How It's Made (2001–…): Season 9, Episode 13 - Automatic Transmissions/Silver Miniatures/Hot Air Balloon Baskets/Darts - full transcript


Narrator:
TODAY ON HOW IT'S MADE...

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS...

...SILVER MINIATURES...

...HOT-AIR-BALLOON BASKETS...

...AND DARTS.

YOUR CAR'S ALL-IMPORTANT
TRANSMISSION

IS A SYSTEM OF GEARS AND LEVERS

THAT TRANSFERS POWER
FROM THE ENGINE TO THE WHEELS.

WITH A MANUAL TRANSMISSION,

YOU HAVE TO SHIFT THE GEARS
YOURSELF,

BUT WITH AN AUTOMATIC
TRANSMISSION,

THE CAR'S COMPUTER DETERMINES
WHEN IT'S TIME TO SHIFT

AND SENDS AN ELECTRONIC SIGNAL

TO ACTIVATE OR DEACTIVATE
THE APPROPRIATE GEAR.

THE TRANSMISSION ALLOWS
THE ENGINE TO OPERATE

IN ITS MOST EFFICIENT RANGE,
OR POWERBAND.

IT'S ASSEMBLED
INSIDE AN ALUMINUM HOUSING

CALLED THE TRANSMISSION CASE.

AT THE HEART OF THE TRANSMISSION

ARE THREE SETS
OF PLANETARY GEARS,

SO NAMED BECAUSE THERE
ARE SMALLER GEARS

ROTATING AROUND A LARGER
CENTRAL GEAR.

THE FIRST GEARSET
IS CALLED THE FINAL DRIVE.

IT HARMONIZES THE ENGINE SPEED
AND DRIVING SPEED.

THE FINAL DRIVE IS ATTACHED
TO THE DIFFERENTIAL,

A COMPONENT THAT LETS THE WHEELS
MOVE AT DIFFERENT SPEEDS

SO THE CAR CAN TURN.

WORKERS INSTALL THE STEEL PARTS
CONNECTED TO THE SHIFT LEVER,

WHICH PUTS THE CAR
INTO DRIVE, REVERSE, OR PARK.

FIRST,
THE MANUAL DETENT LEVER.

THEN,
THE FORWARD CLUTCH SUPPORT.

THE PIECE PROTRUDING FROM IT
IS CALLED THE PARK PAW.

THE ACTUATOR ROD CONNECTS THE
DETENT LEVER TO THE PARK PAW.

IT LOCKS A GEAR
THAT IMMOBILIZES THE CAR

WHEN YOU SHIFT INTO PARK.

NOW FOR THE TRANSMISSION'S
FIVE CLUTCHES.

DEPENDING ON WHAT THE
TRANSMISSION NEEDS TO DO,

CLUTCHES EITHER LET GEARSETS
ROTATE OR LOCK THEM IN PLACE.

THIS CLUTCH IS CALLED
THE FORWARD CLUTCH.

BY MOVING THE INPUT GEARSET
AND THE REACTION GEARSET,

IT ENABLES THE CAR TO GO FORWARD
WHEN YOU SHIFT INTO DRIVE.

TWO CLUTCHES INSTALLED
AS ONE UNIT GO IN NEXT.

THE COAST CLUTCH ALLOWS THE CAR
TO COAST IN LOW GEAR

AND TO BRAKE PROGRESSIVELY
IN HIGHER GEARS

WHEN YOU TAKE YOUR FOOT
OFF THE GAS.

THE SECOND CLUTCH
IS CALLED THE DIRECT CLUTCH.

IT LOCKS THE TWO GEARSETS SO
THERE'S NO REDUCTION IN SPEED.

NEXT, THE REVERSE CLUTCH.

IT MOVES THE REACTION GEARSET
SO THE CAR CAN BACK UP.

A CLUTCH IS MADE UP OF LAYERS
OF METAL AND FRICTION MATERIAL,

SUCH AS RESIN-IMPREGNATED PAPER.

THE TRANSMISSION'S SECOND CLUTCH
USES BOTH THE INPUT

AND REACTION GEARSETS

TO SWITCH THE TRANSMISSION INTO
SECOND, THIRD, AND FOURTH GEARS.

WITH ALL THE GEARSETS
AND CLUTCHES NOW IN PLACE,

WORKERS CAN CONNECT
THE TRANSMISSION

TO THE REST OF THE CAR'S
ELECTRONICS.

THESE CABLES ARE KNOWN
AS THE HARNESS.

NEXT COME THE DRIVE CHAIN
AND TWO SPROCKETS.

THIS HOOKUP IS THE CRITICAL LINK

BETWEEN THE TRANSMISSION'S
GEARSETS

AND ITS TORQUE CONVERTER.

THE TORQUE CONVERTER
IS THE COMPONENT

THAT TRANSFERS POWER FROM
THE ENGINE TO THE TRANSMISSION.

THE SPROCKETS IN THE FINAL DRIVE
CONVERT THE ENGINE SPEED

TO THE APPROPRIATE
TRANSMISSION GEAR.

THE CAR'S COMPUTER DIRECTS
THIS HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEM

TO CHANGE GEARS AS NEEDED.

THE COMPUTER TRIGGERS
AN ELECTRONIC SWITCH

CALLED A SOLENOID

TO OPEN A SPECIFIC
CONTROL VALVE.

THIS APPLIES HYDRAULIC PRESSURE,

WHICH ENGAGES THE CLUTCH AROUND
THE RELEVANT PLANETARY GEARS.

WHEN THE HYDRAULIC PRESSURE
IS RELEASED,

IT DISENGAGES THE CLUTCH
AND LOCKS THE GEARS.

NOW THE FINAL CONNECTION
FOR THE SHIFTING MECHANISM,

LINKING THIS MANUAL VALVE
TO THE DETENT LEVER.

THE SHIFT LEVER
MOVES THE DETENT LEVER,

WHICH MAKES THE VALVE DIRECT
HYDRAULIC PRESSURE ACCORDINGLY.

THIS STEEL BAR,
CALLED THE OUTPUT SHAFT,

DIRECTS TRANSMISSION POWER

FROM THE FINAL DRIVE
AT ONE END OF THE TRANSMISSION

TO THE DRIVER'S SIDE FRONT WHEEL
AT THE OTHER END.

NEXT, WORKERS INSTALL SPRINGS
AND SERVOS,

PART OF THE HYDRAULIC
CONTROL SYSTEM

THAT HELPS ENGAGE AND DISENGAGE
THE CLUTCHES SMOOTHLY.

THIS TUBE ASSEMBLY GOES IN NEXT.

THE CONTROL VALVES
ROUTE HYDRAULIC FLUID

THROUGH THESE TUBES
TO THE DIFFERENT CLUTCHES.

NOW THE TORQUE CONVERTER.

IT SPINS A SHAFT

THAT TURNS THE SPROCKETS AND
DRIVE CHAIN THAT WE SAW EARLIER.

A STEEL BAR CALLED A STUB SHAFT
IS THE FINAL LINK,

SENDING TRANSMISSION POWER FROM
THE FINAL DRIVE AND DIFFERENTIAL

TO THE FRONT WHEEL
ON THE PASSENGER SIDE.

UP NEXT,

MAKING SILVER MASTERPIECES
ON A MINIATURE SCALE.

Narrator: COLLECTING
AND DISPLAYING MINIATURES

ISN'T JUST CHILD'S PLAY.

IT'S BECOME A SERIOUS HOBBY
FOR GROWN-UPS,

WHO EVEN BUY FINE SILVER
IN MINIATURE.

AVID COLLECTORS SPARE NO EXPENSE

BECAUSE, AFTER ALL,
IT'S THE LITTLE DETAILS

THAT MAKE THE DIFFERENCE.

IN THE WORLD OF MINIATURES,

THERE'S NO NEED
TO DOWNSIZE ONE'S EXPECTATIONS.

HERE, YOU CAN FIND
ALL THE LITTLE LUXURIES.

THIS SILVERWARE
IS NO CHEAP REPRODUCTION.

IT'S A TINY VERSION
OF THE REAL THING.

TO MAKE IT, SILVERSMITHS USE
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

THAT HAVE BEEN HANDED DOWN
OVER GENERATIONS.

THIS IS A WORKBENCH
FROM THE 18th CENTURY.

TODAY, THEY USE ONE
THAT'S NEARLY IDENTICAL.

TO MAKE A MINIATURE MUG,

WORKERS BEGIN BY DIVIDING
ITS MEASUREMENTS BY 12

SO THAT THE FINISHED PRODUCT
WILL HAVE THE SAME PROPORTIONS

AS THE ORIGINAL.

NEXT, A STRIP OF SILVER
IS ROLLED OUT

TO ABOUT 0.02 OF AN INCH THICK.

THEN, SMALL, ROUND DISKS
ARE PUNCHED OUT.

A BLAST FROM A TORCH
SOFTENS THEM

SO THEY'LL BE EASIER
TO WORK WITH.

A DUNKING IN ACID EATS AWAY
ANY IMPURITIES

AND LEAVES A FROSTY FINISH.

ONE OF THESE DISKS
IS SET ON A LATHE.

AS IT SPINS,
A SERIES OF TOOLS BEGIN

TO GIVE THE THIMBLE-SIZED MUG
ITS SHAPE.

ANY MISTAKE IS A BIG ONE

WHEN YOU'RE WORKING
IN SUCH TINY DIMENSIONS,

SO THE SILVERSMITHS HAVE TO WORK
WITH GREAT CARE.

DURING THE MACHINING PROCESS,

THE FROSTY FINISH
LEFT BY THE ACID IS REMOVED.

THE MUG IS BUFFED TO ADD LUSTER
TO ITS FINISH.

AND NOW IT'S TIME
TO MAKE THE MUG'S BASE.

IT'S TAPERED
TO MAKE A PERFECT FIT.

SMALL FRAGMENTS OF SILVER SOLDER

ARE PLACED
BETWEEN THE TWO PIECES.

THEN, THE PARTS ARE HEATED
TO ALMOST 1,500 DEGREES

TO FUSE THEM TOGETHER.

NEXT, LEFTOVER SILVER PIECES
ARE CUT UP,

AND THE SCRAPS GO
INTO A CRUCIBLE.

A PINCH OF BORAX IS ADDED.

THIS MINERAL WILL PREVENT
UNWANTED OXIDES FROM FORMING

AS THE SCRAPS ARE MELTED DOWN.

SILVER IS FAR TOO PRECIOUS,

SO WORKERS DON'T WANT TO WASTE
EVEN A SINGLE SCRAP.

THE MOLTEN SILVER IS POURED
INTO A PLASTER MOLD.

THEN THE MOLD IS PLUNGED
INTO COLD WATER.

THE TEMPERATURE CHANGE CAUSES
THE PLASTER TO EXPLODE,

EXPOSING THREE TINY SILVER
HANDLES.

ONE OF THE HANDLES IS SOLDERED
ONTO THE LITTLE SILVER MUG.

AND NOW ALL THE PIECES
OF THE MINIATURE ARE IN PLACE.

NEXT, THE MINIATURES ARE PLACED

IN A BUCKET OF STEEL SHOT
AND SOAPY WATER.

THE FRICTION CLEANS
AND POLISHES THEM.

THE SOAPY WATER IS STRAINED OUT,

AND THE GLEAMING MINIATURES
ARE REVEALED.

EACH SILVER MINIATURE HAS TO
MEET THE SAME PURITY STANDARDS

AS FULL-SIZED SILVER PIECES.

IN THIS FACTORY IN BRITAIN,

THE REGULATIONS HAVE BEEN AROUND
FOR 700 YEARS.

THE MAKER'S MARK,
CALLED THE HALLMARK,

IS THE STAMP OF AUTHENTICITY.

HALLMARKING A MINIATURE CAN BE
A BIT AWKWARD,

AND SOME ARTICLES ARE JUST
TOO TINY TO MARK.

WHEN IT COMES
TO REPLICATING SILVERWARE,

IT SEEMS NO JOB IS TOO SMALL,

AND THERE ARE PLENTY
OF SHINING EXAMPLES

IN THE WORLD OF MINIATURES.

WHEN WE RETURN,

BEHIND THE SCENES
AT A HOT-AIR-BALLOON FACTORY.

Narrator: DID YOU KNOW THAT
SOME HOT-AIR-BALLOON BASKETS

ARE MORE THAN 20 FEET LONG AND
CAN CARRY MORE THAN 30 PEOPLE?

THIS PIONEERING FORM
OF HUMAN FLIGHT

WAS INVENTED IN FRANCE
IN THE LATE 1700s,

AND EVER SINCE THEN, PASSENGERS
HAVE BEEN TAKING TO THE SKIES

FOR AN UNFORGETTABLE RIDE
AND AN AWESOME VIEW.

IT ALL STARTS WITH A LITTLE
HIGH-TECH BASKET WEAVING.

FIRST, THE FRAME IS CONSTRUCTED.

WORKERS CUT PIECES
OF STAINLESS-STEEL TUBING.

THEY MANUALLY ROUND
THE CORNER PIECES,

THEN WELD ALL THE PARTS
TOGETHER.

A SHEET OF PLYWOOD IS CUT
FOR THE FLOOR.

THEN HOLES ARE DRILLED INTO IT

FOR STAINLESS-STEEL
SUPPORT CABLES.

THESE CABLES WILL REINFORCE
THE FLOOR

AGAINST THE PASSENGERS' WEIGHT.

AFTER MARKING OFF THE AREA THAT
THE BASKET WALLS WILL OCCUPY,

WORKERS RUN THE CABLES
UNDER THE FLOOR,

WHICH IS LYING UPSIDE DOWN,

LEAVING EXTRA CABLE ON BOTH ENDS

TO COME UP THE SIDES
OF THE BASKET.

THEN THEY NOTCH A GROOVE

THAT IS THE WIDTH OF THE CABLES
AND RUNNERS.

RUNNERS ARE LENGTH OF ASH WOOD

THAT PROTECT THE BASE OF
THE BASKET AND GIVE IT RIGIDITY.

AFTER BOLTING THE RUNNERS DOWN,
WORKERS USE A BRANDING IRON

TO BURN THE COMPANY LOGO
INTO THE FLOOR.

A SPRAY COAT OF LACQUER

WILL PREVENT MOISTURE
FROM ROTTING THE WOOD.

LARGER BASKETS NEED
DIAGONAL REINFORCEMENT CABLES

FOR EXTRA SUPPORT.

THE BASKET WALLS
ARE MADE OF CANE --

THE STIFF STEMS
OF A TROPICAL ASIAN PLANT.

THE CANE SOAKS OVERNIGHT
IN A WATER TANK.

BY MORNING, IT'S SUPPLE, AND THE
WEAVERS CAN BEGIN THEIR CRAFT.

THEY START BY INSTALLING
UPRIGHTS,

ATTACHING EACH ONE TO THE FRAME
AT THE TOP AND BOTTOM

WITH A THIN PIECE OF CANE.

THEN THEY FEED THE SUPPORT
CABLES FROM THE FLOOR

UP THROUGH THE FRAME.

THE UPRIGHTS ARE 18 INCHES APART
ALONG THE SIDES

AND 4 INCHES APART
AROUND THE CORNERS.

THE WEAVERS FILL THE GAPS
WITH THINNER UPRIGHTS

EVERY TWO INCHES.

THE UPRIGHTS ARE TIED TO
THE FRAME AND FLOOR WITH ROPE.

ONCE THEY'RE INSTALLED,

IT'S TIME TO BUILD THE BASKET
WALLS FROM THE BOTTOM UP

BY INTERLACING HORIZONTAL CANES.

A PAIR OF WEAVERS CAN FINISH
A SMALL BASKET IN A DAY.

LARGE BASKETS CAN REQUIRE
A 4-PERSON TEAM

AND TAKE UP TO THREE WEEKS
TO COMPLETE.

WEAVERS USE TWO TECHNIQUES --

RANDING, GOING IN AND OUT
WITH ONE CANE,

AND WALING,
WEAVING THREE CANES AT ONCE.

WALING MAKES A MORE SOLID BASKET

BUT ONE
THAT'S SIGNIFICANTLY HEAVIER,

BECAUSE IT USES
TRIPLE THE AMOUNT OF CANE.

SOME MODELS HAVE STAINLESS-STEEL
STEPS WOVEN INTO THE BASKET.

THESE GIVE PASSENGERS A BETTER
FOOTHOLD WHEN CLIMBING IN.

THE WEAVING ENDS
JUST BELOW THE TOP OF THE FRAME.

WEAVERS FINISH OFF THE JOB

BY SPLITTING THE REMAINDER
OF EACH UPRIGHT DOWN THE CENTER

WITH A UTILITY KNIFE,

THEN FLATTENING AND WRAPPING
WHAT'S LEFT AROUND THE FRAME.

THE WEAVERS INTEGRATE ROPE
HANDLES AT THE TOP OF THE BASKET

SO PASSENGERS HAVE SOMETHING
TO HOLD ON TO DURING THE RIDE.

THEY ALSO PUT HANDLES AT THE
BOTTOM FOR CARRYING THE BASKET.

NOW THEY PAD THE FRAME
WITH FOAM,

CUTTING HOLES TO LET
THE SUPPORT CABLES THROUGH.

THE FOAM PROVIDES BOTH COMFORT
AND SAFETY,

CUSHIONING PASSENGERS FROM THE
HARD METAL DURING A BUMPY RIDE.

AFTER TAPING THE FOAM PIECES
TOGETHER TO PREVENT SHIFTING,

WORKERS SLIP ON A LEATHER COVER
AND LACE IT CLOSED.

FINALLY, WITH A FEW BANGS
OF THE HAMMER,

WORKERS EXPOSE THE SHORT TUBING

TO WHICH THE LOAD FRAME
WILL CONNECT.

THE LOAD FRAME CARRIES THE
BURNERS HIGH ABOVE THE BASKET.

A HEATING COIL
SURROUNDS EACH BURNER.

TO MAKE THIS PIECE,

WORKERS FIRST WRAP
A STAINLESS-STEEL TUBE

AROUND A FORM,

THEN RIVET ON
A REINFORCEMENT BAND.

THE BASKET CARRIES
LIGHTWEIGHT FUEL TANKS

CONTAINING COLD LIQUID PROPANE.

THE PROPANE FLOWS UPWARD
INTO THE COIL.

WHEN THE PILOT FIRES UP
A BURNER,

THE FLAME HEATS THE COIL,

TRANSFORMING THE PROPANE FLOWING
INSIDE FROM LIQUID TO GAS.

THE GAS FEEDS THE FLAME,

WHICH HEATS THE AIR
INSIDE THE BALLOON.

HOT AIR IS LIGHTER
THAN COOL AIR,

SO THE BALLOON LITERALLY RISES
TO THE OCCASION.

UP NEXT, THE ART OF THE DART.

Narrator: THE GAME OF DARTS
DATES BACK TO THE MIDDLE AGES,

WHEN ENGLISH SOLDIERS
LOOKING FOR FUN

BEGAN PITCHING ARROWS AT
THE BOTTOM OF AN EMPTY BARREL.

WHEN WINTER CAME, THE SOLDIERS
MOVED THEIR GAME INDOORS,

BUT THEY COULDN'T
THROW BIG ARROWS AROUND INSIDE,

SO THEY USED SHORTENED VERSIONS,
AND THE GAME WAS ON.

TODAY'S DARTS ARE FINELY CRAFTED
LITTLE MISSILES.

PRODUCTION BEGINS
WITH THE FLIGHT SHAFT,

THE PIECE THAT THE DART'S WINGS
ARE ATTACHED TO.

WORKERS LOAD ALUMINUM RODS
THREE YARDS LONG INTO A MACHINE

THAT HAS
SEVERAL CUTTING IMPLEMENTS.

THIS ARMY OF TOOLS WORKS ON THE
ALUMINUM ROD FROM ALL ANGLES...

SHAPING IT
INTO DOZENS OF SHAFTS.

THREADS ARE CUT
INTO THE SHAFT'S EXTERIOR,

AND ONE OF ITS ENDS
IS HOLLOWED OUT

SO IT CAN BE SCREWED
ONTO THE DART BARREL LATER.

A CROSS SAW CUTS SLOTS
INTO THE OTHER END

FOR ATTACHING THE WINGS.

OIL FLUSHES AWAY THE SHAVINGS.

IT ALSO KEEPS THE TOOLING COOL,

SO IT STAYS SHARP ENOUGH
TO CUT THROUGH METAL.

THE COMPLETED SHAFTS FALL INTO
A BIN TO AWAIT FURTHER ASSEMBLY.

NEXT, BRASS RODS ARE LOADED
INTO A SIMILAR MACHINE.

ITS TOOLING CARVES THE BRASS ROD
INTO BARRELS --

THE MAIN PART OF THE DART
THAT YOU GRIP.

ONE END OF THE BARREL
IS THREADED AND TAPERED

SO THE SHAFT CAN BE SCREWED
ONTO IT.

THIS TAPERING ALSO MAKES
THE DART AERODYNAMIC.

NEXT, TOOLS WITH ANGLED GROOVES
CUT RIDGES

ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE BARREL
TO MAKE THE DART EASIER TO GRIP.

THE PROCESS IS CALLED KNURLING.

ANOTHER TOOL THEN CUTS THE BRASS
BARREL TO THE CORRECT LENGTH.

SOME DART BARRELS ARE MADE
FROM TUNGSTEN,

WHICH IS QUITE DENSE,
SO THE BARRELS CAN BE SLIMMER.

SLIMMER DARTS CAN GIVE YOU
AN ADVANTAGE

IN TIGHT SCORING SITUATIONS.

THAT'S WHY PROS
OFTEN PREFER TUNGSTEN DARTS

AND HAVE THEM CUSTOM MADE,

EVEN CHOOSING
THEIR OWN KNURLING GRIP.

THESE ARE KNURLING WHEELS --

ANOTHER WAY TO ETCH THE GRIP
PATTERN INTO THE DART BARRELS.

KNURLING WHEELS COME IN
AN ASSORTMENT OF PATTERNS,

ALL DESIGNED
TO HELP YOU KEEP A FIRM HOLD

UNTIL THE DART TAKES FLIGHT.

NOW IT'S TIME FOR THE DARTS
TO GET THEIR SHARP POINTS.

A HYDRAULIC PRESS
FORCES STEEL TIPS

INTO THE HOLLOWED ENDS
OF THE DART BARRELS.

WITH THE POINT NOW SNUGLY
IN THE BARREL,

THE DART IS READY FOR ITS WINGS.

DART WINGS ARE MADE
FROM POLYESTER FILM,

WHICH FIRST WINDS
THROUGH PRINTING ROLLERS.

SOME PRINT JOBS INVOLVE
JUST ONE BASIC COLOR

WHILE OTHERS LAYER MANY COLORS
TO BUILD UP A DESIGN.

IN THE WORLD OF DARTS,
THE WINGS ARE KNOWN AS FLIGHTS.

A MACHINE CUTS OUT
THE FLIGHT SHAPES,

AND THEY ACCUMULATE
IN BIG PILES.

FLIGHTS ARE MADE
IN VARIOUS SHAPES.

THIS IS JUST ONE OF THEM.

WORKERS FOLD THE CUTOUTS
TOGETHER TO MAKE A FLIGHT.

THEY CHECK EACH ONE FOR
SYMMETRY,

BECAUSE AN OUT-OF-PROPORTION
FLIGHT

COULD WRECK A PLAYER'S GAME.

NOW IT'S TIME TO SCREW THE SHAFT
TO THE BARREL OF THE DART.

THE POLYESTER FLIGHT
SLIDES INTO CROSS SLOTS

ON THE END OF THE SHAFT.

AND NOW THIS SET OF DARTS
IS READY TO TAKE AIM.

IT TAKES LESS THAN A MINUTE
TO MAKE A DART...

BUT LESS THAN A SECOND FOR THIS
FLYING MISSILE TO FIND ITS MARK.

CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, LLC

IF YOU HAVE ANY COMMENTS
ABOUT THE SHOW,

OR IF YOU'D LIKE TO SUGGEST
TOPICS FOR FUTURE SHOWS,

DROP US A LINE AT...

OpenSubtitles recommends using Nord VPN
from 3.49 USD/month ----> osdb.link/vpn