How It's Made (2001–…): Season 5, Episode 6 - Alkaline Batteries/Wheelchairs/Flutes/Cowboy Boots - full transcript

Take the mystery out of everyday items with a look at how alkaline batteries, wheelchairs, flutes, cowboy boots are made.


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator: TODAY
ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

ALKALINE BATTERIES.

WHEELCHAIRS.

FLUTES.

AND COWBOY BOOTS.

A BATTERY PRODUCES
AN ELECTRIC CURRENT

WHEN ITS POSITIVE END,
CALLED THE CATHODE,

AND ITS NEGATIVE END,
CALLED THE ANODE, CONNECT

VIA A CONDUCTIVE PATHWAY
IN THE BATTERY-OPERATED DEVICE.

THIS PATHWAY
CONDUCTS ELECTRICITY

WHEN THREE COMPONENTS --

TWO ELECTRODES
AND AN ELECTROLYTE -- INTERACT.

THESE ALKALINE BATTERIES
ARE THE RECHARGEABLE TYPE.

THEY LAST FOR YEARS,
DEPENDING ON HOW YOU USE THEM.

THE FACTORY BEGINS PRODUCTION

BY CUTTING NICKEL-PLATED STEEL
INTO OVAL PIECES,

THEN GRADUALLY SHAPING
EACH PIECE INTO A TUBE,

CALLED A CONSOLE.

THE CONSOLE HOUSES

SOME IMPORTANT
CHEMICAL INGREDIENTS --

GRAPHITE,
WHICH CONDUCTS ELECTRICITY...

SILVER CATALYST, WHICH REDUCES
CHEMICAL-PRESSURE BUILDUP...

MANGANESE DIOXIDE,

THE MAIN INGREDIENT
IN THE CATHODE...

BARIUM SULFATE,

WHICH BINDS
THE CATHODE INGREDIENTS,

ZINC, THE MAIN INGREDIENT
IN THE ANODE,

A GELLING AGENT TO KEEP
THE ZINC PARTICLES SUSPENDED,

AND FINALLY,
POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE,

WHICH INTERACTS WITH ELECTRODES
TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY.

THIS 25-HEAD PRESS SHAPES
THE CATHODE'S POWDERED CHEMICALS

INTO HOLLOW PELLETS.

THE PRESS CHURNS OUT
25,000 PELLETS AN HOUR.

A MACHINE CALLED A CONSOLE PRESS

THEN INSERTS THREE PELLETS
INTO EACH CONSOLE --

THREE BECAUSE THESE PELLETS
ARE SO FRAGILE

THAT THREE SMALLER ONES
ARE EASIER TO MANIPULATE

THAN ONE BIG PELLET WOULD BE.

HERE'S THE INSERTION
IN SLOW MOTION.

THE NEXT MACHINE MAKES A RIDGE
ON ONE END OF THE CONSOLE

TO HELP SEAL IT.

PLASTIC HOLDERS, CALLED PUCKS,
HOLD THE CONSOLES STILL

AS NOZZLES APPLY A SEALANT
TO THE TOP,

WHICH IS THE NEGATIVE END
OF THE CONSOLE.

NEXT, THEY CUT A ROLL OF PAPER
INTO SMALL STRIPS.

THESE STRIPS
ARE CALLED SEPARATORS.

THEY HAVE MICROSCOPIC HOLES
THAT PERMIT THE FLOW OF IONS,

ELECTRICALLY-CHARGED
MOLECULES,

BETWEEN THE CATHODE
AND THE ANODE.

A HOT-MELT GLUE MACHINE DEPOSITS
A SMALL AMOUNT OF GLUE

INTO THE SEPARATOR, NOW ROLLED,

AND SEALS THE POSITIVE END
OF THE PAPER TUBE.

THE GLUE COOLS AND HARDENS
OVER THE NEXT MINUTE AND A HALF,

AS THE CONSOLES MOVE ALONG
A CONVEYOR.

THE NEXT MACHINE
INJECTS AN ELECTROLYTE --

A POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION.

IT TAKES NINE MINUTES TO SOAK
THROUGH THE SEPARATOR LINER

INTO THE CATHODE PELLETS.

NOZZLES THEN INJECT
ABOUT .15 OUNCES OF ZINC GEL

INTO THE ANODE CAVITY.

ONLY ABOUT 2/3 OF THE GEL WEIGHT
IS ACTUALLY ZINC.

THE OTHER 1/3 IS THIS COMPANY'S
CLOSELY GUARDED TRADE SECRET.

IT'S WHAT MAKES THESE BATTERIES
RECHARGEABLE.

THE ZINC GIVES THE GEL
ITS SILVER-GRAY COLOR.

A WELDING MACHINE
FUSES 1 1/2-INCH NAILS

ONTO THE CAP OF THE BATTERY.

THIS IS WHERE THE CURRENT
COLLECTS BEFORE IT'S DISCHARGED.

THE MACHINE EJECTS THE CAP
WHEN FINISHED,

AND ANOTHER MACHINE INSERTS IT

INTO THE NEGATIVE END
OF THE BATTERY.

THIS CAP INCLUDES
A SAFETY FEATURE

CRUCIAL TO
RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES --

IT CAN RESIST HIGH PRESSURE.

BUT IF HEAT OR POWER SURGES
CAUSE EXCESSIVE PRESSURE,

A TINY VENT PREVENTS THE BATTERY
FROM EXPLODING.

THE MACHINE FOLDS OVER
THE CONSOLE LIP

TO ENCLOSE THE CONTENTS.

A ROTATING,
THREE-HEAD CRIMPING MACHINE

THEN MAKES A RIDGE
IN THE FINISHED BATTERY

TO REDUCE THE CHANCE OF LEAKAGE.

AN ELECTRICAL TESTING MACHINE

CONTACTS EACH BATTERY
FOR 200 MILLISECONDS

TO ENSURE IT HAS
AT LEAST 1.5 VOLTS.

THESE BATTERIES WILL BE READY
TO USE RIGHT AWAY.

NO NEED TO CHARGE THEM FIRST.

THE LABELING MACHINE
USES LIGHT SENSORS

TO TIME THE LABELING
OF EACH BATTERY CASING.

THE PLASTIC LABEL
LISTS TECHNICAL INFORMATION

AND ADDS ADDITIONAL INSULATION.

THEN THREE SECONDS IN AN OVEN
AT 388 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT

SHRINKS THE LABELS
TO A TIGHT FIT.

Narrator:
SPAIN'S KING PHILLIP II

WAS THE FIRST DISABLED PERSON
TO GET AROUND ON WHEELS.

HE RULED FROM A ROLLING CHAIR
WITH FOOT RESTS IN THE 1500s.

TODAY'S WHEELCHAIRS
ARE WIDELY AVAILABLE,

BUT AT A PRICE OF A FEW HUNDRED
TO SEVERAL THOUSAND DOLLARS,

DEPENDING ON THE FEATURES.

THIS WOOD, LEATHER,
AND STEEL CHAIR

IS A WORLD WAR II ANTIQUE.

A MODERN WHEELCHAIR LITERALLY
RUNS CIRCLES AROUND IT.

WITH MORE THAN 150
POSSIBLE DESIGN OPTIONS,

TODAY'S WHEELCHAIR FITS THE USER
AND THE USER'S LIFESTYLE.

THE WHEEL RIM IS ALUMINUM.
THE SPOKES -- STEEL.

IT'S MUCH LIKE A BICYCLE,
EXCEPT FOR THESE --

SIX STEEL BRACKETS

THAT LATER FASTEN
TO A HAND RIM FOR PROPULSION.

TIRES ARE EITHER PNEUMATIC,
WITH AN INNER-TUBE OF AIR,

OR RIGID --
JUST ONE SOLID PIECE OF RUBBER.

A MACHINE STRETCHES THE TIRE
TO FIT THE WHEEL RIM.

WORKERS INSTALL 12 WASHERS,
CALLED SPACERS,

ALONG THE HAND-RIM.

SIX OF THESE 1/2-INCH SPACERS
CAN BE REMOVED LATER

TO ADJUST THE CHAIR'S
OVERALL WIDTH, IF NECESSARY.

THE SPACERS ON THE HAND-RIM

ALIGN WITH THE BRACKETS
ON THE WHEEL.

WORKERS JOIN THEM
WITH INDUSTRIAL-STRENGTH,

1 1/2-INCH STEEL SCREWS.

REPLACING A WHEEL
AND HAND-RIM LIKE THIS

COSTS MORE THAN $100.

YOU BUY REPLACEMENT PARTS
MUCH LIKE YOU DO CAR PARTS --

THROUGH SPECIALIZED DEALERSHIPS.

BEARINGS MAKE THE WHEELS
ROLL WITH EASE.

INSTALLING THEM
IS A DELICATE OPERATION.

WORKERS USE
SPECIAL CUSTOM TOOLING

TO INSERT THE BEARINGS
WITH EXTREME PRECISION.

THE TIRES ARE RIGID
AND HAVE NO TREADS

BECAUSE THEY'RE DESIGNED
FOR SMOOTH INDOOR SURFACES.

AN ALUMINUM CROSS-FRAME IS WHAT
ENABLES THE CHAIR TO FOLD.

THEY ASSEMBLE IT WITH SIX
OR SEVEN SCREWS PER SIDE,

DEPENDING ON THE DEPTH NEEDED
FOR THE SEAT,

WHICH THEY'LL INSTALL LATER ON.

THE FRONT PART OF THE WHEELCHAIR
IS CALLED THE FRONT FRAME.

WORKERS LUBRICATE THE PARTS
SO THEY'LL BE EASIER TO INSTALL.

THIS ALSO ENABLES THE WHEELCHAIR
TO FOLD WITH EASE.

THEY INSTALL THE REAR FRAME
OF THE WHEELCHAIR

THEN MAKE SURE
THE CROSS-FRAME FOLDS CORRECTLY.

WORKERS TEST
THE HEIGHT-ADJUSTMENT LEVER

FOR THE ARMREST.

THEN THEY INSTALL
A REMOVABLE ALUMINUM FOOTREST,

SETTING IT
TO THE DESIRED LENGTH.

IT HAS A HEEL LOOP

TO PREVENT THE USER'S FOOT
FROM SLIPPING OFF.

THE CHAIR HAS
A FOLDABLE SLING SEAT.

IT'S MADE OF NYLON

AND ATTACHES TO THE FRAME
WITH SIX SCREWS ON BOTH SIDES.

YOU CAN ADJUST THE ARMREST
HEIGHT FROM 8 TO 11 INCHES

AND THE TENSION IN THE BACKREST
WITH 3 VELCRO STRAPS.

THE BACKREST IS MADE OF NYLON

AND COMES
IN NINE DIFFERENT HEIGHTS.

WORKERS INSERT
THE WHEEL AXLE INTO THE FRAME,

ADJUSTING IT TO FIT WITH THE
OPTIONAL FEATURES OF THE CHAIR,

SUCH AS A PARTICULAR STYLE
OF ARMREST.

THE AXLE HAS A QUICK RELEASE

SO YOU CAN REMOVE THE WHEEL
IN SECONDS.

THIS PLASTIC-AND-ALUMINUM
HAND LEVER IS A PARKING BRAKE.

IT KEEPS THE CHAIR STILL WHEN
TRANSFERRING TO A BED OR TOILET.

THIS MOTORIZED CHAIR
HAS AN ELECTRICAL CONTROLLER.

THE USER COMMANDS IT
WITH A JOYSTICK.

THE CHAIR RUNS
ON TWO 12-VOLT BATTERIES

THAT POWER UP IN EIGHT HOURS
FROM A HOUSEHOLD SOCKET.

WORKERS SQUEEZE THE INNER TUBE
INTO THE REAR WHEEL RIM.

THE AIR VALVE SLIPS THROUGH

AND THE FRONT AND BACK PARTS
ATTACH WITH SCREWS.

NOW THE REAR WHEEL
CAN GO ONTO THE MOTOR.

THEY ATTACH THE SEAT
AND THE JOYSTICK BOX,

WHICH HAS ON/OFF
AND SPEED-CONTROL SWITCHES.

THE BATTERY-PACK
PROVIDES 85 AMPS AN HOUR.

THAT'S ENOUGH POWER
FOR 16 HOURS OR 25 MILES.

THE BATTERIES CONNECT
TO THE CHARGER AND CONTROLLER

TO POWER UP THE WHEELCHAIR.

A STEEL BUMPER AND PLASTIC
REAR HOOD, CALLED A SHROUD,

PROTECT THE BACK OF
THE WHEELCHAIR FROM THE ELEMENTS

AND AGAINST MINOR COLLISIONS.

THIS MOTORIZED MODEL CAN GLIDE
AT A LEISURELY PACE

OR ZOOM AROUND AT A TOP SPEED
OF JUST OVER 7 MILES PER HOUR.

Narrator:
THE TRANSVERSE FLUTE HAS BEEN
AN ORCHESTRAL INSTRUMENT

SINCE THE 1700s.

YOU PLAY IT
IN A HORIZONTAL POSITION,

BLOWING ACROSS AN OVAL HOLE
IN THE MOUTHPIECE.

THE AIR HITS A SHARP EDGE
INSIDE, PRODUCING SOUND.

YOU TURN THAT SOUND INTO NOTES

BY PRESSING THE KEYS THAT OPEN
AND CLOSE THE FLUTE'S HOLES.

[ FLUTE MUSIC PLAYS ]

THEY BEGIN PRODUCTION

BY INSERTING A SOLID STEEL BAR
INTO A STERLING SILVER TUBE.

THEN, USING A PRESS,
THEY LENGTHEN IT AND TAPER IT,

REDUCING THE DIAMETER
TO JUST UNDER 3/4 OF AN INCH.

THIS TUBE IS PART OF
WHAT'S CALLED A HEAD JOINT,

ONE OF THREE SECTIONS
THAT MAKE UP THE FLUTE.

THE OTHER SECTIONS ARE THE
CENTER JOINT AND THE FOOT JOINT.

NEXT, ON ANOTHER MACHINE,

THEY INSERT A SECOND TUBE
FOR THE CENTER JOINT.

THIS DEVICE DRILLS SMALL HOLES

TO MARK THE POSITION
OF EACH TONE HOLE,

THE RAISED RIM AROUND
EACH OF THE FLUTE'S HOLES.

NOW THEY INSERT
TITANIUM WASHERS,

CALLED SPIDERS, IN THE HOLES
TO HELP POSITION THE TONE HOLES.

THEY PLACE A TONE HOLE
AROUND EACH SPIDER,

SECURING IT TEMPORARILY
WITH COPPER WIRE.

ONCE THEY SOLDER THE TONE HOLE,
THEY'LL REMOVE THE SPIDER.

THEY SOLDER LITTLE POSTS
ONTO THREE STRIPS OF METAL,

CALLED RIBS.

THE RIBS AND POSTS WILL LATER
HOLD THE FLUTE'S KEYS IN PLACE.

NEXT THEY USE WHAT'S CALLED
A PROFILE CUTTER

TO SHAVE THE TONE HOLES
BY MINUTE AMOUNTS,

TO PERFECT THE FLUTE'S SOUND.

NOW, USING A WAX INJECTOR
AND RUBBER MOLDS,

THEY CREATE WAX DUPLICATES
OF THE 120 DIFFERENT PARTS

THAT MAKE UP
THE FLUTE'S 20 KEYS.

NOW THEY BUILD
WHAT'S CALLED A TREE.

USING TWEEZERS AND A HEATED PEN,

THEY FUSE THE WAX DUPLICATES
TO A WAX TRUNK

THAT'S 6 1/2 TO 10 INCHES TALL,
DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF FLUTE.

THEN THEY PLACE THE TREE
IN A PERFORATED STEEL FLASK

COVERED IN MASKING TAPE.

THEY POUR IN
1/4 GALLON OF PLASTER,

WHICH HARDENS AROUND THE TREE.

THEN THEY REMOVE THE TAPE
AND HEAT THE FLASK.

THE WAX MELTS THROUGH THE HOLES,

LEAVING PLASTER CAVITIES
IN THE SHAPE OF THE KEY PARTS.

THE KEYS ARE MADE FROM TINY
PARTICLES OF SILVER OR GOLD.

THESE ONES HAVE A REDDISH HUE

BECAUSE OF THEIR
HIGH COPPER CONTENT.

THE CRAFTSMEN POUR
A CAREFULLY MEASURED AMOUNT

INTO THE CASTING MACHINE'S
UPPER CHAMBER.

THE MACHINE HEATS THE METAL
FOR 12 MINUTES.

THE PLASTER FLASK GOES INTO THE
CASTING MACHINE'S LOWER CHAMBER.

THEY RELEASE MOLTEN METAL
INTO THE CAVITIES.

ONCE THE METAL COOLS,

THEY SHATTER THE PLASTER
UNDER COLD WATER,

EXPOSING A TREE
OF SILVER KEY PARTS.

USING A PNEUMATIC CUTTER,

CRAFTSMEN SNIP OFF
THE KEY PARTS.

THEY HAVE A DULL FINISH BECAUSE
THE SILVER ISN'T YET POLISHED.

NOW THEY SOLDER
THE KEY PARTS TOGETHER

AND POLISH EACH FINISHED KEY
WITH A SOFT ROTATING BRUSH.

THEY ALSO SOLDER ON A RISER,

WHICH ATTACHES
THE MOUTHPIECE'S LIP PLATE

TO THE HEAD JOINT TUBE.

THEY CUT AWAY EXCESS METAL

FROM THE OPENING
OF THE LIP PLATE.

THEN THEY USE A LATHE

TO CUT OUT A HOLE
IN THE HEAD JOINT TUBE.

A TEMPLATE ENSURES THEY POSITION
THE HOLE CORRECTLY.

ONCE AGAIN,
THEY USE COPPER WIRE

TO HOLD THE PARTS TOGETHER
UNTIL SOLDERING.

THEY SOLDER
THE LIP PLATE ASSEMBLY

TO THE HEAD JOINT TUBE,
USING A GAS-AND-OXYGEN TORCH.

NEXT, THEY MOUNT THE KEYS

USING TINY WIRES
CALLED STRAIGHT SPRINGS.

THE SPRING HELPS
OPEN AND CLOSE EACH KEY

OVER THE CORRESPONDING
TONE HOLE.

THEY TEST EACH KEY'S SEAL,
CALLED THE PAD, FOR AIR LEAKS.

A THIN STRIP OF PLASTIC SLIDES
OUT IF IT'S IMPROPERLY SEALED.

THE PAD IS MADE UP OF A PLASTIC
WASHER AND A FELT CUSHION,

SURROUNDED BY A SYNTHETIC
WRAPPER AS THIN AS TISSUE PAPER.

A PAD LASTS FOR ABOUT FIVE YEARS

AND IS VERY EXPENSIVE
TO REPLACE -- ABOUT $75.

IT'S JUST ONE OF
UP TO 100 COMPONENTS IN A FLUTE,

DEPENDING ON THE MODEL.

THIS COMPANY'S FLUTES COME
IN SILVER, GOLD, AND PLATINUM.

THEY RANGE IN PRICE
FROM $8,000 TO $43,000.

ONCE ALL THE KEYS ARE IN PLACE,

A QUICK WIPE TO REMOVE
ANY PESKY FINGERPRINTS.

AN ENGRAVER INSCRIBES THE
SERIAL NUMBER AND COMPANY LOGO.

AFTER 120 HOURS
OF PAINSTAKING WORK,

THE FLUTE IS READY
FOR ITS MUSICAL DEBUT.

[ FLUTE MUSIC PLAYS ]

Narrator: COWBOY BOOTS HAVE BEEN
KICKING AROUND SINCE THE 1800s.

YOU CAN WEAR THEM ON THE RANCH

OR JUST AS A COUNTRY-STYLE
FASHION STATEMENT.

MOST COWBOY BOOTS ARE MADE OF
COWHIDE AND SELL FOR ABOUT $200.

FOR SOMETHING
MORE EXOTIC, THOUGH,

HOW ABOUT A PAIR MADE OF
OSTRICH SKIN FOR A MERE $500?

PRODUCTION STARTS WITH A MACHINE
CALLED THE CLICKER

THAT WORKS LIKE A COOKIE CUTTER,

SLICING LEATHER
INTO VARIOUS SIZES OF SOLES

FROM STANDARD TO EXTRA WIDE.

THE CLICKER ALSO CUTS
THE OTHER BOOT PARTS,

SUCH AS THE SHAFT,
THE SECTION ABOVE THE ANKLE.

THIS PROGRAMMABLE,
AUTOMATED STITCHING MACHINE

DECORATES THE SHAFT
WITH EMBROIDERY.

THE MACHINE WORKS
ON A DOZEN BOOTS AT A TIME,

USING UP TO 15 DIFFERENT
THREAD COLORS.

WORKERS STEAM THE SHAFT
TO SOFTEN UP THE LEATHER.

SYNTHETICS
JUST DON'T MOLD TO THE FOOT

THE WAY ANIMAL HIDES DO,

SO THIS COMPANY
USES ONLY THE REAL THING --

PYTHON SKIN, WALRUS SKIN,

BISON SKIN, EVEN OSTRICH SKIN.

COW- AND PIG-SKIN BOOTS MAKE UP
THE BULK OF PRODUCTION, THOUGH,

BECAUSE THEY'RE THE MOST
AFFORDABLE.

WORKERS PERFORATE THE SHAFT,

THEN LAYER A DIFFERENT-COLORED
LEATHER UNDERNEATH

TO CREATE A DESIGN.

THIS COMPANY
PRODUCES 20 BASIC PATTERNS,

BUT CLIENTS CAN ALSO
ORDER CUSTOM DESIGNS.

THEY LINE THE SHAFT
WITH PIG SKIN

BECAUSE IT BREATHES BETTER
THAN A SYNTHETIC LINING.

WORKERS STITCH TOGETHER
THE SHAFT SECTIONS,

INCLUDING THE UNDERLAYS,
FROM THE INSIDE OUT.

PIPING COVERS THE SEAMS.

A ROLLER TURNS THE WHOLE THING
RIGHT SIDE OUT,

FLATTENING THE PIPING
FOR A MORE COMFORTABLE FIT.

THE NEXT MACHINE
GLUES A COTTON STRIP

TO THE LEATHER INSOLE.

THEY'LL LATER ATTACH THIS STRIP
TO THE FOOT SECTION OF THE BOOT.

NEXT, THEY TEMPORARILY ATTACH
THE SOLE TO A PLASTIC MOLD,

CALLED A BOOT LAST.

THIS MAKES THE SOLE RIGID

WHILE THEY ATTACH OTHER PARTS
OF THE BOOT.

THEY GLUE A HARD, SYNTHETIC CUP
TO THE HEEL SECTION

TO GIVE IT THE DESIRED SHAPE.

THEN THEY APPLY
A FIBROUS COTTON FORM

BETWEEN THE LAYERS
THAT WILL SHAPE THE TOE AREA.

NOW THEY ATTACH
THE SOLE TO THE SHAFT.

USING A LASER
AS A CENTERING GUIDE,

THEY STRETCH THE TOE SECTION
OVER THE BOOT LAST,

BRINGING THE TWO LARGEST PIECES
OF THE BOOT TOGETHER.

THEY STITCH ON A LEATHER STRIP
TO ATTACH THE SECTIONS.

THIS STRIP, CALLED A WELT,

IS A TRADITIONAL PART
OF BOOT-MAKING.

IT'S WHAT MAKES THE BOOT
VERY DURABLE.

THEY ATTACH A STEEL SHANK
FOR ARCH SUPPORT...

THEN APPLY A MIXTURE OF
GRANULATED CORK AND HOT GLUE.

THIS LAYER
WILL MAKE THE BOOT CONFORM

TO THE CONTOURS
OF THE WEARER'S FOOT.

THEY ATTACH THE SOLE
TO THE SHAFT

WITH INDUSTRIAL-STRENGTH GLUE.

THE FACT THAT IT'S GLUED
AS WELL AS STITCHED

MEANS YOU CAN SIMPLY RIP IT OUT
AND REPLACE A WORN SOLE.

THIS FEATURE GREATLY EXTENDS
THE LIFE OF THE BOOT.

A CUTTING MACHINE TRIMS OFF
THE EXCESS LEATHER.

THEN THEY STITCH THE SOLE
TO THE WELT.

THEY STITCH
USING INTERLACING THREADS.

THIS BINDS THE PIECES
EVEN MORE STRONGLY.

THE FINAL LAYER OF THE SOLE
CAN BE EITHER LEATHER OR RUBBER.

IT ALL DEPENDS ON WHO WILL BE
WEARING THE BOOTS AND WHERE.

A RANCHER IN SUNNY TEXAS
MAY PREFER LEATHER.

BUT IN THE COLD AND SNOW,
YOU'RE BETTER OFF WITH RUBBER.

NOW FOR THE HEEL...

THEY LOAD A DRIVING MACHINE
WITH NAILS.

THE PATTERN VARIES
ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF HEEL.

THIS COMPANY PRODUCES
EIGHT HEEL STYLES.

A LASER GUIDE
ENSURES THEY NAIL THE HEEL

TO THE BOOT PERFECTLY CENTERED.

WITH A BRUSH, THEY COAT BOTH THE
HEEL AND THE EDGE OF THE SOLE

IN BLACK OR MAHOGANY DYE.

FINALLY, THEY BRAND
THE MANUFACTURER'S NAME

IN GOLD FOIL.

SOME BOOTS HAVE PULL HOLES
AT THE TOP

FOR GETTING YOUR BOOTS ON FAST,
TO MAKE IT TO THE RODEO ON TIME.

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