WATERPROOF MATERIAL.

Keach:
ALMOST FOUR WEEKS... MORE THAN
HALF THE TIME HAS PASSED...

AND TEOMAN
IS ANXIOUS TO MOVE ON.

WITH THE EXTERIOR WORK
MOSTLY DONE

IT IS TIME TO TACKLE
THE HARDEST PART...

THE HEATING SYSTEM INSIDE.

THE ROOF FORMS
OVER THE FRIGIDARIUM

WILL STAY UP
A LITTLE WHILE LONGER.

BUT THE HEATING SYSTEM GOES
IN THE TEPIDARIUM AND CALDARIUM

SO THERE
THE SCAFFOLDING MUST COME DOWN.

TEARING DOWN THE VAULT PLANKING
IS A NERVE-WRACKING PROCESS.

IF THE ROOF WASN'T BUILT RIGHT,
IT MIGHT NOT HOLD TOGETHER.

EVERYONE IS RELIEVED
WHEN THE ROOF STAYS UP.

THE HEART OF THE HEATING SYSTEM
IS THE FIREPLACE

OR FURNACE AS THEY CALL IT.

FIKRET IS PUTTING ON
THE FINAL TOUCHES.

OH, MAX!

Max:
HELLO.

WELCOME, GOOD TO SEE
YOU HERE, HI!

Keach:
MAX FORDHAM AND HIS COLLEAGUE,
TRISTAN COUCH

ARE HEATING ENGINEERS.

MAX HAS DESIGNED

SOME OF THE MOST COMPLEX CLIMATE
CONTROL SYSTEMS IN THE WORLD

INCLUDING BRITAIN'S TATE GALLERY
AND THE SAVOY THEATRE.

IT'S LONG...

YEAH, AND IT'S OUR,
UH, HEATING CANAL.

Keach:
THESE RUINS FROM BATH, ENGLAND

SHOW THAT THE HEATING SYSTEM
WAS A TOUR DE FORCE
OF ROMAN ENGINEERING.

THEY EVEN HAD
A NAME FOR IT, HYPOCAUST

WHICH MEANS "FIRE UNDERNEATH".

A ROMAN WRITER CREDITED
THE INVENTION OF THE HYPOCAUST

TO AN ENTREPRENEUR NAMED SERGIUS
ORATA AND HIS LOVE FOR OYSTERS.

ORATA WANTED TO CULTIVATE
AND SELL OYSTERS

BUT HE NEEDED A CONSTANT SUPPLY
OF WARM WATER TO BREED THEM.

SO HE MOUNTED OYSTER PANS
ON PILLARS

AND LIT A FIRE UNDERNEATH.

THE HOT AIR CIRCULATED
BENEATH THE OYSTER BEDS

HEATING THE WATER INSIDE.

THE BEST TEMPERATURE
FOR BREEDING

WAS ACHIEVED BY ADJUSTING
THE SIZE OF THE FIRE.

IT'S A GOOD STORY, BUT MOST
HISTORIANS DON'T BUY IT.

WE HAVE A NUMBER OF EXAMPLES...

ARCHEOLOGICALLY
BACKED EXAMPLES...

THAT SHOW US THAT
THE HYPOCAUST SYSTEMS

OR QUASI-HYPOCAUST SYSTEMS...

THINGS THAT LOOKED LIKE
HYPOCAUSTS... WERE BEING USED

EVEN DURING A GENERATION OR TWO
BEFORE ORATA'S TIME.

Keach:
THERE'S NOTHING IN THE RECORD

ABOUT HOW WELL
ORATA'S OYSTER BUSINESS DID

BUT THERE'S
A GREAT DEAL OF EVIDENCE

THAT HYPOCAUSTS EVENTUALLY
HEATED EVERY ROMAN BATH BUILT.

THE HYPOCAUST STARTS
IN THE FURNACE

WHICH CONNECTS TO THE CALDARIUM,
THE HOTTEST ROOM.

THERE IS AN OPENING ON THE RIGHT
TO THE TEPIDARIUM...

THE WARM ROOM.

PILLARS, CALLED PILAE

WILL RAISE THE FLOOR
ABOUT THREE FEET.

ON TOP OF THE PILAE

LARGE FLOOR TILES, CALLED
BIPEDALIS, WILL BE INSTALLED.

A LAYER OF CONCRETE GOES ON TOP

AND THEN ANOTHER LAYER
OF MARBLE.

FOR THE SYSTEM TO WORK

THE HOT GASES ARE DRAWN FROM
THE FURNACE THROUGH THE ROOMS

WHERE THEY RISE AND SPREAD OUT
HEATING THE FLOOR AS THEY GO.

THERE ARE FOUR FLUES,
OR CHIMNEYS

TO DRAW THE HOT GASES
TOWARD THEM

PROMOTING THE CIRCULATION
OF THE HEAT

AND PROVIDING A WAY OUT
FOR THE SMOKE.

PART OF MAX'S ROLE

IS TO ASSESS WHETHER
THE GASES WILL FLOW PROPERLY.

IF THE SYSTEM
ISN'T PULLING A DRAFT

IT WILL NEVER HEAT UP THE BATH.

DON'T BREATHE IT.

YOU SEE, THE WIND'S
DRIFTING ABOUT

AND THEN WE'LL SEE...
WHERE IT'S...

IT'S GOING QUITE
NICELY IN, LOOK.

THERE WE GO.

Keach:
THIS IS A GOOD SIGN

THAT THE SYSTEM
MIGHT BE WORKING PROPERLY...

TAKING AIR FROM THE OUTSIDE
AND DRAWING IT IN.

BUT WILL THE CHIMNEYS
DRAW AIR AS WELL?

MAX STEPS INSIDE
THE CALDARIUM TO CHECK.

THE FLAME'S DRAWING.

YOU SEE THEY'RE NOT
GOING IN YET.

Keach:
HIS METHOD
IS DECIDEDLY LOW TECH

BUT IT MAY WELL HAVE BEEN
HOW THE ROMANS TESTED IT, TOO.

Rook:
OH, DEAR,
YES, YOU'RE RIGHT.

LIKE ANYTHING.

GOOD GRIEF.

AND THEN, YOU SEE

EVEN BEING
DRAWN DOWN THERE.

Keach:
NEXT, MAX GOES TO THE FURNACE
TO SEE IF THE HEAT OF THE FIRE

WILL BE DRAWN INTO THE ROOM
AS IT SHOULD.

OH, LOOK AT THAT!

Rook:
LOOK AT THAT.

Yegul:
IT'S COMING...
IT'S BEAUTIFUL.

IT'S PLAYING
LIKE ANYTHING IN.

RIGHT, AND THAT'S
WHAT WE NEED.

Keach:
THIS MIGHT LOOK LIKE A GOOD
SIGN, BUT THE ROOM IS WIDE OPEN.

IF THE RAISED FLOOR ISN'T
DESIGNED AND INSTALLED PROPERLY

THE GAS FLOW COULD BE BLOCKED
AND THE ROOM WON'T HEAT.

Fordham:
ABOUT AS FAST AS THAT

Keach:
THE MEN START BUILDING
THE PILAE.

Fordham:
TRISTAN, HERE I COME!

Keach:
AFTER THE MORTAR SETS,
MAX TRIES TO CRAWL THROUGH.

THE ROMANS WOULD HAVE BUILT
THE HEATING SYSTEM

LARGE ENOUGH FOR A SLAVE TO FIT
UNDER FOR CLEANING OR REPAIR.

IT'S JUST AS WELL
I HAVEN'T GOT MY SMART SHOES ON.

WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO
IS IMAGINE THAT, UM...

I'M SEVEN YEARS OLD
AND RATHER SMALL.

Keach:
THE PILAE IN THIS BATH

ARE SEVERAL CENTIMETERS
CLOSER TOGETHER

THAN THE ROMANS
USUALLY BUILT THEM.

MAX WORRIES IT WILL IMPEDE
THE FLOW OF HOT GASES.

Couch:
DO YOU THINK YOU CAN DO
A LEFT HAND TURN THERE.

I'M JUST WONDERING.

Keach:
BUT THE SPACING OF THE PILAE

WAS LIMITED BY THE SIZE OF
THE TILES THAT WILL GO ON TOP.

I SUPPOSE YOU
HAVE TO REMEMBER

THAT YOU'VE GOT
TO GET OUT AGAIN.

YEAH.

Keach:
MAKING THOSE TILES

WAS A FRUSTRATING AND
EXPENSIVE LESSON FOR TEOMAN.

AND NOW HE HAS TO FACE
THE CRITICISM OF TONY ROOK.

THESE DON'T
LOOK VERY MUCH

LIKE THE TILES WE
WERE TALKING ABOUT,
DO THEY?

WHAT HAPPENED?

YEAH, WE HAD PROBLEMS

WITH THE MANUFACTURE
OF TILES

BECAUSE WE DIDN'T
HAVE ENOUGH TIME

TO DRY THEM OUT.

Keach:
THE CLAY TILES KEPT CRACKING.

SOME EVEN EXPLODED
INSIDE THE KILN.

THE ROMANS WOULD HAVE LET THEM
DRY FOR MONTHS, EVEN YEARS.

BUT TEOMAN ONLY HAD A FEW WEEKS.

THE FINAL SOLUTION
WAS DECIDEDLY UNROMAN.

Yalcinkaya:
AT THE END,
WE COME TO A SOLUTION

OF HAVING A FRAME
MADE OF STEEL

TO SUPPORT THE TILES,
WHICH ARE CRACKED.

INSTEAD OF PUTTING
A ONE-PIECE TILE LIKE THIS...

OH, DEAR.

WE ARE GOING TO PUT
THE TILES IN THE FRAMES.

SO IT'S GOING
TO SUPPORT IT.

WE DON'T HAVE TIME...
WE HAVE A SCHEDULE.

THEY HAVE TO CATCH UP
WITH THE SCHEDULE.

SO, THEREFORE,
WE FOUND THIS SOLUTION.

I LIKE THIS, ANYWAY.

THEREFORE, WE...

WE'RE LEARNING
A LOT HERE, YOU KNOW.

WE'RE LEARNING
THE ROMANS

KNEW HOW TO DO IT,
AND WE DON'T.

Keach:
THE FLOOR TILES,
EACH IN A STEEL FRAME

ARE CAREFULLY PLACED A FEW
INCHES AWAY FROM THE WALL.

THE REASON
WILL SOON BE APPARENT.

FOR CENTURIES, THE ROMANS
ONLY USED UNDER-FLOOR HEATING.

THEN, AROUND
THE FIRST CENTURY A.D.

ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE
REVEALED SOMETHING NEW.

THIS IS EPHESUS, TURKEY

A NEARBY ROMAN CITY
WITH SEVERAL BATHS...

AND EACH ONE REVEALS
A SURPRISING NEW ADDITION...

HOLLOW CLAY BOXES, CALLED TUBULI

LINING THE WALLS
OF THE HEATED ROOMS.

THE ROMANS HAD INTRODUCED
RADIANT WALL HEATING

WHICH MADE THE SYSTEM
MUCH MORE COMPLEX.

THE TUBULI ARE PLACED
OVER THE HOLE

BETWEEN THE LEDGE
AND THE FLOOR TILE.

WHEN STACKED ON TOP
OF EACH OTHER

A VERTICAL CHANNEL IS FORMED
FOR HOT GASES TO RISE.

THE ROUND HOLES, PLACED SIDE BY
SIDE, CREATE A HORIZONTAL PATH

SO THE GASES CAN ALSO CIRCULATE
ACROSS THE WALL.

BUT WHAT TO DO WHEN THEY GET
TO THE TOP IS A MYSTERY.

THIS ANCIENT BATH AT EPHESUS
HAS NO ROOF.

THE GRAND IMPERIAL BATHS OF
CARACALLA IN ROME HAVE NO ROOF

AND NEITHER DOES
THE BATH AT SARDIS.

THERE ARE SO FEW
ARCHEOLOGICAL REMAINS

THAT OUR TEAM DIFFERED WIDELY

ABOUT HOW THE HOT GASES
MIGHT FLOW THROUGH THE TUBULI

AND VENT OUT.

Yegul:
WE KNOW HOW CONCRETE WORKS.

WE KNOW HOW CROSS VAULTS
AND BARREL VAULTS WORK.

THERE'S NO PROBLEM THERE.

THE PROBLEM IS THOSE SORT
OF SMALL DETAILS OF HEATING

AND HOW THE TUBULI WORK

HOW THE TUBULI ACTUALLY PULL THE
HOT AIR, HOW THE CHIMNEYS WORK.

AND TO THIS DAY, WE DO NOT KNOW

JUST HOW HOT WAS A ROMAN BATH?

WE HAVE NO IDEA.

Keach:
THE SYSTEM THEY SETTLED ON
WORKS LIKE THIS.

ALONG THE OPEN EDGES
OF THE FLOOR

THE HOT GASES RISE
UP THE VERTICAL CHANNELS

AND FLOW HORIZONTALLY
THROUGH THE HOLES.

WHEN THEY GET TO THE TOP,
THEY MEET UP

WITH A HORIZONTAL CHANNEL
CONNECTED TO THE CHIMNEY FLUE.

THE DRAFT FROM THE CHIMNEY
DRAWS THE HOT GASES

AND KEEPS THE CIRCULATION GOING

SO THAT A CONTINUOUS STREAM
OF HEATED AIR CYCLES THROUGH.

IBRAHIM AKYAR IS BUILDING
THE HORIZONTAL CHANNEL.

FIRST, HE CUTS THE HOLE
IN THE CHIMNEY.

THEN HE CAREFULLY
MATCHES THE OPENINGS.

THE TUBULI ARE BONDED
TO THE WALL BY MORTAR.

IT'S SIMILAR TO CONCRETE, BUT
WITHOUT THE COARSE INGREDIENTS.

TONS OF MORTAR HAVE BEEN USED
IN THIS SMALL BATH

AND GIVING IT ALL TIME TO DRY
WILL BECOME A SERIOUS PROBLEM.

THE ROMANS WOULD HAVE
ALLOWED WEEKS, EVEN MONTHS

FOR THE BUILDING TO DRY

BUT TEOMAN HAS ONLY TEN DAYS
TO COMPLETE CONSTRUCTION

AND THREE DAYS
TO HEAT UP THE BUILDING.

SUCH A TIGHT SCHEDULE COULD
BE A RECIPE FOR DISASTER

Rook:
IF YOU'VE GOT A LOT
OF MOISTURE IN A STRUCTURE

AND YOU DRY IT FAST, IT SHRINKS.

NOW, IF IT DRIES SLOWLY, THE
SHRINKAGE IS SORT OF SPREAD OUT

OVER THE WHOLE THING,
AND IT SORT OF RELAXES.

BUT IF YOU DRY IT FAST

THEN THE SHRINKAGE IS LIABLE
TO BE CONCENTRATED IN PLACES

SO IT WILL CRACK FOR THAT
REASON, AND THE OTHER THING IS

IF YOU HEAT IT, IT EXPANDS.

SO YOU'VE GOT THESE
TWO EFFECTS GOING ON.

YOU COULD HAVE...
SOMEWHERE IN THE STRUCTURE

YOU CAN HAVE ONE BIT
OF IT GETTING VERY HOT

AND ONE BIT OF IT DRYING, AND
IT'S GOING TO PULL ITSELF APART.

Keach:
TEOMAN IS WELL AWARE
OF THE PROBLEM

BUT THERE'S STILL SO MUCH TO DO.

THE HYPOCAUST FLOORS NEED
A LAYER OF CONCRETE.

FOUR TO FIVE INCHES THICK, IT
WILL TAKE SEVERAL DAYS TO DRY.

ONLY TEOMAN WILL WAIT IT OUT.

EVERYONE ELSE HAS JOBS AND
THINGS TO DO BACK HOME.

THEY'LL RETURN IN TEN DAYS
TO LIGHT THE FURNACE.

AS PLASTERING BEGINS
ON THE CEILING

THEIR PROBLEMS
ARE ABOUT TO MULTIPLY.

RAIN NOT ONLY SLOWS DOWN
TEOMAN'S SCHEDULE;

IT ALSO SOAKS
AN ALREADY WET BUILDING.

EVEN THE STRAY PUPPY THAT
ADOPTED THE BATH AS HER NEW HOME

GETS DRENCHED.

OF ALL THE ENGINEERING
ACHIEVEMENTS

OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE,
ONE STANDS ABOVE ALL OTHERS.

WITHOUT IT, THERE WOULD HAVE
BEEN NO BATHS.

WITHOUT IT, THERE WOULD
HAVE BEEN NO ROME.

THE ROMAN AQUEDUCT,
THE SINGLE GREATEST SYSTEM

FOR THE TRANSPORT OF WATER KNOWN
TO THE WORLD UNTIL THIS CENTURY.

EVEN TODAY, THE WATER
OF ROME'S TREVI FOUNTAIN COMES

FROM AN ANCIENT AQUEDUCT.

Man:
ROMANS WOULD NOT TAKE "NO"

FOR AN ANSWER.

JUST LIKE THEY'D
CONQUERED OTHER PEOPLE

THEY WOULD CONQUER NATURE
WITH THEIR ENGINEERING.

IN THE END, FOR THEIR CITY
OF A MILLION PEOPLE

THEY HAD 11 AQUEDUCTS,
11 CHANNELS OF OVER 300 MILES

DELIVERING PERHAPS 150 TO 200
GALLONS PER PERSON PER DAY

AN AMAZING AMOUNT
FOR THE ANCIENT WORLD.

Keach:
THE SOURCE OF ROME'S WATER
LAY 50 MILES OUTSIDE THE CITY

IN THE FOOTHILLS
OF THE APENNINES

WHERE THE ANIO RIVER FLOWS.

BUT THE BEST DRINKING WATER
IN ALL OF ROME CAME

FROM NEARBY MOUNTAIN SPRINGS.

THIS IS WHERE THE AQUA CLAUDIA
AQUEDUCT WAS BUILT

STARTING IN 38 A.D.

BUT THERE'S NOTHING TO SEE,
BECAUSE IT'S ALL UNDERGROUND.

THE AQUA CLAUDIA BEGAN
WITH A LARGE, DEEP BASIN

THAT COLLECTED
COLD SPRING WATER.

AN UNDERGROUND AQUEDUCT
DIRECTED IT TOWARD ROME

FOLLOWING THE CONTOURS
OF THE LAND

SOMETIMES BORING DEEP
UNDER THE MOUNTAINS.

THERE WERE NO PUMPS
TO MOVE THE WATER ALONG.

THE SYSTEM WORKED
SOLELY ON GRAVITY...

A SMALL, GENTLE SLOPE
FOR ABOUT 50 MILES.

MUCH OF THE AQUA CLAUDIA
IS STILL THERE

BURIED BENEATH THE SURFACE.

PETER AICHER IS ABOUT
TO SHOW GARRETT FAGAN

SOMETHING FEW PEOPLE
HAVE EVER SEEN.

BOY, YOU CAN FEEL THAT
COOL AIR COMING OUT.

Keach:
THE FRONT FACE OF THIS MOUNTAIN
CLIFF HAS BROKEN OFF

REVEALING THE AQUA CLAUDIA
TUNNEL HIDDEN INSIDE.

THERE'S A GOOD
CHANNEL TO FOLLOW.

SURE... LET'S GO.

WATCH THE COBWEBS,
THE BATS.

YOU CAN...
RIGHT HERE

I THINK YOU CAN
SENSE THE INCLINE.

OH, YEAH.

Keach:
THEY'RE WALKING IN THE OPPOSITE
DIRECTION THE WATER FLOWED.

AS THEY MOVE DEEPER
INTO THE CHANNEL

THEY FIND, ALONG THE WALL

REMNANTS OF ROMAN
WATERPROOF CONCRETE.

AND YOU CAN ALSO SEE...

Keach:
THEY ALSO FIND A BUILDUP OF
HARD-WATER MINERAL DEPOSITS.

Aicher:
ONLY CEMENTED UP HERE
MAYBE FOUR FEET HIGH

AND THIS IS ABOUT
SIX FEET HIGH.

THIS CHANNEL WAS NOT
MEANT TO RUN FULL...

YEAH.

BE EXPOSED TO THE AIR

WHICH WAS BETTER
FOR THE WATER.

Aicher:
THIS EVENTUALLY WOULD ENCRUST
THE WHOLE CHANNEL.

SOME WERE WORSE THAN THIS.

AND THAT WOULD BE ONE OF
THE REGULAR MAINTENANCE TASKS

IS TO COME THROUGH
AND CHOP THIS AWAY

AND THEN PERHAPS TO RECOAT
IT AGAIN WITH THE CEMENT.

Keach:
THERE WAS A SURPRISING BENEFIT
TO THESE MINERAL DEPOSITS.

Aicher:
BECAUSE THIS IS HARD WATER

IS THAT THEY USED
A LOT OF LEAD PIPES.

Keach:
THEY WOULD COAT THE LEAD PIPES
USED THROUGHOUT THE CITY

PREVENTING LEAD POISONS FROM
LEACHING INTO THE WATER SUPPLY.

I SEE.

SO THEY HAD A USEFUL
FUNCTION, AS WELL.

Keach:
THE AQUA CLAUDIA
TUNNELS UNDERGROUND

FOR MORE THAN 40 MILES

BUT EVENTUALLY,
MOUNTAINS COME TO AN END.

THAT'S WHEN AQUEDUCTS EMERGE

IN A SPECTACULAR DISPLAY
OF ROMAN ENGINEERING...

GRACEFUL ARCADES
OF ARCHES 60 FEET HIGH

CARRYING WATER IN CHANNELS
ALONG THE TOP.

THIS BRIDGE CARRIED
TWO AQUEDUCTS

THE AQUA CLAUDIA ON THE BOTTOM,
AND THE MOSTLY MISSING CHANNEL

OF THE ANIO NOVIS AQUEDUCT
ON TOP.

AT PORTA MAGGIORE, ONE OF
THE HIGHEST SPOTS IN THE CITY

THE AQUA CLAUDIA, ALONG
WITH SEVEN OTHER AQUEDUCTS

FINALLY REACHES ROME.

AT THIS POINT,
THE SYSTEM SWITCHED

TO CLOSED, PRESSURIZED PIPES

WHICH DELIVERED THE WATER
ALL OVER TOWN.

Aicher:
IT CAN GO TO ALL QUARTERS OF THE
CITY, AND BACK UP INTO FOUNTAINS

FOR THE HOMES,
THE BATHS, THE INDUSTRIES

AND CLEANING THE DRAINS,
AND IN GENERAL PROVIDING WATER

FOR THIS WHOLE CITY OF A MILLION

THAT ONCE THE SYSTEM
FELL INTO RUIN

WAS NOT EQUALED AGAIN
INTO THE 1800S.

WOW!

Keach:
AQUEDUCTS WERE BUILT
THROUGHOUT THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

ALMOST 2,000 YEARS AGO

AN AQUEDUCT SLOPED
DOWN THE TMOLOS MOUNTAINS

TO SUPPLY THE BATH AT SARDIS.

IT USED THOUSANDS OF GALLONS
OF WATER EVERY DAY

BUT IT NEVER WENT TO WASTE.

AFTER THE WATER WAS DRAINED
FROM THE BATHS

IT WAS CHANNELED THROUGH
THIS MULTI-SEAT LATRINE

AS A FLUSHING SYSTEM.

WITH SEATS LINING ALL THE WALLS

THIS LATRINE ACCOMMODATED
TWO DOZEN PEOPLE.

IT OFFERS A REVEALING LOOK
AT ROMAN CULTURE

WHERE PERSONAL HABITS
WERE SURPRISINGLY PUBLIC.

IF YOU LOOK AT ME

I'M SITTING REALLY
VERY CLOSE TO MY NEIGHBORS.

IF THIS IS A BUSY TIME,
THEN I'M SORT OF SITTING HERE.

AND WOULD I HAVE WOMEN
BESIDE ME, PERHAPS?

AND I THINK THE ANSWER IS YES.

AND SOME CONSIDERATION
OF ROMAN CLOTHING, PERHAPS

HELPS TO PRESERVE THE MODESTY
OF THE INDIVIDUAL TOILET USERS

BECAUSE THEY WOULD JUST
SIMPLY SORT OF PULL UP

THEIR TOGAS AND TUNICS,
THEN THEY COULD SIT HERE

AND EVERYTHING
WASN'T HANGING OUT.

BUT THAT DOESN'T ACCOUNT
FOR NOISES, ODORS

WHICH YOU WOULD UNDOUBTEDLY HEAR

WHICH WOULD BE REMARKABLE, TO
THE MODERN WESTERN TOILET USER

TO THINK OF THAT POSSIBILITY.

Keach:
WITH THE RAIN, THE MARBLING
INSIDE THE BATHHOUSE

IS GOING VERY SLOWLY.

AS THEY PUT MORTAR ON ONE SIDE
OF THE FRIGIDARIUM WALL

THE MARBLE
ON THE OTHER SIDE BUCKLES.

THE MORTAR IS SO WET,
IT SETTLED TO THE BOTTOM

AND PUSHED THE MARBLE OUT.

SECTIONS OF THIS WALL
WILL HAVE TO BE REDONE.

FOR TEOMAN, THIS
IS THE LAST STRAW.

EVEN THOUGH THE SKY
IS BEGINNING TO CLEAR

HE'S WORRIED THE BUILDING
WON'T DRY OR HEAT UP PROPERLY.

HE NEEDS SOME ADVICE.

BUT WITHOUT MAX OR TONY AT HAND

TEOMAN DRIVES DOWN
TO THE VILLAGE FOR HELP.

THERE'S NO HEATING ENGINEER
HERE, BUT THERE IS A BAKER...

WHO FIRES HIS OVEN EVERY DAY...

HE AGREES TO COME UP
TO THE SITE.

IN THE MEANTIME, THE WOOD FUEL
THAT TEOMAN ORDERED HAS ARRIVED

AT LEAST A WEEK'S WORTH OF IT.

Yalcinkaya:
I WAS A LITTLE WORRIED
ABOUT THE FIRING OF THE FURNACE.

AND SAID THAT WE WANT TO FIRE IT
IN THREE DAYS, BUT HE OBJECTED.

HE SAID WE WILL HAVE CRACKS

YOU KNOW, IF WE FIRE IT
IN THREE DAYS.

BUT IF WE LET IT LAID OVER EIGHT
DAYS INSTEAD OF THREE DAYS

THEN THERE WILL BE A SLOWER...

I MEAN, LESS HEAT, SLOW HEAT,
BUT A PERMANENT HEAT.

Keach:
THE WHOLE TEAM WAS LOOKING
FORWARD TO LIGHTING THE FIRE.

BUT TEOMAN HAS MADE A RISKY
DECISION: TO LIGHT IT EARLY

IN THE HOPES
OF DRYING THE BUILDING.

IT'S A TENSE TIME.

WILL THE FURNACE DRAW PROPERLY?

WILL THE CHIMNEYS VENT?

WILL THE ROOMS HEAT UP?

AND MOST IMPORTANT,
WILL THE BUILDING CRACK?

AFTER A HALF HOUR,
THINGS AREN'T LOOKING SO GOOD.

MOST OF THE HEAT IS HEADING
THE WRONG DIRECTION...

OUT OF THE FURNACE.

THE BAKER WILL PUSH THE FIRE
DEEP UNDER THE CALDARIUM

CLOSER TO THE CHIMNEYS.

AND A COUPLE OF HOURS LATER,
IT'S A SIGHT TO BEHOLD.

NOT ONLY IS SMOKE POURING OUT
OF THE CHIMNEY, BUT INSIDE

IT'S EVEN SEEPING OUT OF THE
UNFINISHED PARTS OF THE DOORWAY

BETWEEN THE SEAMS OF THE TUBULI.

YOU SEE, THE SMOKE IS COMING
BETWEEN THE SEAMS OF THE TUBULI.

I MEAN, THAT MEANS... THAT SHOWS
THAT IT'S FUNCTIONING.

YOU SEE, IT'S WARM.

IT'S WARM AND IT'S GOING
TO GIVE ITS...

EVEN THE PLASTER
IS WARMING UP SLOWLY.

IT'S GOING TO BE ALL RIGHT.

IT WILL BE HOT.

Keach:
FOUR MORE NIGHTS AND THE OTHERS
WILL ARRIVE TO SEE IT.

CONGRATULATIONS, TEOMAN,
IT'S SMOKING!

IT IS SMOKING, YOU SEE?

IT'S SMOKING.

SO YOU CAN SEE

FROM OVER HERE.

REAL SMOKE,
NOT A CARD TRICK?

NO, IT'S REAL SMOKE.

IT'S REAL SMOKE.

Fordham:
WE'VE GOT
A SMOKE BOMB.

Yegul:
WHICH ONES ARE PULLING?

ALL OF THEM.

ALL OF THEM?

YES, ALL OF THEM.

Fordham:
GUARANTEED?

GUARANTEED, YES.

WELL, I CAN GIVE
A WARRANTY PAPER FOR THAT.

ACTUALLY, IT'S NOT SURPRISING
AT ALL, IS IT?

IT'S JUST GOOD DESIGN.

Keach:
FIKRET COULDN'T RESIST
A LITTLE JAB

AT THOSE WHO HAD DOUBTED
HIS DESIGN.

Yalcinkaya:
BETTER WE CAN GO AROUND HERE.

Keach:
INSIDE, THEY START FEELING
THE WALLS

TO SEE IF THE TUBULI
ARE HEATING UP EVENLY.

THE FLUE SOMEWHERE
AROUND HERE, YOU SEE.

Couch:
YOU CAN REALLY
FEEL IT HERE

YES.

Keach:
BUT MAX HAS BROUGHT
SOME EQUIPMENT

THAT CAN SEE RIGHT
THROUGH THE WALLS...

AN INFRARED CAMERA
THAT SHOWS HEAT RANGES BY COLOR.

WHITE IS OFF THE CHARTS, RED
IS ABOUT 250 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT

THEN THE TEMPERATURE DESCENDS
FROM YELLOW, TO GREEN, TO BLUE
AND SO ON.

THE BLACK AREAS ARE
WHERE THE TUBULI STOP.

Fordham:
HOTTER THAN THE FLUES.

Keach:
IT'S TELLING EVERYONE WHERE
THE GASES ARE FLOWING INSIDE.

Fordham:
WELL, I THINK
IT'S ABSOLUTELY WONDERFUL

THIS CHIMNEY, LOOK,
GOING UP THERE.

Yegul:
THE CHIMNEY REALLY LOOKS
EXTREMELY CLEAR, DOESN'T IT?

DOESN'T IT?

IT'S LIKE A SHARP PEAK.

THAT IS CONSISTENTLY
THE HOTTEST CHIMNEY

WITH THE MOST
GAS FLOW IN IT.

Keach:
WITH THE CONSTRUCTION
ALMOST DONE

AND THE BUILDING HEATING UP

IT'S TIME FOR THE FINAL ACT...

HEATING UP THE BATH WATER.

NO ONE KNOWS WHAT THE
TEMPERATURE OF THE WATER
ACTUALLY WAS

BUT THERE ARE HINTS...
ANCIENT STORIES OF WATER SO HOT

THAT HEAVY DRINKERS WOULD HAVE
TO BE CARRIED OUT UNCONSCIOUS.

THE SYSTEM THEY USED
TO HEAT THE WATER

WAS SURPRISINGLY SIMILAR TO
OURS TODAY... A HOT WATER BOILER.

MODELED AFTER A BOILER

FOUND IN THE RUINS
OF A ROMAN BATH IN ALGERIA

THIS ONE WILL BE INSTALLED
IN THE MORNING.

A SIMPLE TASK THAT WILL STIR UP
SOME SIMMERING TENSIONS.

WE THINK THE HOT WATER
SHOULD COME OUT
OF THAT ONE.

IS THAT
THE HOT WATER?

Keach:
AS THE DAY BEGINS, TONY
AND BRYAN SUGGEST A CHANGE

IN THE PLUMBING CONNECTIONS
TO THE BOILER.

THE HOT WATER
WITH THE COLD
TO THAT ONE

ALL THAT HOT WATER
STAYS IN IT...

YOU CAN'T
GET THAT OUT.

IF YOU TAKE IT
OUT OF THAT ONE

YOU'LL GET
THE EXTRA BIT.

YES, BUT, UH, THAT
WILL BE SUFFICIENT
FOR OUR PURPOSE.

WE DON'T THINK
IT WILL.

WELL, IF...

WHY DON'T YOU THINK
IT WILL NOT BE?

WELL, BECAUSE
WE'VE CALCULATED...

Keach:
THE TANK IS DESIGNED TO HAVE
THE HOT WATER COME OUT

OF ONE OF THESE
SIDE CONNECTIONS.

BUT TONY AND BRYAN BELIEVE
THAT IF IT CAME OUT THE TOP

THE BOILER WOULD BE
MORE EFFICIENT.

THEY MIGHT BE RIGHT

BUT IT IS, PERHAPS,
ONE CRITICISM TOO MANY...

THE ATMOSPHERE BECOMES CHARGED.

WHY SHOULD WE TAKE
THE RISK, YOU KNOW?

DON'T YOU SEE
THE ADVANTAGE
THAT IF WE'RE RIGHT

THEN IT WILL WORK

AND WE'RE NOT
LOSING ANYTHING.

THIS PART MIGHT HAVE BEEN
QUITE SUFFICIENT, TOO.

I DON'T
THINK IT WILL.

HOW CAN YOU
BE SO SURE?

THE TROUBLE IS,
WE ALSO CALCULATE

THAT IT'S GOING TO TAKE
A WHOLE DAY TO HEAT THIS UP.

NO, WE'RE JUST...

WELL, WE'VE GONE
THROUGH THIS THING BEFORE

IF YOU KNOW ABOUT
THE HEATING SYSTEM.

YOU SAID YOU HAD
THE SAME RESERVATIONS

AND THE DIRE PREDICTIONS,
AND IT'S WORKING LIKE A CHARM.

IT ISN'T WORKING YET

BECAUSE WE HAVEN'T
YET GOT IT WORKING.

WE HAVEN'T PUT
THE BOILER ON IT YET.

WE HAVEN'T GOT IT
TO 50 CENTIGRADE YET.

WHO SAYS WE HAVE
TO GET TO 50
CENTIGRADE?

DO YOU KNOW ROMAN BATHS
HEATED TO 50 CENTIGRADE?

WHERE DO YOU
TAKE THAT NUMBER,
OUT OF YOUR HAT?

NO, I TAKE THAT NUMBER
OUT OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY

OF HEATING AND REFRIGERATION
AND AIR CONDITIONING ENGINEERS.

AND HOW DOES
THAT RELATE?

OH, WELL, BECAUSE THAT
IS QUITE WELL RESEARCHED.

Keach:
MAX, THE ENGINEER, WANTS
TO TEST THE HEATING SYSTEM

TO ITS ENGINEERING LIMIT.

FIKRET, THE HISTORIAN,
WANTS ONLY TO HEAT IT

TO THE LIMIT OF A TURKISH BATH.

IT BECOMES A CLASH OF
PROFESSIONAL DISCIPLINES.

Fordham:
BUT IT DOESN'T MATTER
WHAT THE TEMPERATURE IS.

Yegul:
TURKISH BATHS ARE ALL AROUND,
AND FUNCTIONING, TODAY...

YOU'VE BEEN IN ONE!

AT A SLIGHTLY LOWER
TEMPERATURE, I KNOW.

I HAVE DONE RESEARCH
ABOUT TURKISH BATHS...

IT HAS BEEN PUBLISHED.

OKAY! BUT WHAT WE'RE
TRYING TO DO HERE...

50 IS OUT
OF THE QUESTION, PERIOD.

Rook:
I THINK IT'S HIGH.

BUT THERE WERE NOT
PREDICTIONS MADE.

Yegul:
50 IS OUT
OF THE QUESTION.

YOU ARE TALKING
OUT OF YOUR HAT.

YOU HAVE NO GROUND
TO STAND ON

AND THIS BATH
HEATING SYSTEM...

I DO HAVE GROUND
TO STAND ON BECAUSE...

Keach:
THE ARGUMENT GOES ON
UNTIL THEY REACH A COMPROMISE...

THE BATH WILL ONLY BE HEATED
TO 40 DEGREES CENTIGRADE

BUT THE CHANGES WILL BE MADE
TO THE BOILER.

AND THEN WE GET
THE THING GOING...

Keach:
THE HOT WATER CONNECTIONS
ARE QUICKLY RECONFIGURED.

THE BOILER IS MOVED
INTO PLACE AND ATTACHED.

MAX RETURNS TO HIS TESTING
AND MEASURING.

THIS TIME HE'S CHECKING
THE DEPTH OF THE RESERVOIR

WHERE WATER FOR THE BATH
IS STORED.

OF COURSE, THERE'S NO AQUEDUCT
TO FILL IT

SO THEY'LL PUMP WATER IN
FROM A TANK.

TO PUT EVERYONE IN
THE RIGHT FRAME OF MIND

TONY ROOK AND BRYAN
DON THEIR TUNICS

AND TAKE OVER THE OPERATION
OF THE FURNACE.

Rook:
WHAT WE'VE GOT TO DO IS
GET THE FIRE UNDER THE BOILER.

Keach:
WITH THE BUILDING HEATED

THEY CAN PULL THE FIRE BACK
FROM THE MIDDLE OF THE CALDARIUM

TO WHERE IT BELONGS...
UNDER THE BOILER.

BECAUSE WHAT
WE WANT NOW

IS TO GET THE FIRE
UNDER THE BOILER

SO THAT THE BOILER WILL,
QUITE LITERALLY, BOIL.

WE'VE GOT TO HAVE
ENOUGH BOILING WATER
IN THERE...

Keach:
IT WILL TAKE ALL DAY
FOR THE WATER TO HEAT UP.

IN THE MEANTIME, A FEW FINISHING
TOUCHES ARE LEFT INSIDE:

A MARBLE MOSAIC FOR THE FLOOR
AND A FRESCO FOR THE WALL...

COPIED FROM A ROMAN HOUSE
IN EPHESUS, TURKEY.

AT THE END OF THE DAY, TONY
AND BRYAN TURN ON THE WATER.

IT TAKES SEVERAL HOURS
TO FILL THE POOL.

TOMORROW IS BATH TIME.

THE TEAM HAS WAITED SEVEN WEEKS
AND A LIFETIME

FOR THIS EXPERIENCE.

BUT WHILE EVERYONE SLEEPS,
SOMETHING GOES TERRIBLY WRONG.

WE'VE GOT PROBLEMS

WELL, WHAT HAVE
WE GOT HERE TEOMAN?

WE HAVE LEAKAGE HERE,
FROM THE POOL.

Keach:
TEOMAN BELIEVES
THE PROBLEM STEMS

FROM HEATING THE BATH EARLY

BEFORE THE MARBLE WALLS
WERE COMPLETELY DRY.

THE MORTAR AT THE JOINTS DIDN'T
HAVE THE PROPER SETTING TIME

AND IT CRACKED.

Yalcinkaya:
YES... SO, I MEAN,
IT'S LEAKING CONTINUOUSLY.

WHATEVER YOU PUT INSIDE,
IT'S LEAKING.

WE'VE LOST THE CONTENTS
OF THE WHOLE BATH.

YES.

Keach:
THERE IS A QUICK SOLUTION...
SILICON SEALANT.

IT'S NOT ROMAN,
BUT TIME HAS RUN OUT

AND EVERYONE IS ANXIOUS
TO TAKE THEIR BATH.

WASN'T TODAY THE DAY
OF THE GREAT HOT BATH?

Yalcinkaya:
YEAH, WELL...

AND I SOUND AS THOUGH I NEED IT.

YOU WILL PROBABLY
HAVE A BATH.

BUT IF YOU
DON'T HAVE IT

I'LL TAKE YOU
TO A TURKISH BATH.

AH, THAT'LL DO.

Keach:
WITH SOME LINGERING DOUBTS

EVERYONE GATHERS
FOR A FINAL LUNCH...

A VERY LENGTHY LUNCH
WHILE THE POOL SLOWLY FILLS.

FEW PEOPLE HAVE WAITED SO LONG
TO TAKE A BATH.

BY LATE AFTERNOON, THEY HAVE
A DATE WITH HISTORY.

Keach:
REAL ROMANS
WOULD BE BATHING NAKED

BUT, REAL ROMANS WOULDN'T BE
BATHING ON NATIONAL TELEVISION.

FOR THESE MEN, A WELL-PLACED
TOWEL CAN PROTECT THEIR MODESTY.

THE WATER IS ABOUT
100 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THE ROOM IS EVEN HOTTER.

Fagan:
TO STEP IN A BATH HOUSE WAS TO
STEP IN TO THE ARMS OF PLEASURE.

TO EXPERIENCE THE RELAXING
EFFECTS OF THE WARM WATER
AND THE WARM AIR

TO SOCIALIZE WITH FRIENDS
AND NEIGHBORS...

AN ALTOGETHER
A JOYFUL EXPERIENCE.

Keach:
AS THEY FILE OUT
OF THE HOT BATH

GARRETT IS REMINDED WHERE
THE HEAT IS COMING FROM.

WATCH THE FLOOR!

Keach:
LIKE GOOD ROMANS,
THEY HEAD FOR THE COLD ROOM.

THE FRIGIDARIUM POOL
HAS LEAKED AS WELL.

IT MAKES THE ACT OF SUBMERGING
A BIT UNDIGNIFIED.

BUT IT'S A REQUIRED PART
OF THE FULL EXPERIMENT.

Yegul:
THIS THE ONLY
SCIENTIFIC EXPERIENCE

THAT I KNOW IN THE WORLD
WHICH HAS RECREATED

A MODEL ROMAN BATH, TRUTHFULLY

USING ANCIENT MATERIALS
AND ANCIENT METHODS...
AS MUCH AS WE COULD.

AND I WOULD DEARLY LOVE
THIS MONUMENT TO BE PRESERVED

AND TO BE KNOWN IN THE
SCIENTIFIC AND HUMANISTIC WORLD.

Keach:
TODAY, THE LITTLE BATH
STILL STANDS

IN AN OLIVE GROVE
IN SART, TURKEY.

TEOMAN STILL LIVES
AND WORKS NEARBY;

IT WILL BE SAFE IN HIS HANDS.

Yalcinkaya:
WE'LL COME AND CHECK

WHAT'S GOING ON WITH HERE.

AND IT MIGHT TURN OUT
TO BE A PLACE

FOR ACADEMIC PEOPLE
AND THE TOURISTS TO VISIT.

SO, THERE WILL BE SOMETHING NICE
COMING OUT OF IT AT THE END,
IT LOOKS LIKE.

NEXT WEEK ON
SEEKERS OF LOST EMPIRES

STEEPED IN LEGEND,
LOST TO TIME

A MARVEL OF DESIGN
AND CRAFTSMANSHIP.

WHAT SECRETS
CAN THE STRUCTURE REVEAL

ABOUT ITS ANCIENT BUILDERS?

SPEND A DAY AT THE ROMAN BATHS

SEE WHAT'S
ON THE MENU.

ENJOY
THE ENTERTAINMENT.

IMMERSE YOURSELF
IN NOVA'S WEB SITE.

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LOST EMPIRES FIVE-VIDEO SET

WITH A FREE
FAMILY ACTIVITY BOOK

PLEASE CALL WGBH BOSTON VIDEO
AT 1-800-255-9424.

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IS ALSO AVAILABLE SEPARATELY

FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING ONLY.

THEY TELL INTRIGUING STORY...

I BELIEVE THAT
I'M A BLACK JEW.

BUT CAN CUTTING-EDGE GENETICS
TRACE THE LEMBA

TO "THE LOST TRIBES OF ISRAEL?
NEXT ON NOVA.

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OF WGBH BOSTON.