How It's Made (2001–…): Season 7, Episode 2 - Engine Blocks/Jawbreakers/Drum Shells/Drums - full transcript


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

ENGINE BLOCKS...

...JAWBREAKERS...

...DRUM SHELLS...

...AND DRUMS.

THE ENGINE BLOCK IS THE LARGEST
SINGLE PIECE OF METAL IN A CAR

AND ALSO ONE OF THE MOST
INTRICATE.

IT HOUSES AND LINKS
ALL THE ENGINE COMPONENTS,

SUCH AS THE CYLINDERS
AND PISTONS,

AND IT CONTAINS PASSAGES
FOR CIRCULATING COOLANT.

THE ENGINE BLOCK
IS WHERE COMBUSTION CONVERTS

INTO MECHANICAL ENERGY
THAT DRIVES THE TRANSMISSION,

PROPELLING THE CAR.

ENGINE BLOCKS USED TO BE MADE
OF IRON.

TODAY, MOST ARE MADE
OF LIGHTWEIGHT ALUMINUM ALLOY

FOR FUEL EFFICIENCY.

AN ENGINE BLOCK
IS A ONE-PIECE COMPONENT

CAST FROM A SAND MOLD.

TO MAKE THE MOLD,
THE FACTORY MIXES GLUE...

AND A HARDENER...

WITH ZIRCON SAND.

THIS COMBINATION OF MATERIALS

CAN WITHSTAND THE INTENSE HEAT
OF MOLTEN METAL,

BUT ONLY FOR ONE CASTING.

EACH MOLD IS MADE UP
OF SECTIONS CALLED CORES

THAT FIT TOGETHER.

TO MAKE EACH CORE,

A MACHINE BLOWS
THE SAND-AND-GLUE MIXTURE

INTO A MASTER MOLD MADE OF IRON.

IT INJECTS A GAS
THAT ACTIVATES THE HARDENER,

WHICH SOLIDIFIES THE MIXTURE.

THIS IS THE BASE CORE TO WHICH
OTHER CORES WILL ATTACH.

THE BASE CORE TRAVELS DOWN
AN ASSEMBLY LINE

TO RECEIVE THE OTHER CORES.

THE NEXT CORE MOLDS
THE ENGINE-BLOCK CYLINDER BORES,

WHICH WILL HOUSE
THE MOTOR'S PISTONS.

A ROBOT INSERTS IRON LINERS
INTO SIX HOLES IN THE CORE.

THEY PREVENT THE ALUMINUM WALLS
OF THE BORES

FROM WEARING OUT FROM ABRASION.

THE BASE CORE RECEIVES
17 OTHER CORES.

THE ONES FOR ENGINE-BLOCK AREAS
THROUGH WHICH OIL WILL FLOW

ARE COATED WITH TALCUM POWDER.

THIS KEEPS SAND PARTICLES
FROM STICKING TO THE ALUMINUM

AND GETTING INTO THE OIL.

THE MACHINES GLUE CERTAIN CORES

SO THEY'LL STAY INTACT WHEN
THE ROBOTS FLIP THEM UPSIDE DOWN

AND ATTACH THEM TO THE REST.

THESE ARE THE LAST TWO CORES.

THE MOLD IS NOW FULLY ASSEMBLED
AND READY FOR CASTING.

WORKERS LOAD ALUMINUM INGOTS

INTO A DEVICE CALLED
AN ELEVATOR BUCKET.

IT POSITIONS THEM ABOVE
THE JET MELTER --

A GAS-FIRED FURNACE.

THE BUCKET DROPS THE INGOTS

INTO THE FIRE
THAT'S 1,500 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT,

LIQUEFYING THE ALUMINUM.

JUST BEFORE CASTING,

THEY HEAT
THE CYLINDER-BORE LINERS

USING HIGH-FREQUENCY
ELECTRIC CURRENT.

ALUMINUM WILL BOND BETTER
TO HOT METAL.

THEY FILL THE MOLDS
FROM THE BOTTOM

TO AVOID CONTAMINATING THE METAL
WITH ALUMINUM OXIDE.

OXIDE FORMS WHEN MOLTEN ALUMINUM
COMES INTO CONTACT WITH THE AIR.

POURING INTO THE TOP OF THE MOLD

WOULD EXPOSE THE METAL
TO OXYGEN,

AND THE POURING ACTION ITSELF
WOULD MIX IN THE OXIDE.

AFTER THE CASTING,

THE MOLD SPENDS SIX HOURS
IN WHAT'S CALLED

A THERMAL SAND RECLAIM OVEN.

THAT BREAKS DOWN THE GLUE
SO THE SAND FALLS AWAY.

THE HEAT ALSO STRENGTHENS
THE METAL.

THE CAST ALUMINUM
ENGINE BLOCKS EMERGE,

NEEDING JUST
SOME MINOR FINISHING.

ROBOTS TURN THEM UPSIDE DOWN
TO SPILL OUT LOOSE SAND.

MACHINES SAW OFF THE RISERS --

EXTRA METAL THAT FED
THE MOLD CAVITY

TO COMPENSATE FOR THE
7% SHRINKAGE THAT OCCURS

WHEN LIQUID ALUMINUM SOLIDIFIES.

FINALLY, COMPUTER-GUIDED
TOOLING EQUIPMENT

PERFORMS A ROUGH MACHINING
OF THE METAL.

THIS BRINGS THE ENGINE BLOCKS
TO A NEAR-FINISHED STATE.

THE ENGINE PLANT THAT BUYS THEM

DOES THE FINAL MACHINING BEFORE
INSTALLING THE ENGINE PARTS.

EVERY ENGINE BLOCK
THIS FACTORY PRODUCES

PASSES THROUGH
AN AUTOMATED VISION SYSTEM

THAT INSPECTS THE ENGINE BLOCK

TO ENSURE THEY HAVE
NO DEFECTS WHATSOEVER.

Narrator: JAWBREAKERS,
ALSO KNOWN AS GOBSTOPPERS,

HAVE PREOCCUPIED CANDY LOVERS
FOR DECADES.

YOU POP ONE IN

AND SLOWLY SUCK
OR CHEW THROUGH UP TO 10 LAYERS

OF COLORS AND FLAVORS.

SOMETIMES THERE'S BUBBLE GUM
IN THE MIDDLE

FOR AN EVEN LONGER-LASTING
FINISH.

THE LARGER ONES
ARE JUST FOR SHOW.

MOST JAWBREAKERS ARE ABOUT
THE SIZE OF A GOLF BALL.

TO MAKE
THEIR BUBBLE GUM CENTERS,

A WORKER BLENDS SYNTHETIC RUBBER
WITH POWDERED RESIN,

WHICH WILL DISSOLVE THE RUBBER.

HE ADDS A THICKENER,
A PRESERVATIVE,

AND AN OIL CALLED
SOYA PALM STEARIN

SO THE CANDY
WON'T STICK TO YOUR TEETH.

AFTER MIXING AND STEAMING
AT 300 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT

FOR FOUR HOURS,

THE BATTER POURS INTO TRAYS
TO COOL.

SUGAR, COLORING, AND FLAVORING
WOULD DETERIORATE IN THE HEAT,

SO WORKERS ADD THOSE LATER.

THERE'S ENOUGH OF THIS BASE
TO MAKE GUM CENTERS

FOR 450,000 SMALL JAWBREAKERS.

AFTER 24 HOURS,
THE BATTER IS HARD.

WORKERS CHOP IT UP
AND BLEND IT WITH CORN SYRUP

TO MAKE IT SOFTER AND SWEETER.

THEY ADD JUST UNDER 100 POUNDS
OF FINISHED GUM

THAT DIDN'T MAKE IT
INTO JAWBREAKERS BEFORE

BECAUSE IT WASN'T
THE RIGHT SHAPE.

NOW THEY ADD NATURAL
AND ARTIFICIAL FLAVORS,

WHICH CAN INCLUDE LEMON, ORANGE,
STRAWBERRY, GRAPE,

EVEN TUTTI-FRUTTI.

THEN THEY ADD ICING SUGAR.

IT MAKES THE GUM SMOOTHER TO
CHEW THAN REGULAR SUGAR WOULD.

WORKERS DUMP THE BATCH
INTO AN EXTRUDER

THAT SHAPES TWO CONTINUOUS
STREAMS OF BATTER, CALLED ROPE.

ANOTHER EXTRUDER DIVIDES
EACH ROPE INTO SIX HOLLOW TUBES.

THE CAVITY INSIDE
WILL BECOME POCKETS OF AIR

INSIDE THE GUM CENTERS.

THE NEXT MACHINE SLICES
THE TUBES

INTO SEGMENTS THAT ARE
THREE FEET, THREE INCHES LONG.

A MECHANICAL ARM PUSHES
THE SEGMENTS

INTO THE CHANNEL
OF A FORMING MACHINE.

STEEL ROLLS
THEN SLICE THROUGH THE TUBES

AND SHAPE THEM INTO BALLS.

THE BALLS RANGE IN DIAMETER,

DEPENDING ON THE SIZE OF
THE JAWBREAKERS BEING PRODUCED.

AIR BLOWS THROUGH PERFORATIONS
IN A COOLING TUNNEL

TO COOL AND FIRM THE CENTERS.

THEN THEY FALL
INTO ANOTHER FORMING MACHINE,

WHICH RESTORES
THEIR ROUND SHAPE.

OTHER JAWBREAKERS
HAVE HARD CANDY IN THE CENTER.

THE MACHINE THAT MAKES THEM
WORKS LIKE

THE PRESSES DRUG COMPANIES USE
TO MAKE PILLS.

IT FEEDS CANDY POWDER INTO DIES,

THEN APPLIES
UP TO FIVE TONS OF FORCE

TO COMPRESS THE POWDER
INTO A SOLID CANDY.

NOW FOR THE REST
OF THE JAWBREAKER.

FIRST,
THEY DUMP THE CANDY CENTERS

INTO WHAT'S CALLED
A COATING PAN.

THEY ADD A HOT MIXTURE OF WATER,
CORN SYRUP, AND FOOD COLORING...

...THEN DEXTROSE,
A TYPE OF POWDERED SUGAR.

THE PAN ROTATES FOR 20 MINUTES

AS WARM AIR DRIES THE
INGREDIENTS OVER THE CENTERS.

THE FACTORY REPEATS THIS STEP
10 TIMES FOR EACH LAYER.

TALK ABOUT A SWEET ORDEAL --

MAKING A JAWBREAKER TAKES
FOUR DAYS.

WORKERS GIVE THIS BATCH
SPECIAL TREATMENT.

THEY SPECKLE THESE JAWBREAKERS
WITH DIFFERENT COLORS,

GIVING THEM WHAT THIS COMPANY
CALLS THE PSYCHEDELIC LOOK.

AFTER LETTING THE CANDIES DRY
FOR 24 HOURS,

A WORKER ADDS PINCHES
OF POWDERED CARNAUBA WAX.

THIS GIVES THE JAWBREAKERS
A SHINY FINISH.

SLICED OPEN,

YOU CAN SEE THESE JAWBREAKERS
HAVE 10 LAYERS

OF FLAVORS AND SUGAR
SURROUNDING EITHER HARD CANDY

OR BUBBLE GUM CORES.

THEY MEASURE 2 1/4 INCHES
IN DIAMETER --

AS BIG AS A BILLIARD BALL.

AND IF YOU'RE COUNTING CALORIES,
FORGET IT.

A JAWBREAKER IS 90% SUGAR.

Narrator: ALMOST EVERY CULTURE
HAS USED DRUMS IN SOME WAY.

DRUMS HAVE BEEN A PART
OF DIFFERENT CIVILIZATIONS

FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS.

THE EARLIEST DRUM SHELLS WERE
HOLLOWED-OUT LOGS OR GOURDS.

DIFFERENT SIZES
CREATED DIFFERENT SOUNDS.

TODAY, DRUM SHELLS ARE MORE
SOPHISTICATED AND CONSISTENT.

TO MAKE DRUM SHELLS,

THEY SLICE AN ENORMOUS
ROCK MAPLE LOG

INTO SEVERAL BOARDS.

MAPLE IS IDEAL
FOR MAKING DRUM SHELLS

BECAUSE ITS HARDNESS ALLOWS
SOUND TO RESONATE FULLY.

EACH OF THESE MAPLE BOARDS

WILL BE TRANSFORMED
INTO ONE DRUM SHELL.

WORKERS FEED THE BOARDS
TO A RIPSAW,

WHICH CUTS THEM
TO THE CORRECT WIDTH.

THIS VARIES DEPENDING ON
THE SIZE OF THE DRUM BEING MADE.

THEN EACH BOARD
GOES INTO A PLANER,

WHICH SHAVES IT THINNER.

A WORKER ALIGNS THE BOARD
WITH MARKINGS ON A SAW TABLE.

THIS POSITIONS THE BOARD
TO BE CUT TO THE CORRECT LENGTH.

A RADIAL ARM SAW
DOES THE JOB NEATLY.

NOW HE SIZES UP EACH BOARD
IN PREPARATION FOR TAPERING.

HE PLACES A BOARD ON AN ANGLE
IN A JIG

AND THEN MOVES THE END AGAINST
A ROUTER CUTTER TO TAPER IT.

IT TAKES A FEW PASSES TO GET IT
JUST RIGHT.

THE TAPER NEEDS TO BE
ABOUT SIX INCHES LONG.

HE THINS THE OTHER END OF
THE BOARD TO THE SAME DIMENSION.

THESE TAPERED ENDS WILL MAKE IT
EASIER TO BEND THE WOOD

INTO A DRUM SHAPE LATER.

THEY'LL ALSO ACT
AS SCARF JOINTS

WHICH WILL FASTEN THE ENDS
OF THE BOARD TOGETHER

WHEN IT'S BENT ROUND.

BUT FIRST THIS BOARD NEEDS
SOME SOFTENING UP.

AN HOUR IN THE STEAM BOX
DOES THE TRICK.

IT'S PLIABLE ENOUGH TO WIND
AROUND A HOT CYLINDRICAL FORM.

STEEL BANDING SECURES THE BOARD
TO THE BENDING FORM,

WHERE IT WILL SPEND
10 TO 15 MINUTES.

A WORKER PRIES APART THE ENDS...

...AND APPLIES A GENEROUS AMOUNT
OF GLUE

BETWEEN THE TAPERED TIPS.

THEN HE REMOVES THE SHIM THAT
WAS HOLDING THE ENDS APART,

SO THAT THEY STICK TOGETHER.

HE PLACES A WOODEN GUARD
OVER THE GLUED JOINT.

THIS NYLON MESH BAND IS A CLAMP.

HE WRAPS IT
AROUND THE DRUM SHELL

AND TURNS A SCREW TO PULL THE
BAND TIGHTLY AROUND THE WOOD

UNTIL IT REACHES
14 INCHES IN DIAMETER.

THEN HE FASTENS OVER A DOZEN
STEEL CLAMPS ONTO THE JOINT.

ALL THESE CLAMPS WILL PREVENT
ANY GAPS

FROM OCCURRING IN THE JOINT
AS THE GLUE SETS OVERNIGHT.

WITH THE JOINT SEALED,

THE DRUM SHELL NOW SPINS WHILE
A CUTTER SHAVES DOWN THE EDGES

TO MAKE IT A TRUE ROUND SHELL.

THEN THEY BRING IN
ANOTHER CUTTER.

IT BORES INTO THE SHELL,

MAKING A SMOOTH EDGE
AND ROUNDING THE INSIDE.

HE TURNS THE DRUM SHELL AROUND
TO CUT IT FROM ANOTHER ANGLE.

AS THE SHELL SPINS,

A HIGH-SPEED CUTTER SHAVES
THE OUTSIDE FROM TOP TO BOTTOM.

THIS MAKES THE SURFACE
VERY SMOOTH.

IT TAKES ABOUT A WEEK TO MAKE
A DRUM SHELL FROM SOLID WOOD,

AND IT WILL BE ABLE TO STAND UP
TO SOME LOUD PLAYING.

Narrator: THERE'S MORE THAN
ONE WAY TO BEAT A DRUM,

AND THERE'S MORE THAN ONE WAY
TO MAKE ONE.

EARLIER, WE SHOWED YOU
HOW THEY CREATE A DRUM SHELL

FROM A MAPLE PLANK.

BUT A NEWER TECHNIQUE INVOLVES
LAYERING MULTIPLE PLIES OF WOOD.

THIS PROCESS
IS CALLED LAMINATING,

AND YOU CAN HEAR THE DIFFERENCE.

THE LAMINATED DRUM
IS AN INSTRUMENT OF CHANGE.

ITS SOUND IS CRISPER

THAN A DRUM CRAFTED
FROM A SINGLE PIECE OF WOOD.

TO MAKE ONE,
THEY LAYER 11 SHEETS OF MAPLE.

HERE, A WORKER GLUES ON
THE FINAL PLY

USING A SPECIAL ADHESIVE.

THIS OUTER LAYER IS
A LUXURIOUS BIRD'S-EYE MAPLE.

ROLLERS PRESS
ALL THE LAYERS TOGETHER

TO ENSURE THEY STICK
WITHOUT ANY GAPS.

THEN THEY CUT THROUGH
THE OVERLAP

TO CREATE A PERFECT SEAM.

A ROBOTIC DRILL NOW TAKES OVER.

IT DRILLS HOLES
OF VARIOUS DIAMETERS.

THE SMALL ONES
WILL HOLD HARDWARE.

THIS LARGER ONE IS AN AIR VENT.

A COMPUTERIZED ROUTER THEN CUTS
THE BEARING EDGES

TO A 45-DEGREE ANGLE,

AND A WORKER SANDS IT SMOOTH.

HE USES A LEVEL SURFACE

TO ENSURE THAT ALL THE EDGES
ARE PERFECT.

IF THEY'RE NOT, THE DRUMHEADS
WON'T FIT PROPERLY.

HE APPLIES AN ADHESIVE
TO THE AIR HOLE

AND INSERTS A PLASTIC VENT.

NEXT, HE INSERTS BRACKETS,
CALLED LUGS,

INTO THE OTHER HOLES
AND SCREWS THEM IN.

THERE ARE 10 LUGS,
SPACED 36 DEGREES APART.

THEY'LL HOLD THE RODS

THAT WILL ATTACH THE HEADS
TO THE DRUM SHELL

AND ALSO ENABLE THE DRUMMER

TO ADJUST THE TENSION
ON THE HEADS.

HERE HE ATTACHES A LEVER TO
CONTROL WIRES, CALLED SNARES,

THAT ARE TO BE STRUNG
ACROSS THE BOTTOM HEAD.

IT'S CALLED A SNARE STRAINER.

THEN HE FITS A PLASTIC DRUMHEAD
OVER THE BOTTOM OF THE SHELL.

THE COUNTER HOOP GOES ON NEXT.

IT HAS LITTLE TABS
WHICH HE ALIGNS WITH EACH LUG.

HE SLIDES TENSION RODS
INTO THE HOLES IN THE TABS.

USING A DRUM KEY,

HE TIGHTENS THE HEAD TO AN
EVEN TENSION ACROSS THE SHELL.

NOW HE BLASTS IT WITH A HEAT GUN

TO SHRINK THE PLASTIC
AND REMOVE ANY WRINKLES.

NOW HE PLACES ANOTHER PLASTIC
HEAD ON THE TOP BEARING EDGE.

SINCE THIS HEAD IS THE ONE
THAT GETS PLAYED,

IT'S TWICE AS THICK
AS THE BOTTOM ONE.

HE PLACES THE CHROME RIM ON IT
AND TIGHTENS THE TENSION RODS.

THESE BRASS BRACKETS WILL HOLD
THE SNARE WIRES.

HE SLIDES THEM UNDER THE SNARES

THAT ARE STRETCHED TIGHTLY
ACROSS A JIG,

PUTTING ONE AT EACH END.

HE MEASURES THE LENGTH,

THEN SOLDERS THE SNARE WIRES
TO THE BRACKETS.

HE SNIPS THE WIRES
ON BOTH ENDS...

...AND UNLOCKS EACH WIRE
FROM THE HOLDING DEVICE.

WHEN HE REMOVES THE SNARES,

THEY'RE HELD TOGETHER
BY THE BRACKETS.

HE SLIDES A NYLON STRAP
INTO ONE OF THE BRACKETS,

THEN ATTACHES THE STRAP
TO A FIXTURE

JUST ABOVE THE BOTTOM HEAD.

THE OTHER END OF THE SNARE
IS ATTACHED TO THE STRAINER --

THE LEVER THAT WILL APPLY
TENSION AND RELEASE IT,

CONTROLLING ITS
DISTINCTIVE BUZZ.

FOR A BIGGER SOUND,
THERE'S THE BASS DRUM.

IT'S MADE WITH WOODEN HOOPS.

THEY ATTACH THE HOOPS TO THE
DRUM SHELL WITH STEEL CLAWS.

AS THEY SCREW THE CLAWS
TO THE HOOP,

THE DRUMHEAD IS PULLED
JUST TIGHTLY ENOUGH

TO PRODUCE THAT LOW-PITCHED
BASS DRUM SOUND.

NOW IT'S OFF TO BE PLAYED.

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