How It's Made (2001–…): Season 9, Episode 5 - CCD Semiconductors/Airline Meals/Paper Cups/Trumpets - full transcript


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>> Narrator: TODAY ON "HOW

IT'S MADE," CCD

SEMICONDUCTORS...

AIRLINE MEALS...

PAPER CUPS...

AND TRUMPETS.

A CCD SEMICONDUCTOR IS THE IMAGE

SENSOR IN A DIGITAL CAMERA OR

CAMCORDER.

WHEN YOU SNAP THE SHUTTER OR

PRESS RECORD, YOU EXPOSE THE

CCD TO PATTERNS OF LIGHT.

IT CAPTURES THEM ELECTRONICALLY

BY CONVERTING THEM INTO MILLIONS

OF ELECTRICAL CHARGES.

THE CAMERA'S PROCESSOR THEN

READS THESE CHARGES AND

TRANSLATES THEM INTO PICTURES OR

MOVIES.

CCDs, OR CHARGE COUPLE DEVICES,

ARE MADE OF SILICON, THE MAIN

ELEMENT IN SAND.

WHAT'S SPECIAL ABOUT SILICON?

WHEN LIGHT HITS IT, YOU GET

ELECTRONS.

PRODUCTION BEGINS WITH A ROUND

SILICON WAFER SIX INCHES IN

DIAMETER AND ABOUT AS THICK AS A

SHIRT CARDBOARD.

IT GOES INTO A STEAM OVEN FOR

THREE TO FOUR HOURS.

THE INTENSE HEAT, ALONG

WITH OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN

GASES IN THE STEAM, CREATE A

GLASS-LIKE LAYER ON THE WAFER.

THIS INSULATES THE SILICON

AGAINST THE MINIATURE

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITRY THAT WILL

BE BUILT ON TOP OF IT.

BUT FIRST, THE WAFER IS COVERED

IN CONDUCTIVE MATERIAL.

THIS LAYER MEASURES LESS THAN A

MICRON.

A HUMAN HAIR IS 100 TIMES

THICKER.

NEXT, A ROBOT APPLIES A

ONE-MICRON-THICK LAYER OF

PHOTO-SENSITIVE RESIN, WHICH

WILL UNDERGO A CHEMICAL REACTION

WHEN EXPOSED TO LIGHT.

A TECHNICIAN PLACES A MASK OVER

THE WAFER.

THE PATTERN ON THIS MASK IS THE

SCHEME ATTIC FOR PART OF THE

CIRCUITRY.

WHEN YOU TAKE A PICTURE, YOU

EXPOSE THE SILICON WAFER TO

LIGHT AND THAT GENERATES

ELECTRONS.

THE CIRCUITRY CARRIES THOSE

ELECTRONS TO THE CAMERA'S

PROCESSOR, WHICH READS THE

CHARGES AND TRANSLATES THEM

INTO AN IMAGE.

THIS MACHINE EXPOSES THE MASKED

WAFER TO ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT.

THE RESIN UNDERNEATH

THE CIRCUITRY PATTERN

REMAINS INTACT,

PROTECTING THE CONDUCTIVE LAYER

BENEATH IT.

THE RESIN ON THE AREAS NOT

MASKED BY THE CIRCUITRY PATTERN

NEEDS TO BE REMOVED.

CHEMICALS ARE SPRAYED ON.

THIS DISSOLVES THE RESIN

EXPOSING THE CONDUCTIVE LAYER

UNDERNEATH.

TECHNICIANS REPEAT THIS ENTIRE

PROCESS WITH ANYWHERE FROM 13 TO

30 MASKS UNTIL THEY'VE BUILT UP

THE FULL CIRCUITRY PATTERN ON

THE WAFER.

NEXT, TECHNICIANS SUBMERGE THE

WAFER IN ACID, WHICH EATS AWAY

THE UNCOVERED CONDUCTIVE LAYER.

SO, NOW, THE ONLY CONDUCTIVE

MATERIAL LEFT ON THE WAFER IS

THE ACTUAL CIRCUITRY.

NEXT STEP, A THOROUGH RINSING IN

TAP WATER TO REMOVE THE RESIDUE.

THEN A RINSE WITH PURIFIED WATER

TO REMOVE ANY IMPURITIES LEFT

BY THE TAP WATER.

THROUGHOUT PRODUCTION,

CONTAMINATION IS A CONCERN.

A SINGLE SPECK OF DUST CAN RUIN

AN ENTIRE WAFER.

TO PROTECT AND INSULATE THE

CIRCUITRY, THE WAFER IS COATED

IN LIQUID GLASS, THEN BAKED FOR

TWO HOURS, UNTIL THE GLASS

HARDENS.

THE WAFER SURFACE IS DIVIDED

INTO 25 MILLION TINY SQUARE

CELLS CALLED PIXELS.

WHEN YOU TAKE A PHOTO, EACH

PIXEL RECORDS THE LIGHT

INTENSITY OF A MINUTE PORTION OF

THE SCENE, GENERATING AN

ELECTRICAL CHARGE.

A FILTER ON THE CCD TRANSLATES

EACH PIXEL CHARGE INTO COLOR.

THE COMPANY MAKES THIS FILTER

WITH THREE PIGMENT POWDERS --

RED, GREEN AND BLUE.

THESE THREE COLORS COMBINED IN

VARYING RATIOS CAN REPRODUCE ANY

COLOR.

THE CAMERA'S PROCESSOR READS AND

THEN RECONSTRUCTS THE PHOTOGRAPH

SCENE PIXEL BY PIXEL.

EACH FINISHED CCD UNDERGOES A

BATTERY OF AUTOMATED TESTS TO

ENSURE THAT ALL THE CIRCUITS ARE

FUNCTIONAL.

THE MACHINE MARKS FAULTY

CIRCUITS WITH INK.

JUST ONE BAD CIRCUIT MEANS THE

ENTIRE CCD NEEDS TO BE

DISCARDED.

TECHNICIANS THEN CHECK EVERY CCD

UNDER A MICROSCOPE LOOKING FOR

SCRATCHES THAT MIGHT HAVE

OCCURRED DURING THE PRODUCTION

PROCESS.

THE NUMBER OF PIXELS ON A CCD

VARIES DEPENDING ON WHAT TYPE OF

CAMERA IT'S FOR.

THIS ONE IS A 25 MEGAPIXEL CCD,

MEANING IT HAS 25 MILLION

PIXELS.

THIS COMPANY EVEN PRODUCES A

SINGLE CCD THAT HAS 111

MEGAPIXELS.

SO THE NEXT TIME YOU SAY,

"CHEESE," REMEMBER THAT YOU'RE

PRODUCING A DIGITAL PHOTO THANKS

TO ALL THAT PAINSTAKING WORK

THAT WENT INTO THE SOPHISTICATED

CCD SEMICONDUCTOR INSIDE YOUR

CAMERA.

>> WHEN WE RETURN, CREATING THE

ULTIMATE TO-GO MEALS FOR

TODAY'S HIGHFLYERS.

>> Narrator: IN THE EARLIEST

DAYS OF AIR TRAVEL, PASSENGERS

REALLY LIVED THE HIGH LIFE.

THEY WERE SERVED

MULTI-COURSE MEALS THAT

WERE ACTUALLY PREPARED DURING

FLIGHT.

BUT AS AIR TRAVEL BOOMED, THIS

KIND OF SERVICE BECAME

IMPRACTICAL, AND AIRLINES TURNED

TO PREMADE MEALS.

NOT ALL FOOD FARES WELL AT HIGH

ALTITUDES.

THAT'S WHY YOU DON'T SEE ANY

SOUFFLES AT 30,000 FEET.

THEY COULDN'T POSSIBLY RISE TO

THE OCCASION.

IT'S JUST ONE OF THE

RESTRICTIONS AIRLINE CHEFS NEED

TO CONSIDER WHEN PREPARING A

MENU.

AIRLINE MEALS START WITH TONS OF

INGREDIENTS, LITERALLY.

JUST ONE FACILITY CAN TURN OUT

45,000 MEALS IN A SINGLE DAY.

OF COURSE, THE COOKS WASH THEIR

HANDS VERY THOROUGHLY BECAUSE

THEY DON'T WANT ANY GERMS STOWED

AWAY IN THE MEAL.

THEY COOK ON GRILLS THAT ARE

FIVE FEET LONG.

AT ONE END, THEY STIR-FRY

VEGETABLES, WHILE AT THE OTHER,

THEY SAUTé POTATOES.

THEN, THEY SPICE IT UP.

AIRLINE FOOD ISN'T AS BLAND AS

IT'S REPUTED TO BE.

RESEARCHERS BELIEVE THAT LOW

HUMIDITY AND THE PRESSURIZED

ENVIRONMENT CAUSE OUR TASTE BUDS

TO WORK LESS EFFICIENTLY IN AN

AIRPLANE, SOMETHING TO TAKE INTO

ACCOUNT WHEN YOU'RE TRAVELING

BY AIR.

RECIPES VARY ACCORDING TO THE

ROUTE.

FLIGHTS TO MORE EXOTIC LOCALES

WILL OFFER SPICIER DISHES, WHILE

A DOMESTIC NORTH AMERICAN FLIGHT

USUALLY CALLS FOR MORE MODERATE

SEASONING.

COOKS FIRE UP DIFFERENT GRILLS

FOR THE MEAT.

THEY PREPARE FOOD FOR THE CREW

AS WELL AS THE PASSENGERS.

ON MANY AIRLINES, THE PILOT AND

CO-PILOT MUST EAT DIFFERENT

MEALS TO MINIMIZE THE RISK OF

FOOD-RELATED ILLNESS

COMPROMISING THE FLIGHT.

THE COOKED FOOD WILL NOW BE

BLAST CHILLED IN SPECIAL

FRIDGES.

COOKS SCRUB UP AGAIN AS THEY

PREPARE TO ASSEMBLE THE MEALS.

THEY START WITH THE FOOD THAT

NEEDS TO BE REHEATED ON THE

PLANE.

IT GOES INTO FOIL CONTAINERS.

SMALLER CONTAINERS INSIDE HELP

CONTROL THE PORTION SIZES.

COOKS MUST BE CAREFUL NOT TO

OVERSTUFF THEM BECAUSE THAT

COULD CAUSE MESSY SPILLS LATER.

A LITTLE SAUCE AND A GENEROUS

DAB OF HERB BUTTER, AND YOU HAVE

THE MAKINGS OF A FIRST-CLASS

MEAL.

FINALLY, THE FOOD IS COVERED

WITH A VENTED LID.

WITH EACH MENU CHANGE, CHEFS

MUST MEET WITH AIRLINE

REPRESENTATIVES.

THEY SERVE UP SAMPLE DISHES AND

DISCUSS THE INGREDIENTS WITH

THEM.

THERE'S OFTEN A LOT OF

NEGOTIATION BEFORE THE FINAL

MENU IS AGREED UPON.

EVERY DETAIL ABOUT AN AIRLINE

MEAL IS CAREFULLY PLANNED RIGHT

DOWN TO THE PLATES AND BOWLS AND

HOW THEY'RE PLACED ON THE

SERVING TRAY.

IT TAKES A BIT OF ARRANGING TO

MAKE EVERYTHING FIT.

ONCE PLANNERS FINALIZE THE

ARRANGEMENTS, THEY FOLLOW THAT

FORMULA IN THE KITCHEN.

AS WITH ANY MEAL, PRESENTATION

COUNTS FOR A LOT.

OF COURSE, MEALS IN ECONOMY

CLASS ARE MORE SIMPLE, AND THE

PLANNING LESS DETAILED.

THE FOOD-LADEN TRAYS GO ONTO

TROLLEYS AND ARE ROLLED INTO A

BIG, REFRIGERATED ROOM, WHERE

THEY'RE ARRANGED ACCORDING TO

THE FLIGHT NUMBER.

THEY WON'T BE HERE FOR LONG

BECAUSE EVERY MEAL IS MADE TO BE

SERVED THAT DAY.

AND ALL THE GROUNDWORK

BEFOREHAND IS SURE TO PAY OFF

ONCE PASSENGERS AND CREW ARE IN

THE AIR.

UP NEXT, A RU3ULAR PRODUCT THAT

LETS US ALL ENJOY ONE FOR THE

ROAD.

>> Narrator: THE PAPER CUP WAS

INVENTED AROUND THE TURN OF THE

20th CENTURY TO STOP THE SPREAD

OF DISEASE.

TODAY, IT'S AN INTEGRAL PART OF

OUR CULTURE.

PAPER CUPS PROVIDE A CONVENIENT

AND HYGIENIC WAY TO SERVE FOOD

AND BEVERAGES, AND THE LINING OF

WATER-TIGHT PLASTIC OR WAX

PREVENTS ANY NASTY LEAKS.

AND WHERE WOULD WE BE WITHOUT

OUR DISPOSABLE COFFEE CUPS?

PRODUCTION STARTS WITH PAPER

THAT HAS A THIN PLASTIC COATING.

IT UNROLLS INTO A PRINTER THAT'S

AS LONG AS A BOWLING LANE.

AS THE PAPER WEAVES THROUGH THE

MACHINE, PRINTING CYLINDERS

LAYER AN IMAGE ONTO THE PAPER

ONE COLOR AT A TIME.

WHEN THE IMAGE IS COMPLETE, A

ROTARY DIE CUTS THE PAPER

INTO WHAT'S CALLED A FLAT.

THE DIMENSIONS OF THE FLAT VARY

DEPENDING ON THE SIZE OF THE CUP

BEING MADE.

EACH FLAT WILL EVENTUALLY BECOME

A PAPER CUP.

THEY LAND ON A CONVEYOR IN A

SHINGLE-LIKE LINEUP.

A COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM COUNTS THE

FLATS AND DIVVIES THEM UP INTO

STACKS OF 200.

THE FLATS DROP INTO AN ELEVATOR

STACKER.

IT CREATES PILES THAT WORKERS

CAN EASILY COLLECT.

THEY LOAD THEM INTO ANOTHER

CONVEYOR IN A DIFFERENT PART OF

THE FACTORY.

IT MOVES THE FLATS IN A

VIBRATING SHUFFLE UP INTO THE

CUP MACHINE.

MEANWHILE, A ROLL OF PAPER WINDS

INTO THE OTHER SIDE OF THAT

MACHINE, WHERE A DIE PUNCHES OUT

BOTTOMS FOR THE PAPER CUPS.

THIS LEAVES A LONG STRIP OF

SCRAP PAPER WHICH GETS SUCKED

AWAY FOR RECYCLING.

MEANWHILE, THE FLATS ARE RELAYED

TO A CAROUSEL.

NOW THE PAPER CUP TAKES SHAPE.

MECHANICAL JAWS WRAP EACH FLAT,

AND A HEAT GUN SEALS THE SEAM.

AND NOW, YOU HAVE A PAPER CUP

WITH NO BOTTOM.

THAT CRUCIAL STEP COMES NEXT.

BOTTOMS ARE SHOVED ONTO THE CUPS

AND HEAT-SEALED IN PLACE BY

MELTING THE PLASTIC BACKING ON

THE UNPRINTED SIDE OF THE PAPER.

THE CUPS THEN FALL DOWN A CHUTE

TO THE NEXT OPERATION, WHICH

WILL GIVE THE CUPS A RIM AND

ALLOW YOU TO TAKE A SIP WITHOUT

SPILLING.

A HOT TOOL CURLS THE TOP EDGE OF

THE PAPER.

THEN, THE VACUUM SUCKS EACH CUP

INTO DUCTWORK OVERHEAD.

EACH PIECE OF DUCTWORK COMES

FROM A DIFFERENT PRODUCTION

LINE.

THERE ARE BIG CUPS AND SMALL

CUPS, ALL TRAVELING TO THE

PACKING DEPARTMENT, WHERE THEY

LAND IN STACKING TUBES.

A COUNTER KEEPS A RUNNING TALLY

AND PORTIONS OUT THE STACKS.

THE STACKS THEN SLIDE INTO A

CURTAIN OF PLASTIC.

HOT JAWS SEAL THE PLASTIC WRAP

AROUND THE STACK.

AND NOW, THE CUPS ARE READY TO

BE PACKED AND SHIPPED.

MEANWHILE, OVER IN THE TESTING

DEPARTMENT, THIS IS NO COFFEE

BREAK.

INSPECTORS HAVE PULLED SOME CUPS

OFF THE PRODUCTION LINE TO

CHECK FOR LEAKS.

A MIRROR BELOW REFLECTS THE

BOTTOM LINE, BUT LEAKS ARE ONE

IN A MILLION, SO THEY MADE ONE

LEAK DELIBERATELY FOR

DEMONSTRATION.

IN THE CASE OF A REAL LEAK,

PRODUCTION IS HALTED AND

INSPECTORS FOLLOW THE PAPER

TRAIL UNTIL THEY DETERMINE THE

PROBLEM.

IT TAKES ABOUT A MINUTE TO

TRANSFORM PIECES OF PAPER INTO A

CUP.

NOW, IT'S TIME TO HIT THE ROAD

WITHOUT ANY LEAKAGE.

WHEN WE RETURN, A FACTORY

WITH SOMETHING TO TRUMPET ABOUT.

>> Narrator: THE ANCESTOR OF THE

MODERN TRUMPET WAS A STRAIGHT

HORN THAT COULD EMIT JUST A FEW

NOTES.

BY THE 15th CENTURY, INSTRUMENT

MAKERS LEARNED HOW TO BEND A

HORN, ALLOWING FOR MORE NOTES TO

BE PRODUCED.

THE INVENTION OF THE VALVE IN

THE MID-1800s FINALLY ALLOWED

THE TRUMPET TO PLAY IN ANY KEY.

A TRUMPET IS MADE UP OF FIVE

FEET OF TUBING.

THREE VALVES ALLOW AIR TO FLOW

THROUGH ADDITIONAL TUBING TO

ALTER THE TRUMPET'S PITCH.

TRUMPETS ARE MADE FROM SHEETS OF

METAL, MOST OFTEN BRASS.

THIS FACTORY COMBINES DIFFERENT

THICKNESSES OF BRASS IN A SINGLE

INSTRUMENT TO ATTAIN A

PARTICULAR SOUND.

WORKERS FIRST LAY A TEMPLATE ON

A BRASS SHEET AND TRACE IT OUT.

THEN THEY CUT ALONG THE SCORE

LINE WITH ELECTRIC SHEARS.

THIS PIECE WILL BECOME THE

TRUMPET'S BELL.

A MANUALLY OPERATED PRESS FORMS

A PERFECT FOLD DOWN THE MIDDLE.

THEN, THEY NOTCH THE EDGES.

THEN, THEY CLOSE UP THE BELL BY

HAMMERING THE NOTCHED PIECES

ONTO THE OPPOSITE EDGE.

THEY USE A RAWHIDE MALLET

BECAUSE ANYTHING HARDER WOULD

DAMAGE THE BRASS.

A BRASS ALLOY IS MELTED ALONG

THE JOINT.

IT SOLIDIFIES IN A METAL SEAM

THAT PERMANENTLY BONDS THE

EDGES.

NEXT, THE BELL GOES OVER A

CONE-SHAPED MANDRIL WHERE THE

BRASS IS HAMMERED UNTIL IT, TOO,

IS CONE-SHAPED.

THEN THE BELL GOES ONTO ANOTHER

MANDRIL MOUNTED ON A LATHE.

HERE, THE BRASS CONE IS REFINED

INTO A MORE REFINED SHAPE.

THEN, THE METAL IS FILED SMOOTH.

NOW FOR THE BELL'S RIM, CALLED

THE BEAD.

A BRASS ROD WITH A NOTCH AT THE

END CATCHES THE EDGE OF THE BELL

AND ROLLS IT BACK INTO A RIM.

METALWORKERS USE WHAT'S CALLED A

CONCAVE ROLLER TO ROUND THE

RIM'S JAGGED EDGE.

THEN THEY SLIDE A BRASS ALLOY

WIRE INTO THE RIM POCKET.

THIS MAKES THE BELL STRONGER AND

ADDS WEIGHT TO THE EDGE OF THE

FLARE TO PROJECT THE SOUND

BETTER.

THEY ROLL THE RIM OVER EVEN MORE

TO ENCLOSE THE WIRE.

NOW THEY HEAT THE RIM AND APPLY

ACID FLUX TO CLEAN THE SURFACE

FOR SOLDERING.

SILVER SOLDER ENSURES THE WIRE

WON'T RATTLE WHEN THE BELL

VIBRATES.

AFTER WIPING OFF THE EXCESS

FLUX, THE BELL GOES BACK ON THE

LATHE TO SCRAPE OFF THE EXCESS

SOLDER.

USING AN ABRASIVE SPONGE,

WORKERS SMOOTH AWAY ANY

SCRATCHES LEFT BY THE SCRAPER.

THEN, THEY REMOVE ANY SOLDER

BITS TRAPPED IN THE RIM.

NOW, THE ENTIRE BELL IS FILLED

WITH A SOAPY SOLUTION.

THEN, IT'S FROZEN AT MINUS 56

DEGREES.

WHEN THE SOLUTION IS FROZEN, THE

BELL GOES INTO A BENDING BLOCK.

THE FROZEN SOLUTION PROVIDES

COUNTER PRESSURE, PREVENTING THE

BRASS FROM BUCKLING INWARD, AND

BECAUSE THERE'S SOAP MIXED IN,

THE PLIABLE ICE DOESN'T SHATTER

UNDER THE PRESSURE.

AFTER THE ANGLE OF THE BEND IS

CHECKED WITH A GAUGE, THE BELL

IS DEFROSTED.

IN THE MOUNTING DEPARTMENT,

WORKERS ASSEMBLE SMALLER

COMPONENTS MADE OF BRASS AND

NICKEL.

VALVE CASINGS, THE SLIDING TUBES

TO WHICH THEY CONNECT, THE

SLIDE FOR TUNING THE TRUMPET,

THE PIPE THAT HOLDS THE

MOUTHPIECE, THEN THEY SOLDER ON

THE BELL.

THEY LUBRICATE THREE PISTONS AND

INSTALL ONE IN EACH VALVE

CASING.

THESE SLIDES HAVE TO BE LOOSE

ENOUGH TO MOVE BUT TIGHT ENOUGH

TO PREVENT AIR LEAKS.

ONE SLIDE HAS A FINGER RING FOR

HOLDING THE TRUMPET.

AFTER POLISHING AND LACQUERING

THE BRASS, WORKERS TEST THE

TRUMPET FOR SOUND QUALITY.

THIS IS ONE COMPANY THAT LIKES

TO BLOW ITS OWN HORN.

[ PLAYING MID-TEMPO MUSIC ]

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