How It's Made (2001–…): Season 8, Episode 2 - Glass Bottles/Hacksaws/Goalie Masks - full transcript


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

GLASS BOTTLES...

...HACKSAWS...

...AND GOALIE MASKS.

WHETHER THEY'RE COLORED
OR CLEAR,

GLASS BOTTLES AND JARS
ARE GREEN.

NO TREES DIED TO MAKE
THIS ECO-FRIENDLY PACKAGING.

GLASS IS MADE OF NATURAL
INGREDIENTS THAT ARE ABUNDANT.

YOU CAN RECYCLE GLASS ENDLESSLY,

AND MAKING IT USES LESS ENERGY
THAN PRODUCING METAL OR PLASTIC.

THE RECIPE FOR GLASS

COMBINES ABOUT A HALF A DOZEN
NATURAL, RAW MATERIALS,

BUT THE MAIN ONES
ARE SILICA SAND, SODA ASH,

AND LIMESTONE.

SILICA SAND USUALLY MAKES UP
ABOUT 45% OF THE BATCH.

THE SODA ASH HELPS MELT
THE SILICA EVENLY.

IT COMPRISES ABOUT 15%.

A LIMESTONE CONTENT OF ABOUT 10%

MAKE THE FINISHED GLASS
MORE DURABLE.

THEY COMBINE THESE INGREDIENTS
WITH RECYCLED GLASS

CALLED CULLET.

THE FACTORY'S EQUIPMENT FEEDS
PRECISE AMOUNTS OF THE MATERIALS

INTO A FURNACE.

OVER A FULL DAY,
THE FIERY HEAT --

2,730 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT --

MELTS EVERYTHING TOGETHER,

PRODUCING A GOOEY LIQUID
THAT'S THE CONSISTENCY OF HONEY.

THE MOLTEN GLASS
POURS OUT OF THE FURNACE.

SHEERS CUT THE FLOW
AT PRECISE INTERVALS

TO PRODUCE CYLINDRICAL GOBS.

EACH GOB
IS THE EXACT AMOUNT REQUIRED

TO MAKE ONE BOTTLE OR JAR.

THEY DROP TO A DEVICE
CALLED THE SCOOP.

THE SCOOP MOVES THEM TO TROUGHS

THAT FEED THEM TO JAR-FORMING
AND BOTTLE-FORMING MACHINES.

A GOB OF MOLTEN GLASS
GOES INTO A PRELIMINARY MOLD.

IN A MATTER OF SECONDS,

IT COMES OUT AS WHAT'S CALLED
A PARISON,

A MINIATURE VERSION
OF THE FINAL BOTTLE.

EACH PARISON THEN MOVES
INTO A BLOW MOLD,

THE CAVITY OF WHICH IS THE SHAPE
OF THE FINAL BOTTLE.

THE EQUIPMENT BLOWS THE
COMPRESSED AIR INTO THE PARISON,

STRETCHING THE GLASS OUTWARD

TOWARD THE WALL
OF THE MOLD CAVITY.

THIS PROCESS CREATES
THE FINAL BOTTLE SHAPE

AND HOLLOWS OUT THE INSIDE.

THESE ARE AMBER-COLORED
BEER BOTTLES.

THE COLOR IS PRODUCED
BY ADDING SMALL AMOUNTS OF IRON,

SULFUR, AND CARBON
TO THE GLASS MIX.

THE FACTORY USES A SIMILAR
MANUFACTURING PROCESS

TO PRODUCE OTHER TYPES
OF BOTTLES AND JARS.

IN THIS RUN, THE COMPANY

IS MAKING 375-MILLIMETER
WINE BOTTLES

OUT OF CLEAR GLASS.

THIS RUN IS PRODUCING
375-MILLIMETER LIQUOR BOTTLES,

ALSO OUT OF CLEAR GLASS.

BUT THIS MOLD
HAS A SPECIAL FEATURE --

A RECESSED INSIGNIA
ON ONE OF THE WALLS,

WHICH PRODUCES A RAISED INSIGNIA
ON THE FRONT OF THE BOTTLE.

AFTER THE BOTTLES LEAVE
THE FORMING MACHINE,

THEY TRAVEL THROUGH FLAMES,

OTHERWISE THEY WOULD
COOL DOWN TOO QUICKLY

AND CRACK FROM THERMAL SHOCK.

A LOADER NOW GENTLY PUSHES
THE BOTTLES

INTO WHAT'S CALLED
AN ANNEALING LYRE.

THE BOTTLES COOL
AT A CONTROLLED RATE

AS THEY MOVE THROUGH THE LYRE.

THIS RELEASES STRESS
FROM THE GLASS GRADUALLY.

AS THE BOTTLES EXIT
THE ANNEALING LYRE,

A SPRAYER COATS THEIR EXTERIORS
WITH LUBRICANT.

THIS ENABLES THEM
TO MOVE SMOOTHLY

THROUGH THE REST OF THE
INSPECTION AND PACKAGING LINE.

THE BOTTLES NOW LINE UP
IN SINGLE FILE

TO HEAD INTO THE AUTOMATIC
INSPECTION STATION.

AS THE MACHINE SPINS
EACH BOTTLE,

CAMERAS AND PROBES
CHECK FOR IMPERFECTIONS

SUCH AS CRACKS OR BUBBLES.

THE INSPECTION EQUIPMENT
THEN EXAMINES THE TOP

TO CHECK DIMENSIONS AND INSURE
THE THREADS FOR THE SCREW CAP

ARE MOLDED CORRECTLY.

BEFORE SHIPPING,

A WORKER DOES A FINAL
VISUAL INSPECTION.

THE PROPORTION OF CULLET
AND GLASS CAN BE AS HIGH AS 90%.

CULLET MELTS
AT A LOWER TEMPERATURE.

SO FOR EVERY 10% OF CULLET
IN THE MIX,

THE FACTORY USES
UP TO 2 1/2% LESS ENERGY

TO PRODUCE ITS GLASS.

NOW THAT'S AN INCENTIVE
TO RECYCLE.

Narrator:
THE WORLD OF SAWS

IS MADE UP
OF MANY MARVELOUS TOOLS --

BIG SAWS AND JIGSAWS,

HANDSAWS AND BAND SAWS,

BACKSAWS AND HACKSAWS.

THEY ALL HAVE
THEIR SPECIFIC PURPOSE.

HACKSAWS ARE CHIEFLY
FOR CUTTING METAL

OR OTHER TOUGH MATERIALS.

SO WHAT KEEPS HACKSAWS
ON THE CUTTING EDGE?

HACKSAWS COME IN MANY SHAPES
AND SIZES.

COMPANIES MAKE HACKSAW BLADES

OUT OF A WIDE RANGE
OF STEEL ALLOYS.

HERE A THIN BAND OF STEEL
FEEDS INTO A MACHINE

THAT CUTS IT INTO BLANKS
10 TO 12 INCHES LONG

AND A HALF-INCH HIGH.

WORKERS LOAD 300 BLANKS
AT A TIME INTO A JIG.

THEY LIGHTLY HAMMER THEM

TO COMPRESS THEM INTO A BLOCK
FOR EASIER CUTTING.

THEY THEN FEED THE BLOCK

INTO A MACHINE
CALLED A MILL GRINDER.

IT CUTS TEETH INTO
THE UPPER SIDE OF THE BLANKS.

A WATER-BASED LUBRICANT
WASHES AWAY THE METAL PARTICLES.

THIS HACKSAW MODEL
HAS A 24-POINT BLADE,

WHICH MEANS THERE ARE 24 TEETH
TO EVERY INCH.

WORKERS USE
AN ORDINARY PAINTBRUSH

TO REMOVE ANY METAL RESIDUE.

THE QUALITY-CONTROL DEPARTMENT
INSPECTS EACH BLADE FOR FLAWS.

THEN IT'S OFF TO THE NEXT PHASE.

NEXT, A SEPARATOR DETACHES
EACH OF THE 300 BLADES,

ALIGNS THEM, THEN SENDS THEM
THROUGH A SETTING MACHINE.

THE MACHINE BENDS THE TEETH
TO EITHER SIDE

AT A SLIGHT ANGLE.

THIS IS CALLED OFFSETTING.

IT'LL ENABLE THE BLADE

TO CLEAR AWAY PARTICLES
AS IT SAWS,

PREVENTING IT FROM JAMMING.

NOW IT'S TIME
TO HARDEN THE TEETH.

THE FACTORY DOES THIS
BY HEAT-TREATING THE METAL.

A WORM GEAR ALIGNS THE BLADES
TO ENTER A HEATING COIL.

IN THIS PROCESS,

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC HEATING COIL
HEATS THE TEETH

TO TEMPERATURES AS HIGH
AS 2,200 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT

DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF METAL.

THIS TAKES NO MORE
THAN TWO SECONDS.

AFTER THE BLADES EXIT
THE HEATING COIL,

THE SURROUNDING AIR
COOLS THEM DOWN

OVER THE NEXT SEVERAL HOURS.

THIS PHASE IS CALLED
AIR QUENCHING.

THE BLADES ARE NOW READY
FOR PRINTING.

AN OFFSET PRINTING PRESS
APPLIES INK

TO RAISED LETTERING
ON A CYLINDER.

THAT CYLINDER TRANSFERS THE INK

TO STRIPS
MOUNTED ON ANOTHER CYLINDER.

THESE STRIPS THEN PRINT
THE COMPANY NAME,

THE BLADE LENGTH, AND THE NUMBER
OF TEETH PER INCH

ON THE SIDE OF THE BLADES.

NOW A MACHINE INSERTS THE BLADES
IN GROUPS OF FIVE

INTO SLOTS CALLED FINGERS.

THE FINGERS ROTATE THE BLADES

AND PLACE THEM
ON A CONVEYOR BELT.

THE MACHINE RAISES THE BLADES

AND TAPES THEM TOGETHER
AT ONE END.

THIS MAKES IT EASIER
TO TRANSPORT THEM

TO ANOTHER PART OF THE FACTORY
WHERE PRODUCTION CONTINUES.

NEXT, THE HACKSAW'S FRAME,

THE COMPONENT THAT HOLDS
THE BLADE.

WORKERS PLACE
THE FRAME COMPONENTS IN A JIG

THAT'S POSITIONED
ON A ROTATING CAROUSEL.

A ROBOTIC WELDER
FUSES THE COMPONENTS.

A PRESS PUNCHES THREE HOLES
IN THE HANDLE

FOR ATTACHING A FOAM
OR PLASTIC GRIP.

WORKERS FIT THE TWO HALVES
OF THE GRIP IN A SONIC WELDER

THAT FUSES THEM USING
HIGH-FREQUENCY SOUND WAVES.

THE SOUND WAVES CREATE FRICTION
AT THE SEAM.

THIS GENERATES ENOUGH HEAT
TO MELT THE PARTS TOGETHER.

NOW THE FRAME IS READY
FOR THE BLADE.

AN AUTOMATIC DEVICE
TIGHTENS A WING NUT

TO PUT TENSION ON THE BLADE.

A FINAL QUALITY-CONTROL CHECK.

WITH EACH RANDOMLY SELECTED
BLADE,

THE TESTING MACHINE CUTS THROUGH
A BLOCK OF STAINLESS STEEL.

THE MACHINE PERFORMS THIS TEST
SIX TIMES PER BLADE.

THEN THE COMPUTER CALCULATES
THE AVERAGE NUMBER OF STROKES.

IF THE AVERAGE FALLS WITHIN THE
NORMS FOR THIS PARTICULAR MODEL,

THE BATCH GETS THE THUMBS-UP.

Narrator: GOALIE MASKS ARE ALL
ABOUT PUTTING UP A TOUGH FRONT.

IT'S NOT JUST THEIR
PROTECTIVE SHELL AND CAGE.

THEIR WILD PAINT JOBS
ARE DESIGNED TO INTIMIDATE.

INCREDIBLY, BACK IN THE 1960s,

THE FIRST MASKED GOALIES
WERE RIDICULED BY FANS

WHO VIEWED THE MASKS
AS A SIGN OF WEAKNESS.

IT WAS A CASE
OF ADDING INSULT TO INJURY.

TODAY THESE MASKS ALLOW
THE GOALTENDER TO PLAY IT SAFE,

SO THEY'RE FAR LESS LIKELY
TO BE SIDELINED

BY A SERIOUS INJURY.

THEY START WITH A PLASTER MOLD
OF AN AVERAGE JOE.

THEY PLUG THE MOUTH HOLE
WITH PLASTICINE.

THIS INSURES THAT THE MOLD
WON'T SPRING ANY LEAKS

WHILE THEY FILL IT
WITH PLASTER OF PARIS.

THEY LET IT DRY
FOR HALF AN HOUR.

THEN THEY PULL OFF
THE INITIAL MOLD

TO REVEAL THE SOLID IMPRESSION.

THEY PRESS PLASTICINE
ONTO STRATEGIC AREAS.

THIS MIMICS
THE FOAM SAFETY GUARDS

THAT CUSHION EVERY MASK.

THE FINAL RESULT
IS CALLED A PLUG,

AND IT WILL BE USED TO MAKE
A TWO-PART COMPRESSION MOLD.

AFTER APPLYING A BLACK SEALER,
THEY POLISH IT SMOOTH,

ELIMINATING IMPERFECTIONS

THAT WOULD BE VISIBLE
ON THE MOLD

THEY'RE GOING TO MAKE FROM IT.

OVER AT ANOTHER STATION,

A WORKER IN PROTECTIVE GARB
UNROLLS FIBERGLASS FABRIC.

HE CUTS AND LAYERS SHEETS OF IT,

THEN DRAWS PATTERNS
ONTO THE TOPS ONE,

SPACING THE SHAPES
CLOSELY TOGETHER

TO MINIMIZE WASTE.

THE GOAL IS TO SCORE
100 GOALIE MASKS

FROM ONE ROLL OF MATERIAL.

USING A DISC CUTTER,

HE SLICES THROUGH 25 LAYERS
OF THE FIBERGLASS FABRIC.

THEN HE STACKS VARIOUS
COMPOSITE FABRICS --

SEVERAL OF THE FIBERGLASS ONE
AND PATCHES OF KEVLAR --

FOR REINFORCEMENT.

KEVLAR CAN ABSORB
SO MUCH IMPACT,

IT'S ALSO USED
TO MAKE BULLETPROOF VESTS.

HE PLACES MORE FABRIC
OVER THE KEVLAR.

HE SPREADS AN EPOXY RESIN
ONTO EACH LAYER.

HE DRAPES THEM OVER A MOLD
THAT'S BEEN MADE FROM THE PLUG

AND SMOOTHES THE MATERIAL
TO ELIMINATE AIR POCKETS

AS HE CONTINUES TO LAYER
AND GLUE.

HE'S LAMINATING ALL THE PIECES
TOGETHER TO FORM ONE.

HE TRIMS AWAY
THE RAGGED EDGES...

...AND THEN PLACES
THE INSIDE PORTION OF THE MOLD

INTO THE OUTSIDE ONE.

THE WET FABRIC IS NOW SANDWICHED
BETWEEN TWO MOLD PIECES.

HE LOWERS A ONE-TON PRESS
TO COMPRESS THE LAYERS OF FABRIC

AS THE RESINS BETWEEN THEM
CONTINUE TO FORM A BOND.

HE ADDS SOME CLAMPS
TO KEEP THINGS TIGHT.

AFTER 20 MINUTES, HE PRIES
THE LAMINATED FIBERGLASS SHELL

OUT OF THE MOLD.

THIS IS ONE VERY TOUGH SHELL.

IT'S THE RAW FORM
OF A GOALIE MASK,

BUT IT STILL NEEDS
A LOT OF WORK.

SO IT'S OVER TO THE
TRIMMING-AND-GRINDING STATION.

HE PLACES A TRIM JIG
OVER THE SHELL.

USING A HIGH-SPEED ROUTER,
HE CUTS AN OPENING FOR THE CAGE.

HE SLICES OFF THE FLASH
WITH A DISC GRINDER.

AND THEN HE SANDS
AND GRINDS THE EDGES.

HE DRILLS HOLES
TO ATTACH VARIOUS FASTENERS.

THEN HE CARVES OUT LARGER HOLES
FOR VENTILATION

AND TO REDUCE THE MASK'S WEIGHT.

COMING UP NEXT...

WATCH AS THE PAINT PROS
GO TO WORK ON THESE SHELLS.

Narrator:
THE MAKERS OF GOALIE MASKS

HAVE TURNED SAFETY
INTO AN ART FORM.

THE GOALIE MASK
HAS BECOME A CANVAS

FOR SOME VERY BOLD DESIGNS
AND COLORS.

IT'S A KIND
OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TACTIC

TO INTIMIDATE THE OTHER TEAM,

AND IT ALSO SCORES POINTS
WITH THE FANS

WHO LIKE THE COOL PAINT JOB.

THEY PREP THE MASK
BY ROUGHING IT UP

WITH AN ORBITAL SANDER.

THEN THEY POUR A SEALER
INTO A CONTAINER.

THE TECHNICIAN
WEARS A CHARCOAL RESPIRATOR

BECAUSE THE EMISSIONS ARE TOXIC.

HE ADDS
THE ACTIVATOR SOLUTION...

AND A REACTIVE REDUCER
AND STIRS THE SEALER TOGETHER.

THEN HE SPRAYS THE SEALER MIX
ONTO THE MASKS.

THE FINISH WILL CURE AND HARDEN

AS THE CHEMICALS IN IT
GENERATE THEIR OWN HEAT.

NEXT, THIS SYSTEM STIRS UP
SOME HOT HUES AUTOMOTIVE PAINT

AS THE TECHNICIAN SPRAYS A VIVID
GOLD BASE COAT ONTO THE MASKS.

COMPUTER GRAPHICS
CREATED WITH SignLab SOFTWARE

ARE SENT TO A PLOTTER

THAT CUTS OUT ADHESIVE
VINYL PAINT MASKS.

HE PULLS AWAY UNNEEDED VINYL
AROUND THE STENCIL,

A PROCESS CALLED WEEDING.

THEN HE PRESSES THE VINYL
STENCILS AGAINST THE GOALIE MASK

AND PEELS OFF THE PAPER BACKING.

APPLYING A STENCIL
TO THE CROWN IS TRICKY

BECAUSE THE SURFACE
IS CURVED WITH RIDGES,

SO IT DOESN'T LAY FLAT.

HE LIFTS AND CUTS THE PATTERN
WITH A UTILITY KNIFE

AND THEN STRAIGHTENS IT OUT.

THIS MASK IS STARTING TO LOOK
PRETTY IMPRESSIVE,

BUT THEY COVER THE WHOLE THING
WITH WHITE PAINT.

IT'S A TEMPORARY COVER-UP.

THIS PROCESS IS ALL ABOUT
LAYERING PATTERNS AND COLOR.

THEY APPLY MORE VINYL SHAPES.

AND THEN, USING
A PRESSURIZED PAINT SYSTEM,

THEY SPRAY EVERYTHING
BRIGHT RED.

NEXT, AN ARTIST AIRBRUSHES
SOME SHADOWING

ONTO THE NOW BARELY VISIBLE
IMAGE OF A LEAF.

HE PEELS AWAY SOME
OF THE PAINT-MASK VINYL.

AND IT'S TIME
FOR A REALLY NEAT EFFECT.

HE SPRINKLES THE SURFACE
OF THE MASK WITH WATER.

THEN HE MISTS IT WITH PAINT,

AND THE WATER DROPLETS
CATCH THE PAINT.

HE BLASTS IT WITH A HEAT GUN.

THE WATER EVAPORATES,

BUT THE PAINT DRIES
IN DROPLET FORM,

GIVING THE MASK A FROSTY LOOK.

HE AIRBRUSHES A DROP SHADOW
AROUND SOME LETTERING,

DISPENSING WITH THE USUAL SAFETY
GLOVES FOR THIS DETAIL WORK.

AND NOW ALL IS REVEALED
AS HE PEELS AWAY THE VINYL.

THE GOALIE MASK
IS SHOWING ITS TRUE COLORS.

BUT WAIT --
A LITTLE TOUCH-UP JOB IS NEEDED.

HE TRACES THE PATTERN
ONTO SEE-THROUGH PAPER

AND THEN TRANSFERS IT
ONTO BRISTOL BOARD.

HE CUTS IT OUT
WITH A UTILITY KNIFE.

THEN HE ALIGNS IT
WITH A SHAPE ON THE MASK

AND PRECISELY AIRBRUSHES
AROUND IT

TO MAKE THE SMUDGE DISAPPEAR.

WITH A FINAL CLEAR COAT,
THIS MASK HAS VISUAL IMPACT.

IT MAKES A COLORFUL STATEMENT.

AND NOW IT'S TIME
TO PUT ALL THE PIECES TOGETHER.

SHE SCREWS ON
THE STAINLESS-STEEL CAGE

AND APPLIES A LITTLE GLUE

TO REINFORCE THE ADHESIVE-BACK
FOAM CUSHIONING.

SHE ATTACHES THE SWEATBAND
WITH VELCRO

SO IT CAN BE REMOVED AND WASHED.

AND THEN SHE MOVES ON
TO THE BACK PLATE.

SHE THREADS THE HARNESS
THROUGH THE BACK PLATE

TO THE FRONT OF THE MASK
TO ATTACH THEM.

THE HARNESS IS ELASTIC,

SO IT GIVES THE MASK
SOME FLEXIBILITY.

NOW IT'S READY
FOR SOME ICE TIME.

AND WITH THEIR VARIOUS
CUSTOM PAINT JOBS,

THESE MASKS ALL SAY
THE "PUCK" STOPS HERE.

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