How It's Made (2001–…): Season 8, Episode 11 - Fur Coats/Hearses/Outdoor Lighting Fixtures/Golf Tees - full transcript

Find out how to make a fur coat, a hearse, outdoor lighting fixtures and a golf tee.


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

FUR COATS...

...HEARSES...

...OUTDOOR LIGHTING FIXTURES...

...AND GOLF TEES.

FUR COATS HAVE BEEN AROUND
THROUGH THICK AND THIN.

THEY USED TO BE VERY BULKY,

BUT TODAY'S GARMENT
IS MUCH THINNER

BECAUSE OF NEW
MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES.

THE NEW LIGHTWEIGHT FUR COATS
ARE ALSO CUT CLOSER TO THE BODY,

BUT THEY STILL PROVIDE
OLD-FASHIONED WARMTH.

TODAY FUR COATS ARE MADE
FOR A CHANGING MARKET

THAT VALUES LESS BULK
AND MORE TEXTURE.

THE BEAVER PELT NOW UNDERGOES
MULTIPLE TRANSFORMATIONS

UNTIL IT DOESN'T EVEN RESEMBLE
THE ORIGINAL PELT.

THEY STEAM THE FUR
TO FLUFF IT UP.

THEN THEY GIVE IT
A STATIC CHARGE

TO MAKE THE HAIR STAND ON END.

THE PELT THEN GOES UNDER A ROW
OF LITTLE BLADES SEVERAL TIMES.

THIS SHEARS THE FUR

SO THE HAIRS ARE UNIFORM
AND THE PELT LESS BULKY.

BUT BECAUSE THE DOWNY UNDERCOAT
IS THE MOST INSULATING PART,

THIS FUR WILL STILL BE WARM.

GROOVING IS A NEW TECHNIQUE

THAT INVOLVES CARVING A PATTERN
INTO THE DYED FUR.

THE BLADES CUT A ZIGZAG PATTERN
DOWN THE LENGTH OF THE FUR,

GIVING THE BEAVER PELT
A UNIQUE LOOK AND FEEL.

NOW THE FURRIER DEMONSTRATES
A PROCESS CALLED LETTING OUT.

HE FEEDS A PELT TO A MACHINE

THAT SLICES IT
INTO DIAGONAL RIBBONS.

YES, HE'S CUTTING IT TO SHREDS,

BUT WHEN THIS PROCESS
IS COMPLETE,

THEY'LL HAVE
A NEW AND IMPROVED FUR.

THEY SEW THE DIAGONAL STRIPS
TOGETHER,

ARRANGING EACH A LITTLE LOWER
THAN THE LAST.

THEY USE A SPECIAL
FUR-SEWING MACHINE.

AS THE OPERATOR
FEEDS THE STRIPS,

HE PUSHES THE FUR DOWN

SO IT DOESN'T GET CAUGHT
IN THE SEAM AND RUIN THE LOOK.

IT'S SOMETHING THAT TAKES SKILL
AND EXPERIENCE.

THE NARROW STRIPS OF FUR CREATED
BY THIS LETTING-OUT PROCESS

WILL RUN THE FULL LENGTH
OF A COAT.

IT'S A MORE FLOWING LOOK

THAN SIMPLY SEWING
WHOLE PELTS TOGETHER,

BUT IT ALSO MAKES THE FUR
A BIT RIPPLED.

A PROCESS CALLED BLOCKING
WILL CORRECT THAT.

THEY WET DOWN THE LEATHER
OF THE PELT.

THEN THEY SPLIT IT A BIT
AT THE END TO FIT THE PATTERN

THAT'S BEEN TRACED
ONTO A BOARD UNDERNEATH.

THEY STAPLE THE FUR
ONTO THE PATTERN.

AFTER LEAVING IT TO DRY
OVERNIGHT,

THEY TRACE THE ORIGINAL PATTERN

ONTO THE LEATHER SIDE
OF THE FUR,

NOW SMOOTHED OUT
FROM THE STRETCHING.

THEY MARK A SPOT FOR A POCKET

AND TRIM THE FUR TO THE PATTERN
SO THE DIMENSIONS ARE NOW EXACT.

SPECIALIZED FINISHERS

SEW A CLOTH POCKET
INTO THE SLIT PREPARED FOR IT.

THEY STITCH IN THE ZIPPER

AND THEN CUT OUT PIECES OF SILK
TO LINE THE COAT.

BEFORE THEY SEW IN THAT LINING,

THEY BUILD UP THE FRONT EDGES
OF THE GARMENT

BY TACKING LAMB'S WOOL
ON THE INSIDE EDGING.

THIS WILL ADD STRUCTURE
AND HELP THE FUR HOLD ITS FORM

AS THEY PUT IT IN THE LINING.

STARCH-COTTON TAPE NOW GOES INTO
THE HEM OF THE COAT

TO KEEP THE FUR FROM STRETCHING.

HANDCRAFTSMANSHIP
HAS ALWAYS BEEN

A KEY ELEMENT
OF THE FUR INDUSTRY.

EVERY FUR GETS THESE
HAND-STITCHED FINISHING TOUCHES.

ONCE THE LABEL GOES ON,

THIS FUR COAT IS READY
FOR A NIGHT ON THE TOWN.

Narrator:
WE ALL HAVE TO GO SOMETIME,
AND WHEN IT'S OUR TIME,

A HEARSE WILL LIKELY BE WAITING
TO TAKE US AWAY IN STYLE.

HEARSES ARE ALL ABOUT LUXURY,

BECAUSE LUXURY SAYS DIGNITY
AND RESPECT.

FROM THE PLUSH CUSTOM INTERIOR

TO THE STRETCHED
AND STREAMLINED DESIGN,

IT'S NOTHING BUT THE BEST
FOR OUR DEARLY DEPARTED.

IT'S THE FINAL JOURNEY,

AND THE VEHICLE IS CUSTOM-MADE
FOR THE OCCASION.

THEY START
WITH A CADILLAC CHASSIS.

IT'S BEEN BUILT WITHOUT
REAR DOORS, REAR WINDOWS,

BACKSEATS, TRUNK,
OR REAR BUMPER.

THEY PARK
IN A MASTER-FRAMER JIG

AND IMMEDIATELY SLICE IT IN TWO,

USING A RECIPROCATING SAW THAT
CUTS THROUGH METAL LIKE BUTTER.

THE JIG ALLOWS THE TWO HALVES
TO BE PULLED APART

SO THERE'S JUST UNDER 31 INCHES
BETWEEN THEM.

THEN THEY WELD RAILS
TO JOIN THE TWO HALVES.

THEY ENCASE EACH NEW FRAME RAIL
WITH A SUPPORT PIECE.

THE FRAMEWORK FOR A HEARSE
HAS TO BE EXTREMELY SOLID

BECAUSE IT WILL CARRY
HEAVY LOADS FOR MANY YEARS.

THE BASE CADILLAC ALSO HAS

MORE STRUCTURAL REINFORCEMENTS
THAN A REGULAR VEHICLE,

LIKE STRONGER WHEELS
AND SUSPENSION.

THEY HOIST THE STEEL REAR CAGE
AND ROOF FRAME ONTO THE CAR,

AND THEY BUILD UP THE ROOF
WITH STEEL RAILS.

THE FRAMEWORK
FOR THE CASKET-LOADING DOOR

GOES ON NEXT.

ONCE THE REAR CAGE AND CHASSIS
EXTENSIONS ARE IN POSITION,

THEY MOUNT THE PANELS,
WHICH ARE MADE OF A BLEND

OF FIBERGLASS
AND SPACE-AGE MATERIALS.

ADHESIVE SEALS THE PANELS
TO THE STEEL SKELETON...

...AND THEY SECURE ALL
THE PANELS IN PLACE WITH SCREWS.

THIS IS A MADE-TO-MEASURE JOB.

THE PANELS PRECISELY FIT
TO THE WELDED CAGE.

MEANWHILE,
OVER IN THE PRESS ROOM,

THEY ROLL A NONSTICK COATING
ONTO A DIE,

THEN PLACE A SHEET OF STEEL
OVER IT.

THEY ALSO GIVE THE STEEL
A COAT OF THE NONSTICK AGENT.

AN 850-TON PRESS THEN PUSHES
THE STEEL INTO THE DIE

TO SHAPE THE DOOR
OF THE FUNERAL COACH.

THE NONSTICK COATING ALLOWS THEM
TO REMOVE THE DOOR EASILY

WITHOUT DAMAGING IT.

THEY ATTACH THE DOOR
TO THE BACK OF THE HEARSE

USING SUPERSTRONG HINGES

BECAUSE THEY'LL HAVE TO STAND UP
TO A LOT OF WEAR.

THIS DOOR IS HIGH AND WIDE

AND OPENS 135 DEGREES TO ALLOW
FOR EASY LOADING OF THE CASKET.

AFTER SMOOTHING OUT
THE SEAMS IN THE BODY

AND GIVING IT
A HIGH-GLOSS PAINT JOB,

THEY COVER THE ROOF
WITH A FOAM PAD.

THEY PLACE VINYL MATERIAL
OVER IT

AND PULL IT SNUGLY
AROUND THE CORNERS.

THEY LINE THE DECK OF THE HEARSE
WITH A HEAVY-DUTY LAMINATE.

NEXT THEY PUT UP THE HEAD LINER,

THE FABRIC THAT COVERS
THE CEILING OF THE HEARSE.

THEY MOUNT THE HARDWARE
THAT WILL ALLOW THE CASKET

TO EASILY ROLL IN AND OUT
OF THE COACH.

FINALLY,
THE "CUSTOM BUILT" SIGN.

FROM THE LUSTROUS PAINT JOB
TO THE LUSH, CURTAINED INTERIOR,

THE FUNERAL COACH
HAS AN ETHEREAL LOOK --

APPROPRIATE SINCE IT'S DESIGNED

TO MAKE AN EXIT
THAT'S OUT OF THIS WORLD.

Narrator: DAY OR NIGHT,
STREETLIGHTS LIGHT UP OUR LIVES.

TYPICALLY STANDING AS HIGH
AS 26 FEET ABOVE THE SIDEWALK,

THEY CAST A WARM GLOW
IN THE DARKNESS

AND CONTINUE TO PROVIDE
STREET DECOR DURING THE DAY.

THIS FIXTURE,
CALLED A LUMINAIRE,

STARTS AS A TECHNICAL DRAWING.

TO MAKE CERTAIN PARTS
OF THE LUMINAIRE,

THE FACTORY USES A PROCESS
CALLED SAND-CASTING.

TO CREATE THE INTERNAL FEATURES
OF THE SAND MOLD,

WORKERS TAKE A WOODEN MOLD
FOR THE PART

AND FILL IT WITH A MIXTURE
MADE OF WHITE SAND.

THEY INSERT A WIRE INTO
THE CENTER TO MAKE AN OPENING...

...THEN INJECT CARBON DIOXIDE
INTO THE OPENING.

THIS CAUSES A CHEMICAL REACTION
THAT HARDENS THE SAND.

THEY REMOVE THE WHITE-SAND
PIECE, CALLED THE CORE,

FROM THE WOODEN MOLD.

TO CAST THE EXTERNAL PARTS
OF THE LUMINAIRE,

WORKERS START WITH A MOLD
MADE OF ALUMINUM.

INSIDE IT, THEY BUILD ANOTHER
MOLD MADE OF BROWN SOIL.

THEY PLACE A WOOD BLOCK ON TOP
AND PACK DOWN THE SOIL.

THEY DO THE SAME
ON THE OTHER HALF OF THE MOLD.

NOW, WITH A COPPER PIPE,

THEY MAKE HOLES
IN THE SOIL MOLD --

ONE IN WHICH THEY POUR
MOLTEN ALUMINUM,

THE OTHER TO VENT AIR.

THEY SPRAY THE INSIDE
WITH COMPRESSED AIR

SO NO PARTICLES
WILL STICK TO THE CAST PIECE.

THEY POSITION THE CORE
INTO THE SOIL MOLD.

KEYS IN THE SOIL MOLD
HELP THEM POSITION IT EXACTLY.

THEN THEY POUR MOLTEN ALUMINUM
INTO THE MOLD.

ALUMINUM IS AN IDEAL METAL
FOR STREETLIGHTS

BECAUSE IT'S LIGHTWEIGHT,
RUST-RESISTANT,

AND IT WON'T STICK
TO THE SOIL MOLD.

AFTER TWO TO FIVE MINUTES,

THEY OPEN THE METAL FRAME
AND SHATTER THE MOLD.

THEY USE A DRILL TO REMOVE THE
WHITE SAND PIECE

FROM THE INSIDE
OF THE CAST-ALUMINUM PART.

NEXT THEY SAND DOWN THE PART
TO MAKE IT SMOOTH.

AUTOMATED DRILLS
THEN PIERCE PILOT HOLES

FOR VARIOUS HARDWARE.

A WELDER PLACES A BRACKET
IN A VISE,

THEN WELDS A DECORATIVE TUBE
ONTO IT.

NEXT HE WELDS AN ANCHOR PLATE
ONTO A POLE.

THE UPPER PART OF THE POLE IS
WELDED TO A LARGER BOTTOM PART.

ALL THE POLES, BRACKETS,
AND LUMINAIRE PARTS

GO INTO A SERIES
OF CHEMICAL BATHS

TO PREPARE THEM FOR PAINTING.

THE MODEL SHOWN HERE

COMES WITH TEMPERED-GLASS
OR POLYCARBONATE LENS FINISHES

ON ALL FOUR SIDES.

THEY INSTALL
THE LIGHTING SYSTEM.

FIRST THEY POSITION
THE BOWL-SHAPED ALUMINUM PIECE.

THEN THE LAMP SOCKET IS MOUNTED
WITH THE ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS

INSIDE THE ALUMINUM BOWL.

FINALLY THEY INSTALL A REFLECTOR
INSIDE THE HOOD

TO PROJECT THE LIGHT
TOWARD THE STREET.

THEY APPLY LABELS WITH PRODUCT
AND MAINTENANCE INFORMATION

INTO THE FIXTURE'S HOOD.

NOW THEY CAN CLOSE UP
THE LUMINAIRE

AND MOUNT IT
ON A POLE OR BRACKET.

AND LET THERE BE LIGHT.

Narrator:
BEFORE GOLF TEES BECAME POPULAR,

PLAYERS WOULD TEE UP THEIR BALL
ON A LITTLE MOUND OF SAND.

THE FIRST PEG-STYLE TEES

WERE INVENTED
MORE THAN A CENTURY AGO,

BUT THEY DIDN'T REALLY CATCH ON
UNTIL THE 1920s,

WHEN ONE COMPANY
MARKETED THEM AGGRESSIVELY,

USING PROFESSIONAL GOLFERS
TO PROMOTE THEM.

THAT WOODEN PEG YOU STICK
IN THE GROUND TO HOLD THE BALL

IS ALMOST AS IMPORTANT
AS YOUR GOLF CLUB.

YOU USE A TEE
ON THE FIRST STROKE OF EACH HOLE

TO GIVE YOUR DRIVE SHOT
EXTRA DISTANCE.

AT THE SAWMILL, WHITE BIRCH LOGS
ARE SCALED AT THE SMALL END.

JUST ONE 8-INCH DIAMETER LOG
YIELDS CLOSE TO 3,000 GOLF TEES.

THE LOGS GO INTO
WHAT'S CALLED A STEP FEEDER.

THIS CONVEYOR TRANSPORTS THEM
TO A DEBARKING MACHINE.

THEN A SLASHER SAWS THE LOG
INTO SHORTER LENGTHS.

THE THUMPER ROLL,
A ROLLER WITH STEEL TEETH,

SECURES EACH LOG
TO A SHARP CHAIN.

THIS HOLDS THE LOG IN PLACE
AS IT HEADS FOR THE SAWS.

FOUR SAWS WORK THEIR MAGIC,

CARVING THE 4-1/2-FOOT BOARDS
INTO SHORTER DOWEL BOARDS,

EACH MEASURING 18 INCHES.

THEN A SERIES OF CHAINS

LAY DOWN THE DOWEL BOARDS
IN A SINGLE FILE

ON WHAT'S CALLED
A MOLDER-AND-FEED ROLL.

THE MOLDER'S TWO ROTATING HEADS

TRANSFORM THE RECTANGULAR BOARD
INTO ROUND DOWELS.

AN OUTFEED ROLL
DROPS EACH DOWEL ONTO A BELT

FOR SEVERAL
QUALITY-CONTROL CHECKS.

AN INSPECTOR
EXAMINES THE DOWELS,

REMOVING DEFECTIVE PIECES

AND SETTING ASIDE DOWELS
THAT NEED MORE CUTTING.

A SINGLE INSPECTOR SORTS
CLOSE TO 19,000 DOWELS PER HOUR.

THEY GO INTO RACKS
THAT HOLD 8,900 DOWELS EACH.

RACK AFTER RACK
NOW TRAVELS INTO A LATHE.

A BLADE WHITTLES THE DOWEL
TO A PRELIMINARY SHAPE.

THIS TOOL, CALLED A TRUMPET,
MOVES OVER THE DOWELS,

SCULPTING THE TEE'S FINAL SHAPE.

A BLADE SIMULTANEOUSLY
SLICES THE TEE FROM THE DOWEL

AND FORMS THE CUP.

THE METAMORPHOSIS
IS ALMOST COMPLETE

FROM WOODEN BOARDS...

TO DOWELS...

TO TEES.

NEXT THE TEES GO FOR A TUMBLE
IN A SANDING DRUM.

THIS CASCADING ACTION

HAS THE TEES
SANDING EACH OTHER'S SURFACE

UNTIL THEY'RE SMOOTH.

THE SLOTS ON THIS MACHINE

SEPARATE THE GOOD TEES
FROM THE BAD ONES

AND SCREEN OUT THE WASTE.

LONG, NAIL-LIKE BUMPS
ON THE MACHINE DIVIDE THE TEES

SO THAT ONLY ONE DROPS DOWN
AT A TIME.

THE TEE FITS THROUGH
ONLY IF IT'S PERFECTLY SHAPED.

THE REJECTS AND WOOD SHAVINGS
ROLL ACROSS THE TOP

AND LAND ELSEWHERE.

THE GOOD TEES LAND IN A BIG BIN,
CALLED A TOTE.

GOLF TEES COME IN
A FEW DIFFERENT LENGTHS,

BUT YOUR AVERAGE ONE
IS 2 1/2 INCHES LONG

AND WEIGHS .02 GRAMS,

SO A TOTE TYPICALLY HOLDS
SOME 100,000 TEES.

A TOTE DUMPER THEN DUMPS
TWO TOTES OF TEES

INTO A PAINT DRUM.

SMALL STEEL FLIGHTS
INSIDE THE DRUM

SEND THE TEES CASCADING
IN A UNIFORM DIRECTION.

WITH EACH TURN,
THEY PICK UP PAINT.

IT TAKES 2 HOURS AND 10 GALLONS
OF WATER-BASED PAINT

TO FULLY COAT THE TEES,

THEN ANOTHER TWO HOURS
TO DRY THE PAINT.

A TRAPDOOR RELEASES THE TEES
INTO A VIBRATING CONVEYOR

AND INTO A TOTE.

IF THESE TEES
WILL HAVE PRINTING ON THEM,

THERE'S STILL ONE MORE STEP.

THEY GET AN EXTRA COAT
OF ENAMEL PAINT

TO CREATE A SMOOTH SURFACE
FOR THE INK.

SHINY OR MAT, PLAIN OR PRINTED,

THE GOLF TEE
HAS SURE COME A LONG WAY

SINCE THE DAYS OF TEEING OFF
ON A MOUND OF SAND.

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