How It's Made (2001–…): Season 8, Episode 10 - Handcuffs/Caulking and Joint Compound/Propane Tanks/Forensic Facial Reconstruction - full transcript

Find out how handcuffs are forged, caulking and joint compound are made, propane tanks are filled, and forensic facial reconstruction is done.


Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

HANDCUFFS...

...CAULKING
AND JOINT COMPOUND...

...PROPANE TANKS...

...AND FORENSIC
FACIAL RECONSTRUCTION.

WHEN A CRIME IS COMMITTED,

A SLAP ON THE WRIST
USUALLY ISN'T ENOUGH.

IT'S TIME TO HANDCUFF THEM.

THE NEED FOR SOME RESTRAINT
GOES BACK CENTURIES,

BUT THE HANDCUFF'S DESIGN
WAS REALLY IMPROVED IN 1862

WHEN ADJUSTABLE RATCHETS
WERE ADDED.

THEY ALLOW THE CUFFS TO SNUGLY
GRIP THE SUSPECT'S WRIST.

WHEN THEY PUT THE HANDCUFFS
ON YOU,

YOU KNOW YOU MAY BE IN TROUBLE.

HANDCUFFS START
WITH A ROLL OF STEEL.

A MACHINE PULLS IT
THROUGH A STRAIGHTENER

AND THEN THROUGH A DIE

THAT PUNCHES OUT
A HANDCUFF FRAME PART.

A REVOLVING BARREL CAGE
SIFTS OUT THE WASTE

AND KICKS THE FRAMES INTO A BIN.

HERE, A WORKER STACKS "U"-SHAPED
STEEL PARTS ON A FIXTURE,

WHICH HE THEN CLAMPS
ONTO A MACHINE.

A CUTTER MAKES RATCHET TEETH
IN THE PARTS.

COOLANT KEEPS THE TOOL

FROM HEATING UP AND GETTING
TOO SOFT TO DO THE JOB.

EACH SET OF HANDCUFFS
WILL HAVE TWO OF THESE RATCHETS.

NEXT, THEY LOAD STEEL RODS
INTO A SLOWLY REVOLVING DEVICE.

IT MOVES THE RODS
THROUGH A SERIES OF CUTTERS.

THIS IS HOW THEY MAKE SWIVELS
FOR THE HANDCUFFS.

THEY ROUND THE TIPS OF THE RODS
AND THEN CARVE NECKS BELOW.

THIS TOOL SLICES THE SWIVEL
TO THE PROPER LENGTH.

AND THEN THE PARTIALLY FINISHED
SWIVEL FALLS INTO A BASKET.

NEXT, A DRILL
WORKS ON THE ROUNDED TIP,

SCOOPING OUT THE CENTER.

AND NOW YOU HAVE
A FINISHED SWIVEL.

THEY TAKE TWO CHAIN LINKS
AND TWO SWIVELS.

THEY MAKE A SMALL CHAIN --

TWO LINKS WITH SWIVELS
ON THE ENDS.

THEY LOCK THE LINKS
AND THE SWIVELS TOGETHER.

AND NOW THE SWIVEL-LINK ASSEMBLY
IS COMPLETE.

THE SWIVELS WILL PROVIDE
SOME ROTATIONAL FREEDOM

BETWEEN THE CUFFS.

BUT IF THEY DON'T WELD
THE LINKS TOGETHER,

THE PRISONER
COULD HAVE TOTAL FREEDOM.

IT'S TIME TO ASSEMBLE
THE HANDCUFFS.

THEY INSTALL STUDS
IN THE OUTER FRAMEWORK

AND ATTACH THE RATCHETS TO THEM.

THE SWIVEL LINK FITS INTO THE
LITTLE GROOVES IN THE FRAMEWORK.

THEY HAMMER THE INNER FRAME ON

AND THEN LIFT THE TOP AND BOTTOM
ASSEMBLIES TOGETHER.

A TAP WITH A HAMMER
HOLDS THEM LOOSELY TOGETHER.

THEN A PRESS BEARS DOWN
TO MAKE A TIGHT SEAL.

THESE CUFFS LOOK COMPLETE,

BUT THEY AREN'T QUITE READY
FOR A LIFE OF CRIME.

THEY NEED TO BE TOUGHENED UP.

SO THEY SPEND 25 MINUTES
IN A FURNACE,

AND THE SEARING HEAT
HARDENS THE SEAL.

THIS IS THE PAWL,

A SPRING-LOADED BAR THAT WILL
ENGAGE THE TEETH OF THE RATCHET.

THEY LOCK THE PAWL AND SPRING
IN PLACE.

A PRESS PUSHES PINS
INTO THE ASSEMBLY

TO HOLD EVERYTHING IN POSITION.

THEN THEY STAMP SERIAL NUMBERS
ONTO EACH SET OF HANDCUFFS

SO THAT THE POLICE
CAN KEEP TRACK OF THEM.

NOW THE HANDCUFFS SHAKE IN
A VIBRATING BIN FULL OF STONES.

THIS POLISHES THE ROUGH EDGES.

IT'S TIME FOR THE ULTIMATE TEST.

THEY ACTIVATE A 500-POUND PULL,
AND THE HANDCUFFS REMAIN STRONG.

THEY ALSO TAP EACH SET TO MAKE
SURE THE RATCHETS DROP FREELY.

HANDCUFFS ARE
TEMPORARY RESTRAINTS,

AND MOST CAN BE OPENED
WITH THE UNIVERSAL KEY.

THEY PACK TWO WITH EACH SET,

ALONG WITH THE INSTRUCTIONS.

THERE'S NO DOUBT
THEY'LL HAVE A CAPTIVE MARKET

BECAUSE THERE'S ALWAYS SOMEONE
WHO NEEDS TO BE LOCKED UP.

BUT THEN AGAIN, THERE ARE ALSO
THOSE WHO DESERVE THEIR FREEDOM.

Narrator: THE NEED TO SEAL
WINDOWS AND CRACKS

IN WALLS AND FLOORS HAS BEEN
AROUND SINCE ANTIQUITY.

LUCKY FOR US, WE NO LONGER
HAVE TO STUFF RAGS

OR SMELLY FISH GLUE
INTO THESE CREVICES.

TODAY'S CAULKING
AND DRYWALL COMPOUNDS

FORM DURABLE SYNTHETIC SEALS
THAT ALSO BLEND INTO THE DECOR.

THIS COMPANY'S CAULKING COMES
IN TWO TYPES, LATEX AND ACRYLIC,

BOTH GOOD
FOR INDOOR AND OUTDOOR USE.

TO MAKE ACRYLIC CAULKING,
THEY BLEND WATER WITH CHEMICALS

THAT PREVENT MOLD AND HELP THE
CAULKING WITHSTAND COLD WEATHER.

EVERYTHING BLENDS
FOR ABOUT ONE MINUTE.

THE BATCH THEN GOES
INTO ANOTHER MIXER

CONTAINING 1,500 POUNDS
OF SYNTHETIC RESIN.

THEY ADD A PLASTICIZER

THAT KEEPS THE CAULKING FLEXIBLE
OVER TIME.

A COMBINATION OF COLORANTS
TINTS THE CAULKING --

IN THIS CASE, A SHADE OF BROWN
CALLED SANDALWOOD.

AFTER 15 MINUTES OF BLENDING,
THE CAULKING IS READY.

TO TEST THE BATCH,

THEY CURE A SAMPLE AT 77 DEGREES
FAHRENHEIT FOR ONE WEEK...

THEN CHECK ITS FLEXIBILITY.

IF THE BATCH GETS THE OKAY,
IT GOES INTO THIS MACHINE,

WHICH LINES UP
PLASTIC CAULKING TUBES.

PISTON PUMPS
LIFT FOUR TUBES AT A TIME,

AND THE NOZZLES FILL EACH TUBE
WITH 10 OUNCES OF CAULKING.

THE MACHINE CAN FILL UP
TO 1,000 TUBES PER HOUR.

THE MACHINE THEN SEALS
THE BOTTOM END OF THE TUBES

WITH PLASTIC COVERS.

THE TOP ENDS HAVE CLOSED NOZZLES
WITH REPLACEABLE CAPS.

THANKS TO THE RESINS
AND PLASTICIZERS,

THIS COMPANY'S PRODUCTS
LAST UP TO 30 YEARS.

THAT'S THE TOUGH SIDE
OF CAULKING,

BUT THERE'S ALSO
A GENTLER, CRAFTIER SIDE.

START BY DRAWING A PATTERN
ON A PIECE OF PAPER.

THEN LAY GLASS ON TOP AND
RUN CAULKING ALONG THE PATTERN.

AFTER 48 HOURS,

THE CAULKING HARDENS
INTO A DELICATE LATTICE.

THEN FILL IN THE SPACES
WITH CLEAR SILICONE

FOR A FROSTED LOOK.

USE A SMALL STEEL BRUSH
AND RUBBER GLOVES

TO SPREAD IT AND CREATE TEXTURE.

PERFECT FOR A DOOR
OR A BATHROOM WINDOW.

THIS FACTORY
ALSO MAKES JOINT COMPOUND.

USE THIS PRODUCT TO COVER
CRACKS, HOLES, AND SEAMS

IN DRYWALL.

TO MAKE IT, THEY MIX
185 GALLONS OF WATER

WITH CHEMICALS THAT PREVENT MOLD

AND A TYPE OF CLAY THAT MAKES
THE COMPOUND MORE SPREADABLE.

NOW FOR THE MAIN INGREDIENT --
440 POUNDS OF CHALK.

IT'S WHAT REMAINS ON THE WALL
WHEN THE COMPOUND DRIES.

NEXT, THEY ADD MICA,

A MINERAL WHOSE TINY PLATES
SLIDE OVER EACH OTHER

TO MAKE THE COMPOUND FLEXIBLE
AND HELP PREVENT CRACKING.

THEY TEST THE THICKNESS
WITH A DEVICE

THAT GAUGES HOW MUCH PRESSURE
IT TAKES TO STIR THE COMPOUND.

NEXT, THEY TAKE A SAMPLE
FROM EVERY BATCH

AND MEASURE THE pH LEVEL.

IT SHOULD HAVE A READING OF 8.8,
QUITE HIGH BECAUSE OF THE CHALK.

THIS IS WHAT'S CALLED
A SANDABILITY TEST.

TECHNICIANS FIRST LET A PRECISE
AMOUNT OF COMPOUND HARDEN

ON A PIECE OF DRYWALL.

THIS MACHINE THEN SANDS IT DOWN,

APPLYING 100 STROKES
IN 2 MINUTES.

TECHNICIANS THEN REMEASURE
THE COMBINED WEIGHT

OF THE COMPOUND AND DRYWALL,

REGISTERING HOW MUCH
HAS BEEN LOST.

MAXIMUM WEIGHT LOSS
SHOULD BE 4%.

IF THE BATCH PASSES THE TEST,
THEY FEED IT INTO THIS MACHINE.

IT PUMPS COMPOUND INTO EITHER
SMALL-SIZE, 6.6-POUND

OR LARGE-SIZE, 15.5-POUND
PLASTIC BUCKETS.

THEN USING A HYDRAULIC PRESS,

A WORKER SEALS THE CONTAINERS
WITH PLASTIC COVERS.

TO OPEN THE BUCKET,
YOU BREAK A SMALL PLASTIC TAB

AND LIFT OFF THE COVER.

JOINT COMPOUND
ALSO HAS ITS CRAFTY USES.

WITH A STENCIL,

YOU CAN APPLY SMALL AMOUNTS
IN INTRICATE PATTERNS

TO DECORATE A PICTURE FRAME
OR A MIRROR.

NOW, THAT IS SOME FANCY FILLER.

Narrator: COMPRESSING PROPANE

ALLOWS YOU TO SELL IT
BY THE BOTTLE.

WHEN YOU COMPRESS IT,
PROPANE GAS TURNS INTO A LIQUID,

AND AS A LIQUID,
IT'S MUCH MORE COMPACT,

WHICH MEANS YOU CAN PACK
A LOT OF ENERGY

INTO A SMALL CONTAINER.

OPENING THE VALVE
CONVERTS IT BACK TO GAS,

GIVING YOU ENERGY
THAT YOU CAN PUT TO GOOD USE.

BOTTLING ENERGY MEANS YOU CAN
ALWAYS HAVE FUEL ON HAND.

TO MAKE THESE TANKS, THEY START
WITH THIS BIG COIL OF STEEL.

A PRESS PUNCHES OUT 3 DISKS
19 INCHES IN DIAMETER

WITH EACH SWOOP.

A SECOND PRESS CLAMPS THE DISK

AS A CYLINDER-SHAPED DIE
THRUSTS UPWARD,

TRANSFORMING IT INTO A SHELL.

EACH SHELL IS 1/2
OF A BARBECUE TANK.

NEXT, SUCTIONING DEVICES

CARRY THE TANK SHELLS
OVER TO A TRIMMER,

WHERE A BLADE GIVES IT
A NEAT EDGE.

WORKERS THEN INSERT FLANGES

INTO PREPUNCHED HOLES
IN THE TOP SHELLS.

THE TOP AND BOTTOM HALVES
OF THE BARBECUE TANKS

NOW MOVE IN SEPARATE DIRECTIONS.

THE TOPS HEAD INTO
AN AUTOMATED WELDING STATION

WHERE THE FLANGES
ARE FUSED TO THEM.

THE WELD HAS TO BE PERFECT

SO IT CAN TAKE THE PRESSURE
OF COMPRESSED FUEL

WITHOUT EXPLODING.

THIS DIE SIMULTANEOUSLY BENDS
STEEL STRIPS INTO RINGS

AND PUNCHES HOLES IN THEM.

THESE RINGS
WILL BE USED AS PEDESTALS,

AND THE HOLES CAN BE USED TO
MOUNT THE TANK TO A BARBECUE.

NEXT, A MACHINE WELDS THE RINGS

TO THE BOTTOMS
OF THE TANK SHELLS.

THE TOP AND BOTTOM TANK SHELLS
CONVERGE.

AND A PUSHER DEVICE NUDGES
THE TOPS ONTO THE BOTTOMS.

THEY LOAD EACH FRESHLY ASSEMBLED
TANK ONTO A WELDING LATHE.

THE LATHE TURNS
AS AN AUTOMATED WELDING GUN

FOLLOWS THE SEAM PRECISELY,

MELTING AND BONDING
THE TWO PIECES TOGETHER.

BUT THIS PROCESSING
HAS HARDENED THE STEEL...

NOT A GOOD THING

BECAUSE THESE TANKS WILL NEED
TO EXPAND AND CONTRACT

TO ACCOMMODATE PRESSURIZED FUEL.

SO THEY TEMPER THE TANKS
IN A FURNACE.

THEY DO RANDOM TESTS
OF THE WELDED SEAM.

THEY CUT OUT A PIECE OF THE TANK
AND GRIND IT ON BOTH SIDES

TO EXPOSE THE WELD.

THEN THEY USE A JACK

TO BEND THE SAMPLE
RIGHT AT THE SEAM.

IT DOESN'T SPLIT
AND PASSES THE TEST.

IN ANOTHER TEST, THEY LOWER
A TANK INTO A WATER-FILLED DRUM.

THEY PUMP WATER INTO THE TANK,

CAUSING PRESSURE INSIDE THE DRUM
TO RISE,

PROVING THE TANK WILL INDEED
EXPAND WITH PRESSURE CHANGES.

THE TANKS THEN TRAVEL DOWN A ROW
OF PAINT GUNS,

WHICH SPRAY THEM

WITH ELECTROSTATICALLY CHARGED
POWDER PAINT.

THE TANKS JOURNEY ABOUT A HALF
MILE TO AN INSPECTION STATION.

HERE, WORKERS
CHECK FOR CONTAMINANTS.

THEN THEY DROP VALVES
INTO THE FLANGED OPENINGS

AND PLACE THE BARBECUE CYLINDER
IN A SPECIAL MACHINE

THAT SCREWS THE VALVE ON
VERY TIGHTLY.

IN ONE FINAL TEST, THEY SUBMERGE
AIR-FILLED TANKS IN WATER.

IF THE WATER DOESN'T BUBBLE UP,

IT MEANS THE VALVE
ISN'T LEAKING.

AND AFTER ALL THAT,

THESE BARBECUE TANKS SHOULD BE
ABLE TO TAKE PLENTY OF GRILLING.

Narrator: WHEN THE USUAL WAYS OF
IDENTIFYING HUMAN REMAINS FAIL

AND THE INVESTIGATION STALLS,

POLICE SOMETIMES NEED
A LITTLE IMAGE BUILDING,

AS IN FACIAL RECONSTRUCTION.

USING THE SKULL, THEY RE-CREATE
THE FACE OF THE DECEASED

IN HOPES THAT IT WILL JOG
SOMEONE'S MEMORY.

IT'S A HIGH-TECH WAY
TO SOLVE A MYSTERY.

TO RECONSTRUCT A FACE,

THE SPECIALIST USES RESIN
TO MAKE AN EXACT REPLICA

OF THE UNIDENTIFIED MAN'S
CRANIUM.

HE ATTACHES IT TO THE REST
OF THE SKULL CAST.

AND NOW HE HAS AN EXACT COPY
OF THE MAN'S SKULL.

NEXT HE MEASURES RUBBER PEGS
TO DIFFERENT LENGTHS

THAT ARE EQUIVALENT
TO THE VARIOUS THICKNESSES

OF FACIAL SKIN.

THE SHORT ONE IS PLACED ON THE
FOREHEAD WHERE THE SKIN IS THIN.

THEN HE INSTALLS ACTUAL
PROSTHETIC EYES MADE OF PLASTIC.

THOSE ARE SUCTION CUPS
PROTRUDING FROM THEM NOW.

THEY HELP HIM TO ALIGN THE EYES.

HE SHINES A LIGHT INTO THEM

TO CONFIRM THAT THEY'RE LOOKING
STRAIGHT AHEAD.

NEXT HE CUTS OUT MUSCLE SHAPES
FROM ROLLED CLAY.

THIS PIECE SIMULATES THE AREA
AROUND THE MOUTH.

THE MAN'S MUSCLES HAVE LEFT
TENSION MARKS ON HIS SKULL.

THOSE MARKS COMBINED WITH
THE KNOWLEDGE OF FACIAL ANATOMY

HELP HIM DECIDE
WHERE TO BUILD UP MUSCLE.

HE MAKES THE FACE EXPRESSIONLESS

BECAUSE EXPRESSIONS ARE UNIQUE

AND IMPOSSIBLE TO EXTRAPOLATE
FROM A SKULL.

NEXT HE SCULPTS MUSCLE
AROUND THE PROSTHETIC EYES.

THERE ARE NO CLUES ABOUT THE
ACTUAL SHAPE OF THIS MAN'S EYES,

SO HE GIVES THEM A GENERIC LOOK.

THE SKULL DOES DIVULGE
THE LENGTH AND WIDTH OF THE NOSE

AS WELL AS THE LOCATION
OF THE NOSTRILS.

NOW HE BUILDS UP SMILING MUSCLES

FOLLOWED BY FAT
AND A SALIVARY GLAND.

HE USES DIFFERENT-COLORED CLAY
SO HE CAN SEE THEM MORE CLEARLY.

HE MAPS OUT A LOCATION
FOR THE EARS

BUT DOESN'T YET ATTACH THEM.

HE SHAPES MUSCLES IN THE NECK,

WORKING FROM MEASUREMENTS
AND PHOTOS FROM THE CRIME SCENE.

NEXT HE GIVES THE MODEL SKIN.

AS HE APPLIES
THIS LAYER OF CLAY,

HE USES THE PROTRUDING PEGS
AS THICKNESS GUIDES.

AND AFTER MUCH SCULPTING,
THE MODEL HAS COME TO LIFE.

BUT HE NEEDS ONE MORE CLAY EAR.

THE SKULL OFFERS SOME HINTS
ABOUT THE EARS' SIZE

BUT NOT THEIR SHAPE,
SO HE KEEPS THAT GENERIC.

NOW HE SPONGES THE CLAY
TO GIVE IT SOME TEXTURE

SO IT LOOKS MORE LIKE REAL SKIN.

THE ARTIST SNAPS HIS PICTURE
WITH A DIGITAL CAMERA

AND THEN DOWNLOADS THE IMAGE
ONTO A COMPUTER.

USING PHOTO-EDITING SOFTWARE,

HE TRANSFERS SOME HAIR
TO THE SHOT OF THE CLAY MODEL.

HE KNOWS FROM EVIDENCE
ON THE SCENE

THAT THE MAN'S HAIR
WAS STYLED IN DREADLOCKS

AND THAT HE HAD A BEARD.

HE BORROWS BROWS
FROM ANOTHER PHOTO.

HE PAINTS IN THE BROWS
WITH A STYLUS,

WHICH IS A KIND
OF COMPUTER MOUSE.

USING THE SAME TECHNIQUE,

HE GIVES THE IMAGE FACIAL HAIR.

THIS DIGITAL ARTISTRY
TAKES A COUPLE OF DAYS,

AND THE SKULL MOLD
AND CLAY MODEL

TAKE 12 DAYS TO COMPLETE...

TIME WELL SPENT

BECAUSE ONCE THE PICTURES
AND INFORMATION

ARE POSTED ON POLICE SITES
LIKE THIS ONE,

IT MAY FINALLY HELP THEM
PUT A NAME TO THIS FACE.

CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

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