How It's Made (2001–…): Season 7, Episode 7 - Crayons/Wooden Kayaks/Lawn Mowers/Gold Chains - full transcript


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

CRAYONS...

...WOODEN KAYAKS...

...LAWN MOWERS...

...AND GOLD CHAINS.

CRAYONS ARE
A POPULAR DRAWING TOOL

FOR TODAY'S YOUNG ARTISTS.

THE AVERAGE NORTH AMERICAN KID
USES 730 OF THEM

BY THE AGE OF 10.

AN AMERICAN CHEMICAL COMPANY
INVENTED CRAYONS IN 1903.

IT TOOK THE BASIC WAX CRAYON
IT ALREADY MADE

FOR MARKING CRATES AND BARRELS

AND CAME UP
WITH A NONTOXIC VERSION

IN DIFFERENT COLORS.

THESE CRAYONS ARE MADE
FROM A COMBINATION OF WAXES --

PRIMARILY PARAFFIN, WHICH IS
IDEAL FOR MAKING CRAYONS

BECAUSE IT'S INEXPENSIVE
AND EASY TO MELT.

IT ALSO HAS WHAT'S CALLED
A NICE RUB-OFF,

MEANING IT LEAVES ENOUGH WAX
ON THE PAPER.

THEY MELT THE WAX
AT 143 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THEN ADD A SECRET POWDER
TO STRENGTHEN THE CRAYON

AND ACT AS A FILLER,

BOOSTING THE NUMBER OF CRAYONS
THE WAX WILL PRODUCE.

THEY ALSO ADD VARIOUS
SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS --

THERE'S ONE TO KEEP THE WAX
FROM STICKING TO THE MOLD...

AND A FATTY ACID, CALLED STEARIC
ACID, TO IMPROVE THE RUB-OFF.

NOW THEY TINT THE WAX --

IN THIS CASE, YELLOW AND RED
TO PRODUCE ORANGE CRAYONS.

THIS FACTORY CAN PRODUCE
127 DIFFERENT COLORS.

EVERY INGREDIENT
IN THE CRAYONS IS NONTOXIC.

AFTER ADDING MORE WAX,

THEY BLEND THE MIXTURE
FOR ABOUT 45 MINUTES.

NOW THEY PUMP THE WAX INTO THIS
DEVICE CALLED A ROTARY MACHINE.

IT FIRST INJECTS THE WAX
INTO CRAYON-SHAPED MOLDS.

THEN IT ENVELOPS THE MOLDS
IN COOL WATER,

HARDENING THE WAX
WITHIN ROUGHLY A MINUTE.

AS THE MOLDS CONTINUE ALONG
THE CIRCUIT,

A BLADE SCRAPES OFF THE EXCESS,
WHICH GETS RECYCLED.

JUST ONE ROTARY MACHINE

MOLDS MORE THAN 2,700 CRAYONS
PER CYCLE.

WITH SEVERAL MACHINES
OPERATING SIMULTANEOUSLY,

THIS FACTORY CHURNS OUT
30,000 CRAYONS PER HOUR.

THE MACHINE EJECTS THE CRAYONS,

AND A CONVEYOR TRANSPORTS THEM
TO THE LABELING MACHINE.

ONE BY ONE, THEY DROP INTO
THE GROOVES OF A REVOLVING DRUM.

AT THE BOTTOM LEFT,

A GLUER COATS THE SURFACE
IN BETWEEN THE GROOVES

JUST BEFORE THE CRAYONS GO IN.

THE MACHINE THEN SLAPS A LABEL
ONTO EACH CRAYON.

A ROLLER PRESSES THE LABEL
AGAINST THE ADHESIVE,

THEN A LITTLE ARM
WRAPS IT AROUND THE CRAYON.

THIS MACHINE LABELS
8,500 CRAYONS PER HOUR.

THE CRAYONS EXIT THE LABELING
MACHINE AND LAND IN A BULK BOX.

WORKERS SORT THE CRAYONS
BY COLOR

INTO THE APPROPRIATE HOPPERS
OF THE PACKING MACHINE.

THE PACKAGING LINE
IS ENTIRELY AUTOMATED.

THE FACTORY PROGRAMS THE MACHINE

TO COLLECT A CERTAIN NUMBER
OF CRAYONS IN SPECIFIC COLORS

ACCORDING TO THE TYPE
OF PACK IN PRODUCTION.

THEIR BEST SELLERS
ARE PACKS OF 16 AND 24.

THE PACKING MACHINE IS DESIGNED
TO HANDLE THE CRAYONS GENTLY.

OCCASIONALLY, THOUGH,

A CRAYON DOES CRACK
OR A LABEL COMES LOOSE.

WHEN THAT HAPPENS, A SENSOR
AUTOMATICALLY STOPS THE MACHINE

AND A LIGHT GOES ON
ABOVE THE PROBLEM HOPPER.

WORKERS CLEAR THE JAM,
THEN PRODUCTION RESUMES.

ONCE THE COUNT IS COMPLETE,

THE CRAYON LINE
AND THE BOX LINE MEET.

A PUSHING DEVICE SLIDES
EACH SET OF CRAYONS INTO A BOX.

A BUILT-IN SCALE
WEIGHS EVERY BOX.

SHOULD ONE BE UNDERWEIGHT,

THE MACHINE AUTOMATICALLY BLOWS
IT OFF THE CONVEYOR BELT.

A WORKER THEN MANUALLY
ADDS THE MISSING CRAYON,

ENSURING A FULL COMPLEMENT OF
COLORS FOR EVERY BUDDING ARTIST.

Narrator:
FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS,

ABORIGINAL PEOPLE IN THE ARCTIC
HAVE USED KAYAKS TO HUNT

AND FOR GOOD REASON.

THESE SLENDER VESSELS
GLIDE SWIFTLY IN THE WATER

AND ARE LIGHT ENOUGH TO CARRY.

HIGH-TECH MATERIALS
MAKE TODAY'S WOODEN KAYAKS

MORE DURABLE THAN EVER,

BUT ITS SHAPE
AND PERFORMANCE IN THE WATER

ARE BASICALLY THE SAME.

IT STARTS WITH PLYWOOD
MADE FROM OKOUME --

A RUGGED TYPE OF MAHOGANY.

A COMPUTER-GUIDED
ROUTING MACHINE

CUTS OUT THE BOAT'S
VARIOUS PARTS.

ONE HAS FINGER JOINTS THAT
INTERLOCK WITH ANOTHER PIECE

TO MAKE ONE LONG STRIP.

THESE PANELS WILL COVER
THE SIDES OF THE VESSEL

AND MOST OF THE TOP.

THE PLANKS ARE SO THIN --

JUST A LITTLE OVER
AN EIGHTH OF AN INCH --

THAT THE ENTIRE KAYAK
WILL WEIGH ONLY 37 1/2 POUNDS.

THEN THERE ARE BULKHEADS,
END PANELS, FOOTRESTS,

AND CURVED PIECES
TO SUPPORT THE DECK AND SIDES.

AFTER APPLYING TWO COATS
OF EPOXY RESIN,

A CRAFTSMAN ASSEMBLES THE PARTS

AND SECURES THEM IN A JIG FOR
SIX HOURS UNTIL THE GLUE SETS.

THE SIDE PANELS WILL SPAN
THE ENTIRE LENGTH OF THE BOAT,

AT JUST OVER 16 1/2 FEET.

ASSEMBLING THE KAYAK
IS PRETTY STRAIGHTFORWARD,

SO IF YOU WANT TO SAVE MONEY
AND DO IT YOURSELF,

YOU CAN BUY THIS KAYAK
CHEAPER AS A KIT.

HE PLANES AND SANDS THE END
PANELS TO CREATE A CURVED TIP.

HE DRILLS SMALL HOLES
SPACED 4 3/4 INCHES APART

ALONG THE EDGES
OF THE BOTTOM PANELS.

THEN HE THREADS COPPER WIRE
THROUGH THE HOLES.

THIS STITCHES THE PANELS
TOGETHER TEMPORARILY,

KEEPING THEM FLEXIBLE

AND THEREBY EASY TO ASSEMBLE
FOR GLUING.

HE PLACES WOODEN PEGS
BETWEEN THE SIDE PANELS

TO PRY THEM OPEN...

THEN JOINS THOSE PANELS

WITH TWO SCREWS IN THE FRONT
AND TWO IN THE BACK.

AT THIS STAGE,
THE KAYAK IS UPSIDE DOWN,

SO THEY ADD THE BOTTOM PANELS.

HE ATTACHES THEM
WITH COPPER WIRE

BECAUSE IT WON'T STICK
TO THE RESIN HE'LL USE

TO GLUE THESE PARTS TOGETHER.

AFTER FLIPPING THE BOAT,

HE ATTACHES A BULKHEAD
WITH MORE WIRE.

IT'S ONE OF TWO SEPARATORS THAT
CREATE STOWAGE COMPARTMENTS.

USING A PUTTY KNIFE AS A GAUGE,

HE ENSURES THE GAPS
AT THE SEAMS ARE EVEN,

THEN HE FLIPS THE BOAT
AND COATS THE SEAMS IN RESIN.

HE LETS IT DRY FOR 6 HOURS,

JUST PART OF THE 40 HOURS
IT TAKES TO BUILD THE KAYAK.

BEFORE THE GLUE HARDENS,

HE MAKES SURE
THE TOP OF THE BOAT IS LEVEL.

THIS WAY, HE CAN ADJUST
THE PIECES IF HE NEEDS TO.

AFTER REMOVING THE WIRE
FROM THE SEAMS,

HE APPLIES MORE RESIN
TO THESE AREAS.

OVER THIS, STRIPS OF FIBERGLASS
CLOTH TO FORM A WATERTIGHT SEAL.

HE'LL ALSO APPLY
THREE MORE COATS OF RESIN

THROUGHOUT THE INSIDE
OF THE KAYAK.

ONCE IT DRIES, AND HE SANDS AND
VARNISHES THE ENTIRE SURFACE,

THE CRAFTSMAN
ADDS THE FOOTREST ASSEMBLY.

THIS ONE'S GOT PIVOT PADS

WITH CABLES THAT CONTROL
A RUDDER TO HELP STEER THE BOAT.

THIS IS AN OPTIONAL FEATURE.

OTHERWISE,
THERE'S A SIMPLE FOOT BRACE,

AND YOU JUST USE YOUR PADDLE.

NEXT, CRAFTSMEN APPLY RESIN
ALONG THE KAYAK'S UPPER RIM.

THEY ADD THE TOP PANEL
TO FORM THE DECK,

THEN THEY WRAP THE ENTIRE BOAT
IN PACKING TAPE,

WHICH COMPRESSES THE PANELS
AS THE RESIN SETS FOR 12 HOURS.

THESE PIECES FORM A RAISED RIM
AROUND WHERE THE KAYAKER SITS.

A WATERPROOF SKIRT
FITS UNDER THIS RIM,

KEEPING THE AREA DRY
IN THE WATER.

THE DECK
GETS TWO COATS OF RESIN.

AN HOUR LATER, THEY SPREAD
FIBERGLASS OVER THE BOTTOM

TO SEAL AND PROTECT THE WOOD.

THE BOTTOM THEN GETS
THREE COATS OF RESIN.

NEXT, THEY SPRAY ON
UP TO SIX COATS OF VARNISH,

DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF FINISH
THE BOAT WILL HAVE.

THIS PROTECTS THE WOOD
FROM SUN DAMAGE.

THEY ADD A FOAM BACKREST

AND A SEAT
FOR YOUR COMFORT ON THE TREK.

AND FINALLY,
FLEXIBLE RUBBER STRAPS --

THEY'RE FOR SECURING YOUR PADDLE
TO THE KAYAK.

NOW IT'S OFF TO THE WATER.

Narrator: GARDENERS' JOBS
GOT MUCH EASIER IN 1830

WITH THE INVENTION OF
THE FIRST MECHANICAL LAWN MOWER.

NOWADAYS, MOST LAWN MOWERS HAVE
ELECTRIC MOTORS OR GAS ENGINES.

THEY TURN BLADES THAT ARE EITHER
ON A REEL AND CUT LIKE SCISSORS

OR ROTATE LIKE A PROPELLER
TO CHOP THE GRASS.

THESE GAS MOWERS
HAVE ROTARY BLADES

THAT SPIN HORIZONTALLY
ON A VERTICAL CRANKSHAFT.

TO MAKE THE BLADE HOUSING,
WHICH IS CALLED THE DECK,

A MACHINE FIRST APPLIES
A LUBRICATING CHEMICAL

TO SHEET STEEL, WHICH WAS COILED
WHEN IT CAME TO THE FACTORY.

THE CHEMICAL HELPS FLATTEN IT
SO IT'S EASIER TO CUT.

A PRESS THEN PERFORATES
THE SHEET EVERY 2 FEET.

AFTER THE PRESS
SEPARATES THE SEGMENTS

AND ROUNDS OFF THE CORNERS,

A ROBOTIC ARM
MOVES EACH SEGMENT ONTO A DIE.

A 500-TON PRESS BENDS THE STEEL
LIKE TINFOIL BETWEEN TWO MOLDS

TO GIVE THE DECK
ITS BASIC SHAPE.

A ROBOT LIFTS THE OILY DECKS
WITH SUCTION CUPS

AND MOVES THEM TO ANOTHER PRESS.

THIS MACHINE TRIMS AWAY THE
EXCESS AROUND THE DECK'S EDGES.

ANOTHER MACHINE BENDS
THE SHARP BOTTOM LIP INWARD

TO MAKE THE DECK
SAFER TO HANDLE.

THE FACTORY USES ROBOTS BECAUSE
THEY WORK FASTER THAN HUMANS,

PROCESSING 500 DECKS AN HOUR.

AFTER A THOROUGH CLEANING,

THE DECKS MOVE INTO
AN ELECTROSTATIC-PAINT BOOTH.

THEY LACE THE POWDER PAINT
WITH A NEGATIVE ELECTRIC CHARGE,

THE DECKS WITH A POSITIVE ONE.

THIS DRAWS THE PAINT PARTICLES
ONTO THE DECKS,

CREATING A THOROUGH
AND EVEN COAT.

THE FACTORY'S SIX PAINT BOOTHS
ARE ON TRACKS

SO WHEN IT'S TIME
TO CHANGE COLOR,

WORKERS CAN EASILY SWITCH THE
ENTIRE CHAMBER FOR A CLEAN ONE.

THE PAINT CURES AT 374 DEGREES
FAHRENHEIT FOR 15 MINUTES.

THIS PRESS BENDS
8-FOOT-LONG TUBING

TO FORM THE MOWER'S
UPPER HANDLE.

ANOTHER PRESS BENDS
6-FOOT-LONG TUBES

TO MAKE A SHORTER, LOWER HANDLE.

WORKERS WILL LATER ATTACH
THE TWO HANDLES

TO FORM ONE FOLDING HANDLE.

BY FOLDING, IT TAKES UP
LESS SPACE IN THE SHIPPING BOX

AND, LATER, IN YOUR GARAGE.

HERE'S THE MOWER'S
5-HORSEPOWER ENGINE.

A WORKER ATTACHES IT TO THE DECK
WITH THREE BOLTS.

HE USES A POWERFUL TORQUE GUN

SO THE BOLTS WON'T LOOSEN
BECAUSE OF VIBRATIONS.

LATER, WORKERS
WILL MOUNT THE BLADES

TO THE ENGINE'S CRANKSHAFT

THAT PROTRUDES
THROUGH AN OPENING IN THE DECK.

NEXT, WORKERS INSTALL
A PLASTIC REAR DOOR,

THROUGH WHICH
THE GRASS CLIPPINGS EJECT.

THIS DOOR ATTACHES TO BRACKETS,

WHICH HAVE LEVERS
THAT ADJUST THE MOWER

TO NINE DIFFERENT
HEIGHT POSITIONS.

IT'S TIME TO MOUNT
THE PLASTIC REAR WHEELS.

NEXT AN ADAPTOR TO STABILIZE
THE BLADE ON THE CRANKSHAFT,

THEN THE BLADE.

IT'S WIDER AT EACH END

TO CREATE THE PROPER AIRFLOW
INSIDE THE DECK.

THEY SECURE THE BLADE TIGHTLY
WITH A POWERFUL WRENCH

BECAUSE IT'S GOING TO SPIN
AT 3,300 RPM.

THE FRONT WHEELS ARE 1/3 SMALLER
THAN THE BACK ONES.

THIS MAKES THE MOWER EASIER
TO MANEUVER OVER UNEVEN TERRAIN.

THEY PUT RUBBER COVERS
ON THE HEIGHT-ADJUSTMENT LEVERS

SO THEY'RE SOFTER
ON THE FINGERS.

THE MOWER ADJUSTS FROM 1 INCH

TO NEARLY 3 1/2 INCHES
OFF THE GROUND.

THEY SECURE THE LOWER HANDLE,

THEN LOOSELY ATTACH THE UPPER
HANDLE TO THE LOWER ONE.

THE CONSUMER CAN TIGHTEN THIS
AFTER SHIPPING.

THEY ADD A SAFETY HANDLE
THAT TURNS THE ENGINE OFF

IF YOU'RE NOT SQUEEZING IT
AGAINST THE UPPER HANDLE.

IT ATTACHES TO A CALIPER SYSTEM,

MUCH LIKE WHAT YOU'D FIND
ON A BICYCLE.

FINALLY, WORKERS APPLY LABELS

TO INDICATE THE MOWER'S
HORSEPOWER AND WIDTH.

FILL IT UP WITH GAS, AND IT'S
READY TO GIVE YOUR LAWN A TRIM.

Narrator:
SOME OF THE FIRST GOLD CHAINS

DATE BACK TO THE ANCIENT
CULTURES OF IRAQ AND GREECE.

THEY WERE SYMBOLS OF WEALTH,
ROYALTY, AND THE DIVINE.

LUCKY FOR US, JEWELERS NOW
MAKE THESE PERSONAL TREASURES

MORE AFFORDABLE
AND MORE DURABLE THAN EVER.

BUT YOU MAY BE SURPRISED TO
LEARN WHAT THEY PUT IN THE GOLD

TO MAKE IT BETTER.

PURE GOLD IS FAIRLY SOFT
AND BRIGHT YELLOW,

SO IT'S COMMON TO CREATE
AN ALLOY TO STRENGTHEN IT

AND ALTER ITS COLOR.

COPPER LENDS A REDDISH HUE.

AND BRASS HELPS THE ALLOY
MELT MORE QUICKLY THAN GOLD

AND COPPER WOULD ALONE.

DEPENDING ON THE RATIO,

ADDING THESE METALS PRODUCES
14- OR 18-KARAT GOLD.

THEY MELT THE MIX IN A CRUCIBLE
AT 1,850 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

JUST THREE OF THESE SCOOPS

ARE ENOUGH TO MAKE ABOUT 5,000
14-KARAT-GOLD CHAINS.

A WORKER POURS THE MOLTEN ALLOY
INTO A CASTING MACHINE.

WATER COOLS THE METAL TO
AROUND 700 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT,

SOLIDIFYING IT.

THE METAL PASSES THROUGH
A ROUND DIE

WHICH SHAPES IT
INTO A GOLDEN ROD

THAT'S NEARLY 6 1/2 FEET LONG.

AFTER CUTTING THE ROD IN HALF,

WORKERS PASS IT THROUGH
WHAT'S CALLED A BREAKDOWN MILL.

THE MACHINE RESHAPES THE ROD
FROM ROUND TO SQUARE

SO IT WILL BE EASIER TO STRETCH.

NEXT STOP -- A TANDEM MILL.

IT'S GOT 12 ROLLERS
THAT STRETCH THE ROD

UNTIL IT'S ABOUT AS THIN
AS A PIECE OF SPAGHETTI.

AS IT EMERGES, ROLLERS SHAPE
THE ROD INTO A COIL

THAT'S NEARLY 78 FEET LONG.

WORKERS SOFTEN THE COILED METAL
IN AN OVEN.

THEN THEY UNCOIL AND CONTINUE
STRETCHING WHAT'S NOW A WIRE

BY PASSING IT THROUGH A DIE
LINED WITH INDUSTRIAL DIAMONDS.

TO PREVENT OVERHEATING,

THE MACHINE SPRAYS LUBRICANT
TO COOL THE WIRE

WHILE REDUCING IT
TO THE WIDTH OF A HUMAN HAIR --

ITS FINAL SIZE.

THE WIRE THEN WINDS INTO A SPOOL
THAT'S OVER 1 1/2 MILES LONG.

NEXT, THEY UNWIND 32
OF THE SPOOLS

AND RUN THE WIRES
THROUGH ANOTHER OVEN

TO SOFTEN THEM EVEN MORE.

JUST IN CASE YOU'RE THINKING
ABOUT WALKING OFF

WITH SOME OF THEM,

YOU SHOULD KNOW THAT SECURITY
IS VERY TIGHT.

EMPLOYEES MUST PASS THROUGH
METAL DETECTORS

BEFORE GOING HOME,

AND WEARING JEWELRY TO WORK
IS STRICTLY FORBIDDEN.

THIS MACHINE MAKES
WHAT'S CALLED CABLE CHAIN.

IT PASSES WIRE
THROUGH A LINK AND CLOSES IT

TO MAKE ANOTHER LINK.

THE MACHINE MAKES 600 LINKS
PER MINUTE.

HERE, A WORKER
DOES A RANDOM QUALITY CHECK.

THIS MACHINE MAKES A CHAIN IN
WHAT'S CALLED A VENETIAN STYLE.

THE WIRE PASSES THROUGH
A CHANNEL

WHERE MECHANICAL JAWS
BEND IT OVER A DIE

TO MAKE A LINK
WITH THE PRECEDING SEGMENT.

TO MAKE WHAT'S CALLED
A SPIDER STYLE,

THIS MACHINE PASSES A WIRE
THROUGH UP TO FIVE LOOPS

BEFORE CLOSING THE LINK.

FOR A FIGARO-STYLE CHAIN,

THIS MACHINE
MAKES THREE SHORT LINKS

BEFORE A MECHANICAL ARM MOVES
THE CHAIN TO ANOTHER AREA

TO ADD ONE LONGER LINK.

THE ARM THEN MOVES IT BACK
TO ADD THREE MORE SHORT LINKS.

THE SIMPLEST STYLE
IS WHAT'S CALLED A ROPE CHAIN.

TO MAKE IT,
THIS MACHINE THREADS A WIRE

THROUGH AS MANY AS TWO LOOPS

THEN CLOSES IT
TO MAKE ANOTHER LOOP.

THEY COAT THE FINISHED CHAINS
WITH A LUBRICATING POWDER

THAT PREVENTS THE LINKS
FROM STICKING TO EACH OTHER

DURING THE NEXT STEP,

WHEN THEY HEAT THE CHAINS
TO 1,500 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THIS ACTIVATES A SOLDERING AGENT
ADDED TO THE METALS EARLIER.

IT FUSES THE ENDS OF THE LINKS
TO EACH OTHER.

THIS MACHINE WELDS A LINK
TO A CLASP ON THE CHAIN.

A TAG INDICATING THE GOLD
QUALITY GOES ONTO THE CLASP.

FINALLY, THE CHAINS
GO THROUGH FOUR CHEMICAL BATHS,

WHICH THOROUGHLY CLEAN THEM,

THEN WORKERS PLATE THEM WITH
A LAYER OF 14- OR 18-KARAT GOLD.

PLATING GOLD WITH GOLD
CREATES A MORE VIBRANT FINISH.

AFTER ONE LAST QUALITY CHECK,

THESE CHAINS ARE READY
TO DAZZLE THEIR WAY

TO A NECKLINE NEAR YOU.

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