How It's Made (2001–…): Season 6, Episode 10 - Windshields/English Saddles/Butter/Post Clocks - full transcript


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

WINDSHIELDS...

...ENGLISH SADDLES...

...BUTTER...

...AND POST CLOCKS.

DRIVERS OF THE EARLIEST CARS

HAD ONLY GOGGLES TO SHIELD THEM.

SO, TO PROTECT PEOPLE
FROM THE ELEMENTS,

THE GLASS WINDSHIELD
WAS INVENTED IN 1904.

BUT THERE WAS A DANGER --

THEY WOULD SHATTER ON IMPACT,
INJURING PEOPLE.

GLASS LAMINATION
SOLVED THE PROBLEM.

IT WAS SHATTERPROOF --
A REAL SCIENTIFIC BREAKTHROUGH.

TO MAKE A WINDSHIELD, THEY START
WITH A PLAIN SHEET OF GLASS.

AN AUTOMATED PLOTTER
MOVES A CUTTING WHEEL OVER IT,

AND THE WHEEL SCORES THE GLASS.

NOW A ROBOTIC ARM
BRANDISHES A TORCH.

IT MOVES ALONG THE SCORE LINE,

AND THE THERMAL SHOCK
COMPLETES THE CUT.

THIS IS THE BEST WAY
TO CLEANLY CUT THROUGH GLASS.

NEXT, A ROBOT SUCTIONS UP
THE CUT PIECE OF GLASS

AND TRANSFERS IT
TO THE NEXT STATION,

WHERE IT PUSHES THE GLASS

AGAINST
A SERIES OF SANDING BELTS.

THIS TAKES OFF THE SHARP EDGES.
IT'S CALLED SEAMING.

NOW A CONVEYOR BELT TAKES THE
GLASS THROUGH SOME SOAPY WATER

TO CLEAN IT UP.

THEN NOZZLES SPRAY THE GLASS

WITH A MIX
OF TALCUM POWDER AND WATER.

THIS WILL PREVENT THE GLASS

FROM STICKING
TO A SECOND SHEET OF GLASS.

A ROBOT NOW SETS
THAT SECOND PIECE OF GLASS

ON TOP
OF THE FRESHLY SPRAYED ONE.

THIS IS A TEMPORARY ARRANGEMENT.

THE TWO SHEETS OF GLASS
ARE LAYERED FOR PROCESSING

BUT WILL BE PULLED APART LATER.

NEXT,
THEY SILK-SCREEN BLACK PAINT

AROUND THE BORDER OF THE GLASS
THAT WILL EVENTUALLY BE

THE INNER PART
OF THE WINDSHIELD.

THEN AUTOMATED ARMS
CARRY THE GLASS

TO A STATION WHERE SAMPLES
ARE INSPECTED VISUALLY.

AFTER THAT,
ROLLERS TRANSFER THE GLASS

TO AUTOMATIC SQUARING PUCKS,
WHICH POSITION THEM.

AND THEN A ROBOT
LIFTS THE SHEETS OF GLASS

AND CARRIES THEM
TO FOUR METAL PINS.

THE PINS RECEDE, AND THE GLASS
FALLS ONTO A BENDING IRON.

THE IRON IS SHAPED
LIKE A SPECIFIC WINDSHIELD.

THE CONVEYOR TAKES THE BENDING
IRON WITH THE TWO GLASS SHEETS

INTO AN OVEN
CALLED A BENDING LEHR.

THE LEHR HEATS THE GLASS SHEETS

TO ALMOST
1,400 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT,

CAUSING THE GLASS TO SINK INTO
THE SHAPE OF THE BENDING IRON.

THEN THE GLASS GOES THROUGH
A SLOW COOLING CYCLE

TO ANNEAL, OR TOUGHEN,
THE NEW SHAPE.

NEXT, A ROBOT PICKS UP
A SHEET OF VINYL

CUT IN THE SHAPE
OF A WINDSHIELD.

IT TAKES THE VINYL SHEET

TO ONE OF THE NEWLY SHAPED
PIECES OF GLASS,

JUST SEPARATED
FROM THE OTHER PIECE.

THEN ANOTHER ROBOT LOWERS THE
OTHER IDENTICAL PIECE OF GLASS

ONTO THE VINYL.

AND THAT'S THE FORMULA
FOR GLASS LAMINATION --

TWO LAYERS OF GLASS WITH
A PIECE OF VINYL BETWEEN THEM.

IN THE EVENT OF AN ACCIDENT,

THE WINDSHIELD WILL FRACTURE
BUT NOT TOTALLY SHATTER

BECAUSE THE VINYL WILL HOLD MOST
OF THE BROKEN GLASS TOGETHER.

BUT, AT THIS POINT,

THERE'S NO CLEAR VIEW
THROUGH THAT MILKY-WHITE VINYL.

THAT'S WHY THE WINDSHIELD

IS HEADED
TO A MACHINE CALLED A NIPPER.

THE NIPPER PRESSES
THE WINDSHIELD

BETWEEN
A SERIES OF RUBBER ROLLERS,

SQUEEZING OUT AIR POCKETS IN IT.

AS THE AIR IS REMOVED,

THE VIEW THROUGH THE VINYL
GETS A BIT CLEARER.

NOW SQUARING PUCKS
POSITION THE WINDSHIELD,

AND A ROBOT STICKS BRACKETS
FOR THE REARVIEW MIRROR ONTO IT.

THIS BIG BLUE CHAMBER
IS AN AUTOCLAVE.

IT'S LIKE A PRESSURE COOKER.

AFTER ABOUT AN HOUR IN THERE,

ANY REMAINING AIR POCKETS
IN THE WINDSHIELD ARE REMOVED.

A RAIL SYSTEM TRANSPORTS
THE TUBFUL OF WINDSHIELDS

TO THE INSPECTION STATION.

HERE, EACH WINDSHIELD UNDERGOES

A CLOSE-UP INSPECTION
BY A HUMAN.

HE SEARCHES
FOR SCRATCHES, CHIPS,

OR ANY CONTAMINATION BETWEEN
THE GLASS AND VINYL LAYERS.

NOW THEY PLACE
A 5-POUND STEEL BALL

INTO A PULLEY SYSTEM
THAT RAISES IT 13 FEET HIGH.

YES, THIS IS A CRASH TEST
FOR A SAMPLE WINDSHIELD.

THE BALL REPRESENTS
A DRIVER'S HEAD.

THE BALL HITS THE GLASS
BUT DOESN'T GO THROUGH,

WHICH MEANS THE WINDSHIELD
HAS PASSED THE SAFETY TEST.

NOW THEY VIEW THE WINDSHIELD
THROUGH POLARIZED LIGHT,

WHICH REVEALS STRESS DEFECTS.

BUT ONLY A TRAINED EYE
CAN SPOT THEM.

ONCE IT'S DECIDED
THAT EVERYTHING LOOKS GOOD,

THE SHATTERPROOF WINDSHIELD

IS READY TO BE INSTALLED
IN TODAY'S AUTOMOBILES.

Narrator: SADDLE-MAKING
GOES BACK THOUSANDS OF YEARS.

BUT IN MODERN TIMES,
SADDLE MAKERS HAVE REALIZED

THAT A BAD-FITTING SADDLE
CAN IRRITATE THE HORSE.

AN EXPERIENCED RIDER WILL
UNDOUBTEDLY FEEL A DIFFERENCE

IN THE ANIMAL'S ATTITUDE
AND PERFORMANCE.

SO NOW
SADDLES ARE OFTEN CUSTOM-MADE

TO FIT BOTH THE HORSE
AND THE RIDER.

TO MAKE AN ENGLISH SADDLE,

THEY ATTACH BOTH RIGID
AND FLEXIBLE STEEL STRIPS

TO A FRAME MADE OF POLYURETHANE,
WHICH IS CALLED A TREE.

THEN THEY RIVET A STIRRUP BAR
THROUGH THE TREE

TO THE STEEL THAT'S JUST BEEN
FASTENED TO THE UNDERSIDE.

WITH A JIGSAW,
A WORKER CUTS A HOLE IN THE TREE

AND THEN GLUES FOAM
FOR CUSHIONING.

NOW HE COATS THE BACK OF
THE CANTLE, OR SEAT, WITH GLUE

AND STICKS A PIECE OF LEATHER
ONTO IT.

HE CRIMPS THE LEATHER
AROUND THE EDGES OF THE TREE.

AND, USING A SPECIAL TOOL
FOR CUTTING LEATHER,

CALLED A CLICKER KNIFE,

HE CARVES AWAY
THE EXTRA MATERIAL.

THEN HE SPRAYS GLUE
ONTO THE TOP OF THE TREE

AND PRESSES A LAYER OF FOAM
ONTO IT.

USING AN ORDINARY KITCHEN KNIFE,

HE SLICES AWAY EXCESS FOAM
AT THE SIDES

AND CARVES OUT MORE FOAM
TO SHAPE THE SEAT.

THEN HE SHAVES THE EDGES
WITH A RASP.

NEXT, HE LAYERS
TWO MORE FOAM PIECES OVER IT

AND SCULPTS AND SHAVES
THOSE LAYERS.

HE RUNS A MEASURING STICK ALONG
THE SEAT TO MAKE SURE IT'S EVEN,

AND THEN PASTES
A PIECE OF BLACK FOAM ON TOP

TO ADD EVEN MORE CUSHIONING.

NOW, WITH A HALF-MOON BLADE,

ANOTHER WORKER SLICES A PIECE OF
LEATHER TO MAKE A SADDLE FLAP.

SHE FOLLOWS A TRACE-OUT
OF THE RIDER'S LEG.

SHE FEEDS THE FLAP PIECE
INTO A SKIVING MACHINE.

ITS CIRCULAR BLADE SHAVES
THE EDGES OF THE LEATHER

AS A WHEEL PULLS IT THROUGH.

THE THINNED-OUT EDGES
WILL BE EASIER TO SEW LATER ON.

NEXT, SHE HEAT-STAMPS
THE SADDLE LOGO ONTO THE FLAP.

SHE ALSO STAMPS THE MODEL,
SERIAL NUMBER,

TREE, AND SEAT SIZE
ONTO THE SADDLE.

NOW SHE GLUES FOAM
TO A HARD PIECE OF LEATHER

TO MAKE A KNEEPAD AND STICKS
SOFTER LEATHER ON THE TOP,

WHERE THE RIDER'S KNEE
WILL REST.

THEN, USING
A PIECE OF WHALE BONE,

SHE DRAWS THE LEATHER TIGHT
AROUND THE EDGES

SO THAT IT'S SMOOTH ON TOP.

WHALE BONE IS USED BECAUSE IT
DOESN'T SCAR OR SCRATCH LEATHER.

NEXT, SHE SEALS THE FRONT EDGES
AND THEN CRIMPS THEM TOGETHER,

THE WAY A BAKER CRIMPS
THE EDGES OF A PIE.

SHE PULLS THE LEATHER TIGHT
FROM THE BACK SIDE

AND PAINTS GLUE
ONTO THE FATTER RIM.

THEN SHE BRUSHES GLUE
ONTO THE FLAP

AND PRESSES THE KNEEPAD AND FLAP
TOGETHER SO THE GLUE STICKS.

SHE HAMMERS THEM
TO STRENGTHEN THE BOND,

THEN STITCHES THEM TOGETHER,
ALONG THAT GLUE LINE,

USING A BIG
INDUSTRIAL SEWING MACHINE.

WITH A STEEL PROD, SHE STUFFS
A WOOL-AND-SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

INTO THE PANEL WHICH WILL BE
ON THE HORSE'S BACK.

IT'S BEING STUFFED
WITH A CERTAIN HORSE IN MIND.

THE AMOUNT OF STUFFING USED

DEPENDS
ON THE SHAPE OF THE HORSE

THE SADDLE IS BEING MADE FOR.

SHE HAMMERS IT FLAT
WITH A RUBBER MALLET

AND THEN STITCHES THE PANEL
TO THE TOP OF THE SADDLE.

TO SEW THROUGH
THE LEATHER LAYERS,

SHE MAKES A HOLE WITH AN AWL

AND THEN PULLS THE NEEDLE
AND THREAD THROUGH IT,

SPRAYING WATER
TO KEEP THE LEATHER SOFT.

SHE HAMMERS THE SEAM TO GET RID
OF ANY GAPS BETWEEN THE LAYERS.

BUT SEWING THE BACK OF THE PANEL
TO THE BOTTOM OF THE SEAT

IS A BIT TRICKIER.

SHE USES A CURVED AWL AND NEEDLE
TO WORK WITH THE CONTOURS.

IT'S TAKEN ABOUT 25 HOURS

TO PIECE TOGETHER
THIS CUSTOMIZED ENGLISH SADDLE.

THIS IS THE SaddleTech DEVICE,

AND THEY USE IT TO MAKE SURE
THE SADDLE MEASURES UP.

IT MEASURES IT IN FOUR SECTIONS.

NOW IT'S ON TO THE TREE MACHINE.

IT ADJUSTS THE GULLET PLATE,

THE PIECE OF RIGID STEEL THAT
SITS ABOVE THE HORSE'S WITHERS.

PLASTIC PANELS
SUPPORT THE SADDLE

WHILE A HYDRAULIC PRESS
BENDS THE PLATE

TO FIT THE MEASUREMENT.

NOW IT'S TIME TO SADDLE UP

AND CHECK THE FIT
OF THIS CUSTOM-MADE SEAT.

Narrator:
BUTTER HAS A RICH HISTORY.

THE ANCIENT ROMANS USED IT AS A
BEAUTY CREAM AND TO TREAT BURNS.

EVEN THE OLD TESTAMENT
MENTIONS BUTTER.

ABRAHAM SERVED IT TO ANGELS.

BACK THEN, PEOPLE MADE BUTTER

BY SHAKING MILK IN BAGS OF
ANIMAL SKIN OR IN HOLLOW LOGS.

TODAY IT'S A PRODUCT
OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY.

BUTTER-MAKING BEGINS

WITH A TANKER-TRUCK DELIVERY
TO THE DAIRY --

ALMOST 8,000 GALLONS
OF RAW COW'S MILK.

WORKERS TEST IT
FOR CONSISTENT COLOR AND ODOR

BEFORE UNLOADING IT
THROUGH VACUUM-PUMPED HOSES.

THEY PUMP THE RAW MILK INTO
A MACHINE CALLED A SEPARATOR.

THE SEPARATOR SPINS,

DIVIDING THE RAW MILK'S FAT
FROM THE REST OF THE LIQUID.

THE FAT IS CALLED BUTTERCREAM,
AND THE REST IS SKIM MILK.

THE ESSENTIAL INGREDIENT
IN BUTTER IS THE BUTTERCREAM.

IT'S THICK, OFF-WHITE,
AND APPROXIMATELY 38% FAT.

SOME OF IT GOES TO MAKE 2% MILK.

A WORKER ADJUSTS A VALVE

TO RE-INSERT
SOME INTO THE SKIM MILK.

THE RESULTING 2% MILK IS
MORE WATERY THAN BUTTERCREAM

AND IS WHITE.

THE LESS THE FAT CONTENT,

THE THINNER AND RUNNIER
THE MILK IS.

BACK TO THE BUTTER-MAKING.

THEY PUT THE BUTTERCREAM
IN WHAT'S CALLED A BULK TANK,

WHERE MIXERS STIR IT
TO MAINTAIN THE CONSISTENCY.

AFTER PASTEURIZING

AND THEN AGING THE BUTTERCREAM
FOR 24 HOURS,

WORKERS PREPARE TO TRANSFER IT
TO ANOTHER MACHINE,

CALLED THE CHURNER.

FIRST THEY CLEAN THE INSIDE

BY FILLING IT
WITH WATER MIXED WITH IODINE.

THIS REMOVES ANY GERMS LEFT
BEHIND BY THE PREVIOUS BATCH.

THEY SPIN THE CHURNER
FOR ABOUT FIVE MINUTES

BEFORE RINSING IT OUT.

NEXT, THEY POUR IN JUST UNDER
400 GALLONS OF BUTTERCREAM,

FILLING THE CHURNER
ABOUT HALFWAY.

IT'S IMPORTANT
TO LEAVE SOME ROOM

SO THAT AIR RELEASED
IN THE CHURNING PROCESS

CAN ESCAPE THROUGH TWO VENTS
IN THE CHURNER.

THE CHURNER SPINS
AT 28 ROTATIONS PER MINUTE --

ABOUT THE SPEED
OF A CLOTHES DRYER.

THIS CAUSES THE BUTTERCREAM'S
FAT MOLECULES TO BUNCH TOGETHER,

RELEASING WATER AND AIR.

EVERY FIVE MINUTES,
A WORKER STOPS THE CHURNER

AND REGULATES THE AIR VENT
ON TOP.

WHEN HE FEELS
THERE'S NO MORE AIR ESCAPING,

HE CLOSES THE VALVE
AND RE-STARTS THE MACHINE.

AFTER 30 MINUTES OF CHURNING,

THE FAT MOLECULES
IN THE BUTTERCREAM

ARE CREAMY CLUMPS
KNOWN AS POPCORN BUTTER.

THESE CLUMPS STAY TRAPPED
IN THE CHURNER,

WHILE THE REMAINING LIQUID --
CALLED BUTTERMILK --

FLOWS OUT A DRAIN AT THE BOTTOM.

A VACUUM-PUMP SYSTEM

SENDS IT THROUGH HOSES
TO A NEARBY CONTAINER.

THIS DRAINING PROCESS
TAKES ABOUT 10 MINUTES

AND PRODUCES
ABOUT 210 GALLONS OF BUTTERMILK.

THIS DAIRY USES THE BUTTERMILK
TO MAKE ICE CREAM.

THE POPCORN BUTTER --
ALL 1,500 POUNDS OF IT --

HAS THE SAME CONSISTENCY

AS A REGULAR BUTTER
AT ROOM TEMPERATURE.

A WORKER NOW FLAVORS IT
WITH 30 POUNDS OF SALT.

THIS DAIRY ALSO MAKES
UNSALTED BUTTER.

THE WORKER CLOSES THE CHURNER
BY SEALING THE GLASS WINDOW

WITH A RUBBER RING
AND A METAL COLLAR.

THIS KEEPS
THE INTERNAL AIR PRESSURE

ROUGHLY EQUAL
TO WHAT'S OUTSIDE THE CHURNER.

DOING THIS ENSURES
THE CHURNER WORKS EFFICIENTLY.

ANOTHER 30 MINUTES OF CHURNING,

AND THE FAT MOLECULES
THICKEN EVEN MORE

AND BLEND WITH THE SALT.

WHAT RESULTS IS BUTTER,

WHICH IS YELLOW BECAUSE
OF ITS NATURAL VITAMIN A.

NEXT, A WORKER SCOOPS
ABOUT 66 POUNDS OF BUTTER

INTO A MILLING MACHINE.

THE MILL MOVES THE BUTTER
INTO THE FINAL PRODUCTION PHASE,

WHERE IT'LL BE SHAPED
AND PUT INTO PACKAGES.

THIS MACHINE SQUEEZES BUTTER

INTO AN INJECTOR
THAT'S SHAPED LIKE A BLOCK.

THE INJECTOR THEN DEPOSITS
BLOCKS OF BUTTER

INTO OPEN PACKAGES.

THE PACKAGING PAPER
HAS AN ALUMINUM OUTER COATING.

THIS PREVENTS LIGHT
FROM PENETRATING.

LIGHT CAN MAKE THE BUTTER
RANCID.

EACH SHEET IS 10 1/2 INCHES LONG
AND 7 1/2 INCHES WIDE.

BEFORE THE BUTTER IS INSERTED,

A PLASTIC FORMER
BENDS THE PAPER INTO SHAPE.

THIS MILL OPERATES
FOUR DAYS A WEEK,

MAKING UP TO 33 BLOCKS
PER MINUTE.

THAT'S A FAIRLY SMALL QUANTITY
COMPARED TO SOME DAIRIES,

BUT THIS RELATIVELY SLOW PACE
ALLOWS GREATER QUALITY CONTROL.

TO MONITOR THE MILL'S PRECISION,
WORKERS CHECK EVERY 15th BLOCK

TO ENSURE
IT WEIGHS EXACTLY ONE POUND.

THE DAIRY THEN SHIPS THE BUTTER
TO STORES

IN REFRIGERATED TRUCKS.

Narrator: CLOCKS ON POSTS BECAME
POPULAR FIXTURES IN TOWN SQUARES

DURING THE 1800s.

RAILWAYS WERE SPREADING FAST,
AND THESE PUBLIC CLOCKS

HELPED PEOPLE
TO GET TO THEIR TRAINS ON TIME.

TODAY, POST CLOCKS
ARE OFTEN DESIGNED

TO LOOK LIKE
THEY'RE FROM THE PAST.

BUT THE TECHNOLOGY
THAT GOES INTO MAKING THEM

IS ACTUALLY VERY UP-TO-DATE.

IT ALL STARTS WITH WHAT'S CALLED
A TRANSFER SHEET.

A WORKER POSITIONS IT
OVER AN ALUMINUM DISC

THAT'LL BECOME THE CLOCK'S DIAL.

SHE REMOVES THE SHEET, SPRAYS ON
A CHEMICAL, AND REPOSITIONS IT.

THE CHEMICAL
WILL ACT AS A RELEASE AGENT,

DETACHING THE VINYL NUMBERS
FROM THE SHEET

SO THAT THEY TRANSFER
AND STICK TO THE DIAL.

SHE THEN PEELS THE SHEET OFF.

THIS WORKER PREPARES
A MORE ELABORATE MODEL,

WITH NUMERALS
IN 23-KARAT GOLD LEAF.

AFTER COATING THEM IN GLUE,

SHE APPLIES
A HAIR-THIN SHEET OF GOLD.

THEN SHE GENTLY BRUSHES THE GOLD
ONTO THE NUMERAL.

USING A COMPUTER-GUIDED CUTTER,

WORKERS CUT A 1/5-INCH-THICK
SHEET OF ALUMINUM

INTO A CLOCK'S HAND
THAT'S MORE THAN 3 FEET LONG.

TO BOOST THE HAND'S RIGIDITY,
THEY CREASE IT IN A PRESS.

THIS STRUCTURALLY REINFORCES
THE METAL,

HELPING RETAIN THE HAND'S SHAPE
OVER TIME.

A 1 1/2-OUNCE COUNTERWEIGHT
WILL BALANCE THE HAND

WHEN IT ROTATES.

HERE, A WELDER BUILDS THE POST

BY FUSING A BASE AND A COLUMN
MADE OF CAST ALUMINUM.

ON ANOTHER MODEL, WORKERS ATTACH
THE HOUSING FOR THE CLOCK HEAD.

THIS CLOCK WILL HAVE FOUR DIALS.

OTHER MODELS HAVE TWO.

IN THE PAINT SHOP,

WORKERS GIVE THE BASE, COLUMN,
AND HEAD FOUR COATS OF PAINT.

AFTER APPLYING SOME LUBRICANT
ON A STEEL SHAFT, CALLED A STUD,

A WORKER INSTALLS ONE OF
THE CLOCK'S EIGHT BRASS GEARS --

BRASS, BECAUSE
IT'S STRONG AND DURABLE.

A STEEL LOOP CALLED A SNAP RING
HOLDS EACH GEAR IN PLACE.

ONE GEAR HAS
WHAT'S CALLED A VANE

TO REGULATE
THE PULSING OF THE GEARS.

NEXT, A WORKER ATTACHES
THE SHAFT AND GEAR

THAT'LL CONTROL THE MINUTE HAND.

ALTOGETHER, THE GEARS FORM

WHAT'S CALLED
THE CLOCK MOVEMENT.

HE SCREWS ON A BRASS PANEL
CALLED A BACKPLATE

TO HOLD THE CLOCK MOVEMENT
IN PLACE.

THEN HE ATTACHES
AN ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARD

THAT'LL LATER CONNECT THE CLOCK
MOVEMENT TO ANOTHER COMPONENT.

HE INSTALLS A 115-VOLT MOTOR

TO SUPPLY
THE CLOCK'S ELECTRIC POWER.

FINALLY, HE CONNECTS POWER WIRES
AND TURNS ON THE CLOCK MOVEMENT.

HERE, HE'S CHECKING TO SEE THAT
EVERYTHING'S PROPERLY LINKED

AND THAT THE GEARS
ARE MOVING WELL.

THIS COMPANY
MAKES CLOCK MOVEMENTS

FOR CLOCKS RANGING IN DIAMETER

FROM JUST 8 1/2 INCHES
TO MORE THAN 70 FEET.

THE GEARS IN THE LARGEST CLOCK
ARE NEARLY 3 1/2 FEET WIDE.

HERE, YOU CAN SEE HOW THE SHAFT
THAT'LL HOLD THE MINUTE HAND

REVOLVES INSIDE WHAT'S CALLED
THE SLEEVE OF THE HOUR HAND.

A WORKER ATTACHES
THE CLOCK MOVEMENT

TO THE BACK OF THE DIAL.

THEN HE TIES WIRES THROUGH
WHAT'S CALLED GLASS STANDOFFS.

THESE STANDOFFS WILL CRADLE
THE CLOCK'S NEON LIGHT.

THE NEON TUBE ENCIRCLES
THE CLOCK'S PERIMETER.

IT ATTACHES THROUGH HOLES

TO A TRANSFORMER
HIDDEN BEHIND THE DIAL.

HE FASTENS THE TUBE WITH
RUST-RESISTANT COPPER WIRES.

NEXT COME THE HOUR AND MINUTE
HANDS, NOW PAINTED BLACK.

HE USES AN ALLEN WRENCH

TO ATTACH THEM
TO WHAT'S CALLED THE HAND HUB.

THIS HUB HOLDS THE HANDS
ON THE SHAFT

THAT'S PART
OF THE CLOCK MOVEMENT.

THE ASSEMBLED DIAL
NOW GOES INTO ITS CASING.

THE CASING HAS TWO PARTS --

AN ALUMINUM RING,
CALLED A BEZEL,

AROUND A GLASS COVER
KNOWN AS A CRYSTAL.

HE CONNECTS A WIRE
TO LINK THE DIALS

SO THAT THEY'LL MOVE IN SYNC.

THE WORKER
THEN INSERTS THIS CASING

INTO WHAT WILL BE
A TWO-DIAL POST CLOCK.

WORKERS THEN TURN ON
THE NEON CLOCK LIGHT TO TEST IT.

ONCE THE POST CLOCK'S INSTALLED,

A BUILT-IN SENSOR
TURNS THE LIGHT ON AT DUSK

AND OFF AT DAWN.

INSIDE EVERY CLOCK IS
A CONTROLLER THAT SETS THE TIME.

IT'S LINKED TO A SATELLITE

THROUGH
A GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM.

THE GPS TELLS THE SATELLITE
WHERE THE CLOCK'S LOCATED

TO SET THE CORRECT LOCAL TIME.

AFTER STARTING UP,
THE CONTROLLER TAKES SIX MINUTES

TO ADJUST THE HANDS
TO THE EXACT TIME,

WHICH IS DETERMINED

BY AN INTERNATIONAL OBSERVATORY
IN GREENWICH, ENGLAND.

CERTAINLY NOT
YOUR AVERAGE POCKET WATCH,

THIS COMPANY'S POST CLOCKS

CAN STAND MORE THAN 19 FEET HIGH
AND COST UP TO $35,000.

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