How It's Made (2001–…): Season 9, Episode 6 - Padlocks/Hair Clippers/Wooden Shoes/Synthetic Leather - full transcript


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>> Narrator: TODAY ON

"HOW IT'S MADE"...

PADLOCKS...

HAIR CLIPPERS...

WOODEN SHOES...

AND SYNTHETIC LEATHER.

AS LONG AS THERE HAVE BEEN

THIEVES, THERE'S BEEN A NEED FOR

LOCKS.

PADLOCKS DATE BACK TO ROMAN

TIMES AND WERE LIKELY FIRST USED

TO PROTECT CARGO IN TRANSIT.

THOUSANDS OF YEARS LATER, THE

PADLOCK CONTINUES TO KEEP

BURGLARS AT BAY.

THE MODERN PADLOCK'S STRONGEST

FEATURE IS ITS LOCK BODY.

THE PROCESS BEGINS WITH A STACK

OF 24 STEEL PLATES THAT ARE

LAMINATED TOGETHER, THE SAME

TECHNOLOGY THAT'S USED TO MAKE

DOORS FOR BANK VAULTS.

A PUNCH PRESS CUTS AND SHAPES

PIECES OF STEEL INTO CAPS THAT

WILL BE RIVETED TO THE LOCK

BODIES.

THE RIVETS TUMBLE DOWN A FEEDER.

WHILE BELOW, AN OPERATOR PLACES

A LOCK BODY AND A CAP INTO A

FIXTURE.

A POWERFUL PRESS THEN DRIVES THE

RIVETS INTO THE ASSEMBLY,

SECURING THE TOP CAP TO THE LOCK

BODY.

AT ANOTHER STATION, CUTTERS

CONTOUR STEEL RODS SO THEY'LL

FIT INTO THE LOCK BODY'S HOLES

WHILE LUBRICANT KEEPS THINGS

COOL.

THE FINISHED RODS ARE NOW READY

TO BE SHAPED.

WORKERS LOAD THEM INTO A FORM

PRESS.

THIS MACHINE BENDS THE STEEL AS

EASILY AS YOU COULD BEND A PIPE

CLEANER TO MAKE A U-SHAPED

SHACKLE.

THEN THE SHACKLES ROLL INTO A

FURNACE FOR TEMPERING, A PROCESS

THAT MAKES THE STEEL EVEN

STRONGER.

AFTER A LITTLE MORE MACHINING,

THE SHACKLE IS READY TO BE

INSTALLED.

THIS SHACKLE WILL NEED TO MOVE

UP AND DOWN AS THE LOCK IS

OPENED AND CLOSED.

AND THAT'S WHERE THESE BALL

BEARINGS COME IN.

TWO OF THEM ARE SLIPPED INTO THE

LOCK CAVITY.

LUBRICANT GEL AIDS THE PROCESS.

WORKERS USE IT TO GREASE THE

INSIDE OF THE LOCK WHILE THEY

PUSH THE BALL BEARINGS TO EITHER

SIDE OF THE CAVITY.

A CYLINDER EXTENSION IS INSERTED

BETWEEN THE BALL BEARINGS, THEN

A PROTECTIVE CASING AND BUMPER

SLIDE OVER THE LOCK.

NOW IT'S TIME FOR FINAL

ASSEMBLY.

A MACHINE LOADS COPPER-PLATED

SHELLS ONTO MANDRELS.

PLUGS, PINS AND SPRINGS FUNNEL

INTO THE LOCK ASSEMBLY STATION.

A DEVICE INSTALLS PINS AND

SPRINGS IN A LOCK SHELL.

THE SHELL SLIDES ONTO A BRASS

PLUG.

A KEY-SHAPED GROOVE IS CUT INTO

THE PLUG, TRANSFORMING IT INTO A

LOCK CYLINDER.

A CARBIDE CUTTER NOTCHES THE

MATCHING KEYS.

THERE ARE TENS OF THOUSANDS OF

KEY PROFILES.

THIS SORTING STATION HOLDS JUST

A FEW.

THE KEYS AND LOCK CYLINDERS ARE

ALL NUMBERED.

THIS WORKER MATCHES THEM UP,

MAKING SURE THERE ARE TWO KEYS

FOR EACH LOCK.

SHE SELECTS A PADLOCK AND PUSHES

ONE OF THE LOCK CYLINDERS INTO

IT.

THEN SHE TOPS IT OFF WITH A

RETENTION PLATE.

A MACHINE PRESS FITS THE PLATE

TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PADLOCK.

THIS SECURES THE LOCK CYLINDER.

A SPRING FOR THE SHACKLE IS

INSERTED, AND THE BOTTOM CAP

GOES ON NEXT.

THEN THE ENTIRE ASSEMBLY IS

RIVETED TOGETHER.

EACH KEY IS TESTED TO MAKE SURE

IT MATCHES.

A COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM OPENS AND

CLOSES A RANDOMLY SELECTED

PADLOCK THOUSANDS OF TIMES TO

MAKE SURE IT'S UP TO THE JOB.

THE LOCK ALSO HAS TO HOLD UP TO

FORCE.

WEIGHTS ARE DROPPED TO REPLICATE

A HAMMER BLOW.

AND THE PADLOCK WITHSTANDS THE

STRIKE.

THIS DAY'S WORK IS DONE.

IT'S TIME FOR THE FOLKS AT THE

FACTORY TO "LOCK UP" FOR THE

DAY.

UP NEXT, MAKING THE CUT AT A

HAIR-CLIPPER FACTORY.

>> Narrator: THE ELECTRIC HAIR

CLIPPER WAS INVENTED IN 1919.

IT WAS THE FIRST CLIPPER WITH A

MOTOR IN THE ACTUAL UNIT,

ALLOWING THE BARBER TO CUT HAIR

AT QUITE A CLIP.

HAIRSTYLES MAY CHANGE, BUT THIS

DEVICE IS STILL ON THE CUTTING

EDGE.

THESE DAYS, HAIR-CLIPPER CASINGS

ARE MADE OUT OF HEAVY-DUTY

PLASTIC.

AN AUTOMATED MOLD MELTS AND

SHAPES THE PLASTIC MATERIAL INTO

CASING PARTS.

MEANWHILE, A ROBOT PICKS UP

BRASS CONTACTS AND PLACES THEM

IN FIXTURES.

A PLASTIC SWITCH IS THEN

ATTACHED TO EACH CONTACT.

A BLAST OF AIR SENDS THE

ASSEMBLED PIECE TO A BIN.

HERE, A ROBOT SLIDES A PLASTIC

SPOOL ONTO A MANDREL, THEN

ANCHORS COPPER WIRE TO IT.

THE WIRE IS WOUND AROUND THE

SPOOL MORE THAN 2,000 TIMES TO

MAKE PART OF THE ELECTRIC RELAY

THAT WILL DRIVE THE BLADES.

POLICE KEEP THE WIRE FED AT AN

EVEN TENSION.

NEXT, ROBOTS WORK ON THE

CLIPPER'S LOWER CASING.

ONE INSTALLS A BLADE SLIDE FOR

ADJUSTING THE BLADE, AND ANOTHER

ATTACHES THE LEVER THAT CONTROLS

THAT SLIDE.

AN AUTOMATED SCREWDRIVER FASTENS

EVERYTHING TOGETHER.

THE CLIPPER ASSEMBLY IS THEN ON

ITS WAY TO HAVE A METAL ARM

INSTALLED.

THIS PIECE WILL MOVE THE CUTTING

BLADE.

AND FOR THAT, IT WILL NEED A

COUPLE OF SPRINGS.

NEXT, THE SWITCH ASSEMBLY GOES

IN.

AND THEN THE ARM IS SCREWED INTO

PLACE.

WORKERS INSTALL A SCREW FOR

ADJUSTING THE POWER SETTING.

AND NOW THEY FIT THE COPPER WIRE

COIL INTO THE LOWER HOUSING

WHERE IT WILL DRIVE THAT METAL

ARM.

A POWER CORD IS RUN FROM THE

SWITCH TO THE COIL.

AND NOW THE CLIPPER'S INNER

WORKINGS ARE COMPLETE.

OVER AT ANOTHER STATION, A PUNCH

PRESS STAMPS OUT CLIPPER BLADES.

THE BLADES ARE TOOTHLESS TO

START.

BUT AFTER A GOOD WASHING AND

HEAT TREATMENT, THEY HEAD OVER

TO ANOTHER STATION TO GET SOME

TEETH.

A WORKER RU3S A BLADE INTO A

FIXTURE TO HOLD IT STEADY, THEN

A JAGGED CYLINDRICAL CUTTER

CARVES THE TEETH.

COOLANT KEEPS THE PROCESS FROM

OVERHEATING AND COMPROMISING THE

INTEGRITY OF THE STEEL.

EACH HAIR CLIPPER HAS TWO

BLADES.

THE FIRST ONE HAS CUTTING TEETH

WHICH MOVES OVER THE SECOND, A

LARGER, STATIONARY BLADE THAT

ENSNARES THE HAIRS SO THAT THEY

CAN BE CUT.

NEXT, THE COMPANY'S LOGO IS

PRINTED ON TO THE CLIPPER'S LID.

AND THE LID IS ATTACHED TO THE

CASING THAT HOLDS THE ELECTRICAL

COMPONENTS.

WORKERS MOUNT THE BLADES ON THE

HEAD OF THE CLIPPER FOR THAT

DOUBLE-EDGED CUTTING ACTION.

AND FINALLY, EACH CLIPPER IS

TUNED FOR OPTIMUM PERFORMANCE BY

ADJUSTING THAT POWER SCREW THAT

WAS INSTALLED EARLIER.

THESE CLIPPERS COME IN A KIT

THAT INCLUDES SOME ADDITIONAL

ACCESSORIES FOR THOSE CONSUMERS

WHO WANT TO TRY THEIR HAND AT A

LITTLE HOME GROOMING.

NOW THESE ELECTRIC HAIR CLIPPERS

ARE READY TO GET BUZZING.

WITH THOSE SHARP BLADES, THEY'LL

MAKE SHORT WORK OF ANY "HAIRY"

SITUATION.

COMING UP, THE ART OF THE WOODEN

SHOE.

>> Narrator: CALL THEM THE POOR

MAN'S ANSWER TO THE RUBBER BOOT.

CENTURIES AGO, FARMERS CHIPPED

OUT HOLES IN WOODEN BLOCKS TO

KEEP THEIR FEET DRY.

OVER THE YEARS, THE BLOCKS WERE

REFINED INTO INEXPENSIVE BUT

DURABLE FOOTWEAR.

TODAY THEY'RE MOST COMMONLY

ASSOCIATED WITH THE HISTORY AND

TRADITION OF THE NETHERLANDS.

HOW THEY'RE MADE REMAINS AS

BASIC AS THE SHOE ITSELF.

MOST WOODEN SHOES ARE CRAFTED

FROM RU3LAR, A WOOD THAT'S EASY

TO CARVE AND GENERALLY FREE OF

KNOTS, SO THE WEARER WON'T

ENCOUNTER ANY SPLINTERS.

A WORKER FEEDS PIECES OF RU3LAR

INTO A BAND SAW, CAREFUL TO TOSS

ANY PIECES WITH DEFECTS.

THE BLADE SLICES THE WOOD INTO

BLOCKS CALLED BLANKS.

THE FACTORY USES VINYL PATTERNS

LIKE THIS ONE TO CREATE THE

SHAPE OF THE SHOE.

THERE'S A PATTERN FOR EACH SIZE

OF EVERY CLOG STYLE.

A WORKER LOCKS THE PATTERN INTO

A DUPLICATION MACHINE CALLED THE

SHAPER, THEN RIGHT NEXT TO IT,

TWO BLANKS.

AS THIS TRACER MOVES OVER THE

SHAPE OF THE PATTERN, THE WHEEL

ON THE LEFT COPIES ITS MOVEMENTS

EXACTLY, ITS BLADE SHAVING THE

WOOD AS IT MOVES UP AND DOWN.

THERE'S ONLY ONE PATTERN LOADED,

YET THE MACHINE CARVES OUT A

PAIR OF SHOES.

THAT'S BECAUSE THE WHEEL ON THE

FAR LEFT SPINS IN THE OPPOSITE

DIRECTION.

SO AS THE BLADE SAWS AWAY, IT'S

CREATING TWO MIRROR IMAGE

COPIES.

THAT ALLOWS THE MACHINE TO CARVE

OUT BOTH A RIGHT AND A LEFT SHOE

SIMULTANEOUSLY.

NOW FOR THE INSTEP.

A WORKER POSITIONS THE BLANKS ON

TO WHAT'S CALLED A DUAL-ACTION

BORING MACHINE.

THE CENTER ROD IS CALLED A

TASKER.

ITS ROLLING HEAD FOLLOWS THE

CURVES INSIDE THE PATTERN.

SPOON BITS ON EITHER SIDE OF IT

COPY THE TASKER'S MOVEMENTS,

GRADUALLY CARVING OUT THE INSIDE

OF THE SHOES.

NOW WORKERS SHIFT THE ANGLE SO

THE SPOON BITS CAN GET IN

DEEPER, BORING ALL THE WAY TO

THE FRONT OF THE SHOE.

ALL THAT CARVING MAKES FOR A LOT

OF WOOD CHIPS.

AFTER A DRYING PERIOD, THE TOE

KNOBS ARE CUT OFF WITH A BAND

SAW, AND THE CLOGS ARE INSPECTED

FOR ANY FLAWS.

A DISK SANDER GRINDS DOWN THE

KNOB ON THE HEEL AND REFINES THE

SHAPE OF THE TOE.

THE SHOEMAKER USES A BARREL

SANDER TO SMOOTH OUT THE OPENING

THEN THEY SWITCH TO A BALLOON

SANDER.

THIS SANDER HAS AN AIR-FILLED

SACK INSIDE IT THAT FLEXES TO

THE SHAPE OF THE SHOE.

NOW FOR THE FINAL STEP.

AN ARTIST LAYS CARBON PAPER ON

THE SHOE AND A PATTERN ON TOP OF

THAT.

THEN SHE TRACES THE PATTERN.

THE CARBON SHEET TRANSFERS THE

DESIGN TO THE WOOD.

NOW SHE GOES OVER THE DESIGN

WITH A WOODBURNER.

SHE CHANGES TIPS AND VARIES THE

TEMPERATURE ACCORDING TO THE

SIZE AND DEPTH OF THE LINES

SHE'S BURNING.

THIS DESIGN COMMEMORATES

HOLLAND -- HOLLAND, MICHIGAN,

THAT IS.

THE ARTIST NOW USES WATER-BASED

PAINTS TO ENHANCE THE SCENE WITH

COLOR.

SHE APPLIES THREE COATS OF A

WATER-BASED VARNISH TO PRESERVE

THE ARTWORK AND HELP KEEP THE

SHOES CLEAN.

WHILE MOST CLOG-WEARING FARMERS

OPT FOR A PLAINER VERSION, TRUE

CLOGAHOLICS APPRECIATE A LITTLE

PIZZAZZ.

BUT THEY'LL LEAVE CRAFTING THE

CLOGS TO THE EXPERTS, BECAUSE

THEY'VE GOT SOME PRETTY BIG

SHOES TO FILL.

WHEN WE RETURN, THE KNOW-HOW

BEHIND FAUX COW.

>> Narrator: IS IT LEATHER OR IS

IT PLEATHER?

IT'S NOT ALWAYS EASY TO SPOT

THE FAKE.

SYNTHETIC LEATHER, OR PLEATHER,

CAN LOOK AND FEEL VERY MUCH LIKE

REAL COWHIDE.

IT MAY NOT BE THE GENUINE

ARTICLE, BUT TODAY, PLENTY OF

GOOD-LOOKING PRODUCTS ARE MADE

FROM THIS RU3ULAR MATERIAL.

THE RECIPE FOR SYNTHETIC LEATHER

BEGINS WITH A PETROLEUM-BASED

PLASTERIZER DUMPED INTO A MIXING

TUB.

AN ULTRAVIOLET-LIGHT STABILIZER

IS ADDED TO PROVIDE PROTECTION

FROM THE SUN'S RAYS.

AND THEN A FLAME-RETARDANT

SOLUTION FOR A LITTLE

FIREPROOFING.

POWDERED VINYL IS ADDED UNTIL

THE MIX REACHES THE CONSISTENCY

OF PANCAKE BATTER.

NEXT, DIFFERENT DYES ARE POURED

INTO ANOTHER TUB, FOLLOWING A

FORMULA FOR A SPECIFIC SHADE.

THE LIQUID-VINYL MIX IS THEN

PIPED INTO THE TUB WITH THE

COLORING AGENTS.

NOW A BIG ROLL OF PAPER WITH A

LEATHER-LIKE TEXTURE UNWINDS

INTO THE COATING MACHINE.

AS TINTED LIQUID VINYL FLOWS

INTO THE MACHINE, A MIXING ARM

AGITATES IT, AND ROLLERS BELOW

APPLY IT TO THE PAPER.

THE VINYL-COATED PAPER THEN

TRAVELS THROUGH AN OVEN.

THE VINYL HARDENS, TAKING ON THE

PAPER'S TEXTURE.

THIS FIRST LAYER IS A THIN ONE

TO ESTABLISH THE SURFACE GRAIN.

A SECOND BATCH OF VINYL WILL

CONTAIN A THICKENING AGENT.

THAT'S WHY THEY CALL IT "THE

FOAM."

IT WILL GIVE THE FABRIC SHAPE

AND STRUCTURE.

WORKERS POUR THIS SECOND VINYL

CONCOCTION INTO THE COATING

MACHINE, WHICH ROLLS IT ON TOP

OF THE FIRST LAYER.

THE DOUBLE-LAYERED VINYL THEN

TRAVELS THROUGH ANOTHER OVEN.

THE HEAT ACTIVATES THE

THICKENING AGENT CAUSING THE

SECOND LAYER TO EXPAND.

ONCE THE EXPANDED VINYL IS

HARDENED, IT GETS A FABRIC

BACKING.

A MACHINE THEN PEELS AWAY THE

PAPER TO REVEAL THE TEXTURED

FIRST LAYER.

SOMETIMES A PATTERN IS PRINTED

ONTO THE VINYL TO MAKE IT LOOK

BURNISHED OR TWO-TONED.

THEN WORKERS MIX A SOLUTION TO

BUILD UP THE MATERIAL'S

DURABILITY.

ROLLERS APPLY IT TO THE

SYNTHETIC LEATHER, FINISHING OFF

THIS PRODUCTION RUN.

BUT THIS PLEATHER ISN'T QUITE

READY TO BE SHIPPED OUT.

SAMPLES FROM EVERY RUN UNDERGO A

BATTERY OF TESTS.

THIS MACHINE RUBS THE FABRIC UP

TO THREE MILLION TIMES TO SEE

HOW IT WEARS.

THEN THERE'S A STRETCH TEST.

A WEIGHT IS FASTENED TO A STRIP

OF SYNTHETIC LEATHER.

THE WEIGHT PULLS THE SWATCH TO

DOUBLE ITS LENGTH, BUT IT

DOESN'T TEAR, WHICH MEANS THIS

FABRIC HAS A LOT OF GIVE.

NEXT, A TRIAL BY FIRE.

TO PASS THIS TEST, THE FABRIC

MUST SELF-EXTINGUISH IN TWO

SECONDS.

AND IT DOES...

THANKS TO THE FLAME RETARDANT

THAT WENT INTO PRODUCTION.

NEXT, A CUTTING IS PLACED IN A

FRAMEWORK...

AND HEATED IN AN OVEN TO

INCREASE ITS PLIABILITY.

A VACUUM MOLD SUCKS THE FABRIC

TO ITS FORM, PROVING THIS SAMPLE

ALSO HAS SOME THERMOPLASTIC

QUALITIES.

YOU CAN'T DO THIS WITH REAL

LEATHER.

WITH SO MANY PRINTS, TEXTURES

AND COLORS NOW IN PRODUCTION,

THIS PRODUCT SEEMS TO HAVE

EVERYTHING "COVERED."

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