How It's Made (2001–…): Season 8, Episode 5 - Horseshoes/Dishwashers/Graphite Fly Rods/Frozen Pizzas - full transcript

From the garage to the kitchen, find out how everyday items are made including horseshoes, dishwashers, graphite fly rods and frozen pizzas.


Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

HORSESHOES...

...DISHWASHERS...

...GRAPHITE FLY RODS...

...AND FROZEN PIZZAS.

HORSES FIRST WORE LEATHER
AND METAL SHOES AROUND 500 A.D.

TO PROTECT THEIR HOOVES
FROM WEAR AND TEAR.

TODAY, DEPENDING
ON THE ANIMAL'S VOCATION,

HORSESHOES ARE USUALLY MADE
OF STEEL, ALUMINUM, OR PLASTIC.

A FARRIER IS SOMEONE
WHO MAKES THE HORSESHOES

AND CAREFULLY APPLIES THEM.

A HORSE'S HOOF
HAS A HARD OUTER WALL

LIKE A FINGERNAIL,
ONLY MUCH THICKER.

THE FARRIER ATTACHES
THE HORSESHOE TO THIS WALL

WITH HEAT AND LEAD NAILS.

THE HORSE FEELS NO PAIN

BECAUSE THE NAILS DON'T REACH
THE SENSITIVE TISSUES INSIDE.

HORSES GET NEW SHOES
ABOUT EVERY FIVE WEEKS.

AFTER REMOVING THE OLD ONES,

THE FARRIER USES A FILE
TO TRIM THE WALL'S GROWTH

SINCE THE LAST CHANGE --
ABOUT 1/3 OF AN INCH.

HE MEASURES THE HOOF'S CONTOUR,

MARKS THE MEASUREMENT
ON A STEEL BAR,

AND CUTS IT TO SIZE
WITH A ROTARY SAW.

STEEL IS THE MATERIAL OF CHOICE

BECAUSE IT'S AFFORDABLE
AND DURABLE.

NEXT, HE HEATS THE BAR
UNTIL THE MIDDLE'S WHITE-HOT.

HE BRUSHES OFF ANY DIRT,

THEN DIPS THE BAR IN WATER
TO COOL IT.

THEN HE HAMMERS THE ENDS

TO REDISTRIBUTE THE METAL
TOWARD THE MIDDLE.

THIS WIDENS AND THICKENS
THE PART OF THE HORSESHOE

THAT GETS THE MOST WEAR,

SINCE THE FRONT OF THE HOOF HITS
THE GROUND FIRST AND HARDEST.

AFTER REHEATING THE BAR,

HE HAMMERS IT AGAIN,
THIS TIME WITH NO COOLDOWN.

FOR LARGER SHOES,

TWO FARRIERS
TAKE TURNS HAMMERING

SO THAT IT GOES FASTER,
AND THEY CAN SHAPE THE STEEL

WHILE IT'S STILL
HOT AND PLIABLE.

USING A DRAFTING COMPASS,

THE FARRIER GAUGES WHERE
TWO GROOVES FOR NAILS WILL GO.

HE REHEATS THE BAR,

THEN HOLDS
A SHARP-ENDED TOOL AGAINST IT,

WHILE ANOTHER FARRIER
DRIVES IT IN WITH A HAMMER.

THE NAILS WON'T PROTRUDE WHEN
THEY'RE EMBEDDED IN THE GROOVES.

THESE AREAS WILL ALSO FILL WITH
DIRT TO GIVE THE HORSE TRACTION.

THE FARRIERS ROUND
THE SHARP EDGES OF THE HORSESHOE

SO THE ANIMAL WON'T CUT ITSELF
WHEN IT'S LYING DOWN.

THEY MAKE THE NAIL HOLES

BY FIRST DRIVING THIS TOOL
INTO THE GROOVES.

THEN THEY USE ANOTHER TOOL
TO PERFORATE THE STEEL,

HAMMERING IT INTO THE SHOE
OVER AN OPENING IN THE ANVIL

THAT LETS THE TOOL
PIERCE THROUGH.

THE FARRIER THEN REPEATS
THESE STEPS ON THE OTHER SIDE.

IT TAKES 2 FARRIERS
ABOUT 15 MINUTES

TO MAKE A PAIR OF HORSESHOES.

THE FIRST FARRIER
HEATS ONE SHOE,

WHILE THE SECOND
HAMMERS THE OTHER.

LIKE THE HOOVES,

THE FRONT AND BACK SHOES
ARE DIFFERENTLY SHAPED.

THE FRONT PAIR ARE ROUNDER,
THE BACK ONES, MORE OVAL,

BECAUSE THE HORSE'S
HIND HOOVES HAVE EVOLVED

TO DIG INTO THE GROUND
FOR TRACTION.

THE FARRIERS ALSO HAMMER
PART OF BOTH CURVES,

FLATTENING THE EDGES
INTO RAISED SIDES CALLED CLIPS.

THESE HELP THE SHOE FIT
ONTO THE HOOF.

FOR LARGER WORKHORSES
LIKE CLYDESDALES,

THE FARRIERS
BEND THE ENDS DOWNWARD

TO GIVE THE FEET MORE TRACTION.

IT'S NOT UNCOMMON
FOR A 2,000-POUND HORSE

TO HAVE TO PULL
TWICE ITS WEIGHT.

NOW TIME FOR THE FITTING.

AFTER HEATING THE SHOE,
BUT NOT AS MUCH THIS TIME,

THE FARRIER USES IT TO MELT
THE OUTER PART OF THE WALL.

THIS MAKES AN IMPRINT
ON THE HORSESHOE

THAT LATER HELPS HIM PLACE IT
PROPERLY ON THE HOOF.

HORSES FIRST WEAR SHOES
AT ABOUT 3 YEARS OLD,

THE AGE WHEN THEY START WORKING
OR COMPETING.

THE FARRIER FINE-TUNES
THE FITTING

WITH A METAL FILING TOOL,
CURVING THE EDGES FURTHER

TO MAKE THEM EVEN SAFER
FOR THE HORSE.

NEXT, HE SHINES THE STEEL
WITH A METAL BRUSH.

THE SHINE WILL QUICKLY FADE ONCE
THE HORSE TAKES ITS FIRST STEPS.

DEPENDING ON THE FOOT SIZE,

THE FINISHED SHOE
CAN MEASURE ANYWHERE

FROM 2.5 TO 9 INCHES ACROSS.

NOW, TO ATTACH THE SHOE,
THE FARRIER FIRST FILES THE HOOF

TO REMOVE ANY DUST
OR SHARP EDGES.

HE SLIPS ON THE SHOE,

THEN GENTLY HAMMERS AS MANY
AS THREE NAILS INTO EACH SIDE.

THE NAILS
ARE ABOUT 2 INCHES LONG.

THEY'RE MADE OF LEAD --
A METAL THAT'S EASY TO BEND --

AND THAT'S HE'LL DO AFTER
HAMMERING THEM THROUGH THE WALL.

HE CLIPS OFF THE ENDS AND BENDS
THE REST IN TOWARDS THE WALL.

THEN HE USES OTHER TOOLS
TO GOUGE SMALL CREVICES

IN WHICH TO BURY THE ENDS.

THIS MAKES IT EASY
TO STRAIGHTEN OUT THE NAILS

AND YANK OFF THE SHOE
WHEN IT'S TIME.

HE ALSO HAMMERS THE HOOF
AGAINST A TEMPLATE

TO STABILIZE THE SHOE.

NEXT, HE FILES THE HOOF SO THAT
IT MEETS THE ANGLE OF THE SHOE.

AND, FINALLY,
THE HORSE IS READY TO STROLL.

SO WHETHER YOU'VE GOT
A PONY OR A STALLION,

MAKE SURE THE SHOE FITS.

WHEN IT COMES TO HORSE FOOTWEAR,
FUNCTION, NOT FASHION, DICTATES.

Narrator:
IN 1886, AN AMERICAN WOMAN

INVENTED
THE AUTOMATIC DISHWASHER.

JOSEPHINE COCHRAN BUILT
A MOTORIZED WHEEL

WITH WIRE COMPARTMENTS
FOR DISHES,

TURNING INSIDE A COPPER TANK
FILLED WITH SOAPY BOILING WATER.

IT WAS A HIT
WITH RESTAURANTS AND HOTELS,

BUT IT WASN'T UNTIL THE 1950s
THAT AFFORDABLE DISHWASHERS

FOR HOME KITCHENS
CAME ON THE MARKET.

BUILDING A DISHWASHER

STARTS WITH A WATERTIGHT
CONTAINER CALLED THE TUB.

SOME HIGH-END MODELS
HAVE STAINLESS-STEEL TUBS.

THE REST HAVE TUBS
MADE OF MOLDED PLASTIC,

USUALLY POLYPROPYLENE.

WORKERS SCREW TWO PAIRS
OF PLASTIC WHEELS

TO EACH SIDE OF THE TUB.

THEY'LL SUPPORT THE SLIDERS ON
WHICH THE UPPER DISH RACK MOVES.

THE LOWER DISH RACK ROLLS
ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE TUB.

THIS STEEL FRAME
HELPS SOLIDIFY THE TUB.

THEY AFFIX A STEEL PLATE
AT THE BOTTOM

TO SHIELD THE PLASTIC
FROM HEAT OF THE MOTOR.

THEN THEY ATTACH STEEL LEGS
TO THE FRAME.

HERE, THEY INSTALL A RUBBER
RESERVOIR CALLED THE SUMP.

IT COLLECTS THE WATER THAT FLOWS
TO THE BOTTOM OF THE TUB.

THEY SCREW IN A TWO-PART RING
TO HOLD THE SUMP IN PLACE.

THE HEATING ELEMENT IS
A CERAMIC-INSULATED IRON CABLE.

THIS FILTER TRAPS FOOD PARTICLES
WASHING OFF THE DISHES.

AFTER FITTING AN O-RING SEAL
TO MAKE THE SUMP LEAKPROOF,

THEY SECURE THE HEATING ELEMENT

BY SCREWING CERAMIC INSULATORS
TO THE PROTRUDING CONNECTORS.

NOW FOR THE POLYPROPYLENE
WASH ARMS.

THIS MODEL HAS ONE
AT THE BOTTOM,

WITH A TOWER THAT JUTS OUT
FOR A LARGER SPRAY SPAN,

AND A SECOND WASH ARM
AT THE TOP.

THE MOTOR PUMPS CLEAN WATER
DIRECTLY TO THE BOTTOM WASH ARM

AND, THROUGH THIS FLEXIBLE HOSE,
TO THE TOP WASH ARM.

ONCE THEY CONNECT THE HOSE,

THEY SPIN THE WASH ARM TO MAKE
SURE THERE'S NO OBSTRUCTION.

MEANWHILE,
WORKERS CONNECT KEY COMPONENTS

TO THE DISHWASHER'S
CIRCUIT BOARD.

THIS METAL BOX IS THE TIMER.

IT CONTROLS
THE WASH AND DRY CYCLES.

FOR EXAMPLE, IT ACTIVATES
THIS GREEN CAM LEVER

TO TRIGGER THE WHITE LEVER
TO OPEN THE DETERGENT DISPENSER

AT THE RIGHT MOMENT
IN THE WASH CYCLE.

THE DETERGENT DISPENSER
IS LOCATED ON A PLASTIC PANEL

THAT WILL LINE
THE DISHWASHER'S DOOR.

THEY CALL THIS PANEL
THE INNER DOOR.

THIS SEAL WILL PREVENT WATER
FROM LEAKING OUT

AND ALSO PROVIDE
SOME SOUNDPROOFING.

A PRESS RUNS OVER
THE INNER DOOR,

DRIVING IN THE SEAL
EVENLY ALL AROUND.

NOW THEY SCREW THE INNER DOOR
TO THE OUTER DOOR.

THE ASSEMBLED DOOR HOOKS ONTO
HINGES AT THE BASE OF THE TUB.

THIS MACHINE PRESSES
THE HOOK AND HINGE TOGETHER

SO THAT THE DOOR
DOESN'T COME UNHINGED.

THE DISHWASHER'S MOTOR
IS RELATIVELY QUIET

BECAUSE IT USES

AN INHERENTLY LOW-NOISE
INDUCTION DRIVE DESIGN.

THE WHITE MACHINE ATTACHED
TO THE MOTOR IS A FOOD DISPOSER.

IT GRINDS UP FOOD PARTICLES SO
THAT THEY DON'T CLOG THE DRAIN.

THE LAST TECHNICAL STEP
IS TO CONNECT THE VARIOUS WIRES.

BEFORE APPLYING
THE FINISHING TOUCHES,

WORKERS CONDUCT A SEAL TEST.

THEY FLUSH EACH TUB WITH WATER
TO CHECK FOR LEAKS.

IN THIS PORTABLE DISHWASHER,

WORKERS INSTALL CEMENT BLOCKS
AS A COUNTERWEIGHT

SO THAT THE WASHER WON'T TIP
FORWARD WHEN YOU OPEN THE DOOR.

AND BECAUSE A PORTABLE
USUALLY SITS IN FULL VIEW,

IT ALSO NEEDS SIDES AND A TOP.

THE TOP IS DECORATIVE LAMINATE
ON MEDIUM-DENSITY FIBERBOARD.

THEY SCREW IT
TO WHAT'S CALLED THE WRAPPER,

A THREE-SIDED PANEL
MADE OF PAINTED STEEL

THAT COVERS
THE SIDES AND BACK --

A CLEAN LOOK TO GO
WITH YOUR CLEAN DISHES.

Narrator: FISHING
MAY NOT BE ROCKET SCIENCE,

BUT THE GRAPHITE FLY ROD
CERTAINLY IS.

GRAPHITE
IS A SPACE-AGE MATERIAL --

LIGHTWEIGHT,
FLEXIBLE, AND STRONG.

THE VERY QUALITIES
THAT MAKE IT USEFUL IN SPACE

ALSO COME IN HANDY
AT THE RIVER OR LAKE.

IT EXPLAINS
WHY GRAPHITE FLY RODS

ARE NOW POPULAR
IN THE FISHING WORLD.

TO MAKE ONE, THEY START
WITH A SHEET OF GRAPHITE.

THEY CUT OUT SHAPES,
FOLLOWING PRECISE MEASUREMENTS.

ONE MISTAKE HERE,

AND THE PERFORMANCE OF THE ROD
WILL BE COMPROMISED.

THIS WILL BE A THREE-PIECE ROD,

WITH A BUTT PIECE,
MIDSECTION, AND TIP.

THEY PLACE A SHAPE
ON A TAPERED STEEL MANDREL...

AND PEEL AWAY THE PAPER BACKING.

THIS MACHINE ROLLS THE GRAPHITE
SHAPE AROUND THE MANDREL.

THEY MAKE ALL THREE SECTIONS
OF THE FISHING ROD THE SAME WAY.

A GRAPHITE STRIP
AT THE END REINFORCES IT ALL.

THE GRAPHITE REMAINS ON
THE MANDREL FOR THE NEXT STEP.

THEY WIND POLYPROPYLENE TAPE
AROUND THE GRAPHITE

TO SQUEEZE OUT ANY AIR POCKETS
BETWEEN THE LAYERS.

THEN IT'S INTO THE OVEN TO COOK
AT 257 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT

FOR AN HOUR AND A HALF.

THE TAPE WON'T MELT,
BUT RESINS IN THE GRAPHITE WILL,

BAKING THE ROLLED LAYERS
TOGETHER.

AFTERWARDS,
THEY REMOVE THE SHRINK TAPE

AND PULL THE GRAPHITE BLANK
OFF THE STEEL MANDREL.

THEN THE ROD BLANKS GO
FOR A DIP IN A SPECIAL FINISH,

WHICH TURNS IT A DEEP BLUE.

THEY BAKE ON THE FINISH

FOR A HALF-HOUR
AT 257 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

AFTERWARDS,
THEY MEASURE THE ROD SECTIONS

AND CUT THEM TO SIZE
SO THEY ALL FIT TOGETHER.

BENDING WITHOUT SNAPPING IS
THE GRAPHITE ROD'S STRONG POINT.

THEY HOT-GLUE THE
STAINLESS-STEEL TIP TO THE END.

THEN THEY PIECE TOGETHER THE
RETAINER FOR THE FISHING REEL.

THIS LOCKNUT WILL ALLOW THE REEL
TO BE TIGHTENED.

THE PLUG WILL KEEP EVERYTHING
FROM SLIDING OFF.

THEY GLUE CORK RINGS TOGETHER
TO MAKE A HANDLE.

THEN THEY SHAPE IT
WITH A CHISEL AND SANDPAPER.

THE LINE GUIDES GO ON NEXT.

THEY KEEP THINGS FROM GETTING
INTO A TANGLE.

THEY WIND THREAD AROUND IT

TO SECURE IT TO THE ROD,
ONE FOOT AT A TIME.

A FINAL STEP ENSURES
THE HANDIWORK DOESN'T UNRAVEL.

THEY PLACE THE ROD
IN A ROTATING JIG

AND BRUSH THREE COATS OF GLOSSY
EPOXY ONTO THE THREAD WRAP.

THIS NOT ONLY PROTECTS IT
BUT GIVES IT A NICE FINISH.

NOW THEY SLIDE A METAL FOOT INTO
A GROOVE ON THE REEL RETAINER,

AND IT'S READY FOR THE REEL
TO BE ATTACHED.

BUT BEFORE
YOU CAN CAST YOUR LINE,

THERE IS SOME INFORMATION
THAT NEEDS TO GO ON THE ROD,

LIKE THE BRAND NAME
AND SERIAL NUMBER.

A FINAL INSPECTION, AND IT'S
ALMOST TIME TO TEST THE WATERS.

THE REEL SNAPS INTO PLACE,

AND IT'S EASILY ADJUSTED
WITH THE LOCKNUT.

THE REST IS A MATTER OF LUCK
AND THE RIGHT BAIT.

Narrator:
MILLIONS OF PIZZAS TRAVEL DAILY

FROM THE FROZEN-FOOD SECTION
OF THE SUPERMARKET

TO THE FAMILY DINNER TABLE.

THICK OR THIN CRUST,
MEAT OR VEGETARIAN,

THEIR CONVENIENCE MAKES THEM
A STAPLE IN THE FREEZER.

BUT HOW DO THEY END UP
TASTING SO FRESH

WHEN THEY START OUT SO FROZEN?

MAKING FROZEN PIZZAS
REQUIRES A MAZE OF MACHINES.

TO MAKE THE DOUGH FOR THE CRUST,

THEY COMBINE FLOUR, SALT, SUGAR,
WATER, YEAST, AND OIL

IN A LARGE MIXER...

AND THEY THROW IN
A BIT OF CORNMEAL FOR FLAVOR.

THE MIXER TURNS THE INGREDIENTS
FOR ABOUT FOUR MINUTES.

THIS IS ONE POWERFUL MACHINE.

A TRUCK TRANSMISSION DRIVES THE
STEEL BARS THAT KNEAD THE DOUGH.

THE DOUGH RISES
FOR ABOUT HALF AN HOUR.

THEN THEY FEED IT
INTO A CHUNKING MACHINE,

WHICH DIVIDES THE BIG BLOB
INTO SMALLER PIECES.

THE CHUNKS TRAVEL
TO A SHEETING MACHINE

THAT ROLLS THEM INTO
A FLAT SHEET ONE-INCH THICK.

A LIGHT DUSTING OF FLOUR

KEEPS THE DOUGH
FROM STICKING TO THE MACHINERY.

A SERIES OF ROLLERS
CALLED QUICK REDUCERS

GIVES THE DOUGH
AN EVEN CONSISTENCY.

A FLOUR BRUSH
MASSAGES THE DOUGH,

ENSURING A SMOOTH SURFACE.

NEXT, STAINLESS-STEEL SPIKES
PIERCE THE DOUGH

WITH HOLES
ABOUT A QUARTER-INCH DEEP.

THESE HOLES
WILL STOP AIR POCKETS

FROM FORMING IN THE DOUGH.

A LARGE PLASTIC ROLLER
WITH SEVERAL ROUND FORMS

CUTS THE CIRCULAR SHAPE
OF THE PIZZA CRUST.

THE MACHINE AUTOMATICALLY
SEPARATES THE LEFTOVER DOUGH.

THE FACTORY REMIXES IT WITH
FRESH DOUGH FOR THE NEXT BATCH.

A CONVEYOR
TAKES THE DOUGH CIRCLES

TO THEIR NEXT DESTINATION --
THE OVEN.

THEY BAKE FOR TWO MINUTES

BETWEEN 390 AND 600 DEGREES
FAHRENHEIT.

SIX CHAMBERS INSIDE THE OVEN

AUTOMATICALLY CONTROL
THE TEMPERATURE PATTERN

TO ENSURE THAT EACH ONE
BAKES EVENLY.

NEXT STOP -- THE TOMATO SAUCE.

A TANK PUMPS A STEADY SUPPLY
OF SAUCE INTO A RESERVOIR,

DRENCHING A ROLLER
TURNING INSIDE.

A PLASTIC BOARD
THEN SCRAPES THE SAUCE

ONTO THE CRUSTS PASSING BELOW.

THE EXCESS SAUCE DRIPS DOWN,
REPLENISHING THE RESERVOIR.

MOUNDS OF PRESHEDDED MOZZARELLA
ARE READY TO BE ADDED.

A CHEESE-APPLICATOR MACHINE
CONTROLS THE OUTPUT

SO THAT THE MOZZARELLA
FORMS AN EVEN LAYER.

LARGE HOPPERS LOAD HEAPS
OF PEPPERONI, SAUSAGE,

AND OTHER MEAT TOPPINGS
INTO A MEAT APPLICATOR.

AS WITH THE TOMATO SAUCE
AND CHEESE,

THE MEAT TOPPINGS CASCADE DOWN
ON THE PIZZA CRUSTS.

THE PIZZA IS NOW READY
FOR INSPECTION.

WORKERS TAKE SAMPLES
OFF THE LINE

AND WEIGH THE CRUST, SAUCE,
CHEESE, AND MEAT TO ENSURE

THE EQUIPMENT DISPENSED
THE RIGHT AMOUNT OF EACH.

NEXT, THE PIZZAS ENTER A SPIRAL
FREEZER CALLED A BLAST CELL,

WHERE THEY SPEND
ABOUT 20 MINUTES

AT MINUS-25 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

AN OVERWRAPPING MACHINE

APPLIES A CLEAR LAYER OF PLASTIC
AROUND EACH PIZZA,

AUTOMATICALLY CUTTING THE WRAP
TO FIT.

A VISION-CONTROL SYSTEM
TAKES A PICTURE OF EVERY PIZZA,

VERIFYING THE SIZE, DIAMETER,

AND CHECKING
FOR ANY IMPERFECTIONS.

THE MACHINE
AUTOMATICALLY REJECTS

ANY LESS-THAN-PERFECT PIZZAS

BY AIR-BLASTING THEM
INTO A SEPARATE TUB.

FINALLY, AN ARM PUSHES
EACH PIZZA INTO A WAITING BOX.

ALL THAT'S LEFT NOW
IS TO HEAT IT UP AND DIG IN.

CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

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