How It's Made (2001–…): Season 5, Episode 3 - Robotic Arms/Tattoos/Sanitary Napkins/Concrete Pipes - full transcript

Discover what it takes to manufacture robotic arms, apply a tattoo and build concrete pipes.


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator: TODAY
ON "HOW IT'S MADE,"

ROBOTIC ARMS...

TATTOOS...

SANITARY NAPKINS...

AND CONCRETE PIPES.

THE TERM "ROBOT" COMES
FROM THE CZECH WORD "ROBOTA,"

WHICH MEANS "FORCED LABOR."

MOST ROBOTS ARE DESIGNED
FOR REPETITIVE WORK

THAT'S DIFFICULT,
DANGEROUS,

OR WOULD JUST BORE HUMAN BEINGS
TO DEATH.

ROBOTIC ARMS HAVE VARYING
DEGREES OF FREEDOM,

MEANING THEY CAN PIVOT
IN DIFFERENT WAYS.

A ROBOTIC ARM
RESEMBLES A HUMAN ARM.

IT HAS A SHOULDER,
AN ELBOW, A WRIST, AND A HAND.

THE SHOULDER IS ACTUALLY
A STATIONARY BASE

TO WHICH THE REST IS ATTACHED.

AN ENGINEER FIRST DESIGNS
ALL THE PARTS ON A COMPUTER.

THEN THOSE PLANS
GO INTO ACTION.

TO FORM THE BASE'S OUTER CASING,

THEY BEND STEEL SHEETING
INTO SHAPE

USING A COMPUTER-GUIDED PRESS.

NEXT THEY PAINT THE CASING
IN POWDER PAINT,

USING AN ELECTROSTATIC PROCESS

THAT GUARANTEES
A THOROUGH, EVEN COAT.

THEY RUN A NEGATIVE
ELECTRICAL CHARGE TO THE CASING

AND A POSITIVE CHARGE
TO THE PAINT PARTICLES.

THIS MAKES THE CASING DRAW
THE PAINT TO IT LIKE A MAGNET.

ONCE THE PAINT ON THE BASE
CASING DRIES,

THEY USE SILK-SCREEN PRINTING

TO APPLY WHAT'S CALLED
THE "USER DIAGRAM."

IT ILLUSTRATES WHICH PARTS MOVE
WHERE AND HOW.

NOW THEY BUILD THE ROBOTIC ARM'S
HAND, CALLED THE END EFFECTOR.

ROBOTS CAN BE OUTFITTED
WITH ALL SORTS OF END EFFECTORS.

HERE THEY'RE MAKING A GRIPPER,

WHOSE TWO CLAWS COME TOGETHER
TO GRASP AND CARRY OBJECTS.

TO MAKE EACH CLAW,

AN AUTOMATED METAL DRILL CUTS A
GROOVE LENGTHWISE AND WIDTHWISE

IN A PIECE OF ALUMINUM.

THEY ASSEMBLE
THE ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT BOARD

THAT WILL LATER
GO INSIDE THE BASE.

THE ROBOTIC ARM'S SIX SEPARATE
MOTORS WILL PLUG INTO IT.

NEXT THEY ASSEMBLE THE
MECHANICAL PARTS OF THE BASE.

FIRST THE MOTOR
THAT MAKES THE ARM ROTATE,

THEN THE GEAR THAT GOES ON
THE VERTICAL SHAFT

HOLDING THE ROBOTIC ARM UPRIGHT.

WHEN THE MOTOR MAKES
THE GEAR AND THE SHAFT TURN,

THE ROBOTIC ARM TURNS WITH IT.

AT THE ARM'S SHOULDER LEVEL,

THEY INSTALL A SYSTEM
OF FOUR PULLEYS.

EACH CONSISTS OF TWO PLASTIC
WHEELS ON A SEPARATE AXLE

WITH A RUBBER BELT RUNNING
BETWEEN THEM LIKE A CLOTHESLINE.

THE BELT HAS LITTLE TEETH
THAT GRIP GROOVES ON THE WHEELS.

IT ROTATES THE WHEELS,
MAKING THE ROBOTIC ARM MOVE.

EACH JOINT IN THE ROBOTIC ARM

IS CAPABLE OF AND PROGRAMMED FOR
A SPECIFIC RANGE OF MOVEMENT.

LIKE THE HUMAN ARM,

THE COMBINATION
OF THESE MOVEMENTS

MANIPULATES THE END EFFECTOR.

THEY PLUG AN ELECTRICAL WIRE

THAT LINKS THE GRIPPER
TO THE SHOULDER

INTO A CIRCUIT BOARD
LOCATED IN THE SHOULDER.

THEN THEY SCREW THE ENTIRE ARM
TO THE BASE.

THEY LINK UP THE WIRES FROM
THE CIRCUIT BOARD IN THE BASE

TO THE MOTORS IN THE SHOULDER.

TO DO THIS, THEY HAVE TO BUNCH
THE WIRES, 48 OF THEM IN TOTAL,

AND THREAD THEM
THROUGH THE SHAFT

THAT ATTACHES
THE BASE TO THE ARM.

ONCE EVERYTHING'S CONNECTED,

THEY FINE-TUNE AND TEST
THE GEAR AND PULLEY SYSTEMS

TO SEE IF THEY RUN SMOOTHLY.

NOW THEY CAN INSTALL
THE GRIPPER

AND THE SHAFT AND GEAR SYSTEM
THAT OPERATES IT.

TURNING THE GEAR ONE WAY
OPENS THE GRIP.

TURNING IT THE OTHER WAY
CLOSES IT.

NOW THEY MOUNT THE ASSEMBLED
GRIPPER TO THE FOREARM,

PLUGGING ITS MOTOR
INTO A CIRCUIT BOARD

THAT THEY'VE ALREADY
INSTALLED THERE.

THEY PLUG THE WIRES
FROM ALL SIX MOTORS

INTO THE MAIN CIRCUIT BOARD

WHICH THEY THEN INSTALL
AT THE BACK OF THE BASE.

THE ROBOT CONTROLLER --
THE BRAIN THAT RUNS THE ARM --

IS A SEPARATE UNIT.

IT CONTROLS EVERYTHING
CONNECTED TO THE CIRCUIT.

TO MOVE THE ROBOT,

THE COMPUTER
INSIDE THE CONTROLLER

SWITCHES ON
ALL THE NECESSARY MOTORS.

IT CAN CONTROL EIGHT MOTORS --

SIX IN THE ROBOT
AND TWO OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES.

YOU CAN PROGRAM IT
TO PERFORM A VARIETY OF TASKS.

FROM START TO FINISH,

IT'S TAKEN JUST UNDER 30 HOURS
TO ASSEMBLE THIS ROBOTIC ARM.

IT CAN LIFT UP TO 10 POUNDS --

ABOUT THE WEIGHT
OF A FULL-GROWN CAT --

AND IT CAN MOVE AT A SPEED

OF A LITTLE OVER
ONE MILE PER HOUR.

MOST ROBOTS
ARE REPROGRAMMABLE --

MEANING THAT TO CHANGE
THEIR BEHAVIOR,

YOU SIMPLY WRITE A NEW PROGRAM.

FROM AN EMPLOYER'S PERSPECTIVE,
ROBOTS MAY BE THE IDEAL WORKERS.

GRANTED, THEY HAVE NO IDEAS
OF THEIR OWN,

BUT THEIR PRODUCTIVITY
IS CONSTANT,

THEY NEVER CALL IN SICK,

AND THEY NEVER TAKE
LUNCH OR COFFEE BREAKS.

Narrator: TATTOOING DATES
AT LEAST AS FAR BACK

AS THE BRONZE AGE.

A 5,000-YEAR-OLD BODY
FOUND IN A EUROPEAN GLACIER

HAD SEVERAL TATTOOS
ON HIS SKIN.

ARCHAEOLOGISTS HAVE EVEN
UNCOVERED

WHAT THEY BELIEVE ARE STONE AGE
TATTOOING INSTRUMENTS --

SHARP BONE NEEDLES

AND CLAY DISKS
CONTAINING MINERAL PIGMENTS.

WALK INTO A TATTOO PARLOR

AND THE VAST SELECTION
OF ELABORATE DESIGNS

WILL ASTOUND YOU.

ONCE YOU MAKE YOUR CHOICE,

THE TATTOO ARTIST
TRACES THE IMAGE.

NEXT, HE PLACES THE TRACED IMAGE
ON CARBON PAPER

AND RE-TRACES THE LINES.

THIS CREATES A CARBON OUTLINE OF
THE TATTOO ON THE REVERSE SIDE.

THE ARTIST WILL USE HIS
BLUEPRINT, AS IT'S CALLED,

AS HIS GUIDE.

HE CLEANS THE CUSTOMER'S SKIN,

THEN FIRMLY PRESSES
ON THE BLUEPRINT.

THE CARBON IMAGE
TRANSFERS EASILY

BECAUSE THE SKIN IS DAMP.

NOW IT'S TIME TO CONSTRUCT
THE NEEDLES.

MOST TATTOOS REQUIRE
TWO NEEDLES --

ONE TO MAKE THE OUTLINE
OF THE IMAGE,

THE OTHER TO SHADE
AND COLOR IT IN.

EACH NEEDLE IS MADE UP OF
AS MANY AS 20 SMALLER NEEDLES.

THE ARTIST ALIGNS THESE
SMALL NEEDLES IN A JIG,

THEN SOLDERS THEM TOGETHER
ONTO ONE END OF A STEEL ROD.

THERE'S AN EYE ON THE OTHER END.

THE NUMBER OF SMALL NEEDLES
IN A NEEDLE

DEPENDS
ON THE TATTOO DESIGN --

HOW THICK THE LINES ARE,
HOW BIG ITS COLORED AREAS ARE.

THE FINISHED NEEDLES GO INTO
AN AUTOCLAVE TO BE STERILIZED.

THAT TAKES 20 MINUTES

AT PRECISELY
338 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THE TATTOO ARTIST USES THAT TIME
TO ASSEMBLE THE TATTOO GUN.

AFTER CLEANING THE FRAME
WITH RUBBING ALCOHOL,

HE INSTALLS THE MOTOR,
CALLED THE COIL.

WHEN AN ELECTRIC CURRENT
RUNS THROUGH THE COIL,

IT OSCILLATES THE NEEDLE
AT UP TO 50 TIMES PER SECOND.

ONCE THE TWO NEEDLES
ARE STERILIZED,

HE TAKES THE ONE FOR OUTLINING,
CALLED THE LINER,

AND SLIDES IT
INTO THE TATTOO GUN.

HE HOOKS THE EYE ON
THE OTHER END ONTO THE SPRING.

AS THE SPRING MOVES
BACK AND FORTH,

IT MOVES THE NEEDLE
UP AND DOWN.

THE TATTOO ARTIST STOPS
AND STARTS IT WITH A FOOT PEDAL,

LIKE A SEWING MACHINE.

TIME TO TATTOO.

HE TURNS ON THE POWER SUPPLY
TO 10 VOLTS

AND DABS THE NEEDLE
IN THE INK CAP.

THE GUN SUCKS UP THE INK.

SOME PETROLEUM JELLY
ON THE SKIN

HELPS THE NEEDLE
GLIDE MORE EASILY.

HE BEGINS BY TRACING THE LINES
OF THE BLUEPRINT.

THE NEEDLE PUNCTURES THE SKIN

AT A RATE
OF UP TO 3,000 TIMES PER MINUTE,

INJECTING MICRO-PARTICLES
OF INK,

WHICH INTERMINGLE WITH THE CELLS
OF THE DERMIS,

THE SKIN'S SECOND LAYER.

THE ARTIST CONTINUALLY
WIPES AWAY THE EXCESS INK

TO KEEP HIS WORK AREA CLEAN.

AFTER FINISHING THE OUTLINE,
HE REAPPLIES PETROLEUM JELLY.

THIS SEALS THE PORES OF THE SKIN
AND PREVENTS BLEEDING.

THEN HE CHANGES
TO THE OTHER NEEDLE

AND BEGINS SHADING
AND COLORING THE IMAGE

WITH A BACK-AND-FORTH MOVEMENT.

HE APPLIES ONE COLOR AT A TIME,

OVERLAPPING THEM TO ENSURE
THOROUGH AND EVEN COVERAGE.

THE NEEDLE CAN PENETRATE
FROM .04 TO .15 OF AN INCH,

AND A GOOD TATTOO ARTIST
KNOWS JUST HOW DEEP TO GO

TO CREATE THE DIFFERENT PARTS
OF THE IMAGE.

FOR EXAMPLE, HE HAS TO INJECT
THE OUTLINE THE DEEPEST,

BUT GOING TOO DEEP
CAN TEAR THE SKIN

AND CAUSE EXCESSIVE PAIN
AND BLEEDING.

BUT NOT GOING DEEP ENOUGH
MISSES THE DERMIS

AND LEAVES MARKS AFTER HEALING.

THE CELLS OF THE DERMIS
ARE REMARKABLY STABLE,

SO TATTOOS LAST A LIFETIME.

THIS TATTOO HAS TAKEN
APPROXIMATELY 45 MINUTES TO DO

FROM START TO FINISH.

THE AREA WILL DRY AND SCAB OVER.

THEN THE SCAB WILL FALL OFF,

AND THIS BODY ART
WILL BE READY FOR EXHIBITION.

Narrator:
BELIEVE IT OR NOT,

WORLD WAR I LED TO THE INVENTION
OF DISPOSABLE SANITARY NAPKINS.

AMERICAN NURSES
SERVING IN FRANCE

DISCOVERED THAT THE BANDAGES
THEY USED FOR THE TROOPS

COULD DOUBLE AS VERY ABSORBENT
MENSTRUAL PADS.

THIS LED THE BANDAGE COMPANY

TO INTRODUCE DISPOSABLE
SANITARY NAPKINS IN 1921.

TODAY'S DISPOSABLE SANITARY PADS
ARE MADE OF LAYERS OF CELLULOSE,

COMBINED WITH SUPER-ABSORBENT
POLYMER POWDER.

POLYMER IS
A FLUID-ABSORBING CHEMICAL

DERIVED FROM EITHER
PETROLEUM OR WHEAT.

CELLULOSE IS THE FIBER

THAT MAKES UP THE CELL WALL
OF TREES AND PLANTS.

IT ALSO RETAINS FLUID.

PULP AND PAPER COMPANIES
GRIND AND MOISTEN IT

TO FORM A PRODUCT CALLED PULP.

PRODUCING SANITARY NAPKINS

BEGINS WITH 20-INCH-WIDE ROLLS
OF CELLULOSE PULP.

THE ROLLS FEED ONE LONG MACHINE
THAT DOES EVERYTHING.

FIRST, KNIVES SPINNING
AT 3,000 THOUSAND RPM

SHRED THE PULP
INTO A FINE FLUFF.

THEN THE MACHINE SPRINKLES
THAT FLUFF WITH POLYMER POWDER.

THE POLYMERED FLUFF THEN TRAVELS
THROUGH WHAT'S CALLED THE DOSER,

A DEVICE THAT MEASURES OUT

THE REQUIRED AMOUNT OF FLUFF
PER PAD LAYER.

THE MACHINE THEN SUCTIONS
EACH DOSE INTO A CLOSED CHAMBER

WHERE AN AIR CURRENT BLOWS IT
INTO A PAD-SHAPED MOLD.

THEN ANOTHER AIR CURRENT
BLOWS IT OUT OF THE MOLD

ONTO A WHEEL THAT TRANSFERS IT
TO A CONVEYER BELT.

THE MACHINE SIMULTANEOUSLY
MAKES A SECOND PAD LAYER.

THIS ONE IS SMALLER,
RECTANGULAR,

AND AT LEAST DOUBLE
THE DENSITY OF THE FIRST LAYER,

MEANING IT HAS MORE CELLULOSE
COMPRESSED INTO A SMALLER SIZE.

THE COMPRESSION ROLLER
ALSO EMBOSSES A PATTERN

THAT WILL DISPERSE
THE MENSTRUAL FLOW,

HELPING ABSORPTION.

THIS DEMONSTRATION

SHOWS THE CRITICAL ABSORPTION
ROLE THE POLYMER POWDER PLAYS.

IT CAN RETAIN
UP TO 40 TIMES ITS VOLUME.

AS THE POLYMER SOAKS UP
THE LIQUID,

IT TRANSFORMS FROM POWDER
TO GEL.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF POLYMERS
HAVE DIFFERENT REACTION SPEEDS.

THIS TYPE ABSORBS
AT AVERAGE SPEED.

THIS WILL BE A TWO-LAYER PAD.

THE NUMBER OF LAYERS
AND THEIR WEIGHT

DEPENDS ON THE DEGREE
OF MENSTRUAL FLOW

A PAD IS DESIGNED TO ABSORB.

NOW THE MACHINE'S
CONVEYOR BELTS MERGE,

BRINGING THE TWO LAYERS
TOGETHER.

NOW THE MACHINE SANDWICHES THE
LAYERS BETWEEN PLASTIC SHEETS.

THE TOP ONE IS PERFORATED

TO ALLOW FLUID TO PASS TO
THE ABSORBENT LAYERS UNDERNEATH.

THE BOTTOM ONE
ACTS AS A LEAK-PROOF BARRIER.

A ROLLER STAMPS
THE CONTOUR OF THE PAD,

SEALING THE ABSORBENT LAYERS
INSIDE.

NOW THE MACHINE APPLIES GLUE
TO A PAPER STRIP

AND TO A PAIR OF SMALL
PAPER RECTANGLES.

IT SLAPS THE STRIP ON THE BACK
OF THE PAD

AND THE RECTANGLES ON THE
SIDE FLAPS, CALLED THE WINGS.

TO SECURE THE PAD TO UNDERWEAR,

YOU REMOVE THE PAPER
TO EXPOSE THE ADHESIVE.

THE PADS ARE STILL CONNECTED
TO EACH OTHER.

A CUTTING DIE
EXCISES EACH ONE.

ABRASIVE FOAM ON EITHER SIDE
OF THE DIE

GRIPS THEN PULLS AWAY THE
MATERIAL SURROUNDING THE PADS.

A VACUUM THEN SUCKS
THIS EXCESS AWAY.

NOW THE PADS
MOVE ONTO THE PACKAGING LINE.

THE EQUIPMENT FIRST FOLDS OVER
THE ADHESIVE WINGS,

THEN FOLDS EACH PAD IN THREE.

THE FOLDED PADS
NOW GO INTO PLASTIC WRAP.

A HOT, IRON-LIKE DEVICE,
CALLED AN EMBOSSING PRESS,

SEALS THE PLASTIC
AROUND EACH PAD.

THEN A KNIFE CUTS IN BETWEEN
THE PADS,

SEPARATING THEM
INTO INDIVIDUAL POUCHES.

NEXT, TWO BELTS SANDWICH
THE POUCHES

AND CARRY THEM DOWN
TO THE STACKER,

WHERE AN AUTOMATED COUNTER
LINES THEM UP FOR PACKAGING.

AS A VACUUM OPENS THE BAG,

A MECHANICAL ARM
INSERTS THE PADS.

THE EQUIPMENT
THEN SEALS THE BAG SHUT.

EVERYTHING YOU'VE SEEN HAPPENS
AT AN IMPRESSIVE PACE.

FROM START TO FINISH,

IT TAKES JUST 40 SECONDS TO MAKE
AND PACKAGE A SANITARY NAPKIN.

Narrator: MOST UNDERGROUND
SEWER AND DRAINAGE PIPES

ARE MADE OF REINFORCED
DRY-MIX CONCRETE.

"REINFORCED" REFERS TO THE FACT

THE CONCRETE
HAS STEEL BARS INSIDE IT

FOR ADDED STRUCTURAL STRENGTH.

"DRY-MIX" REFERS TO THE TYPE
OF CONCRETE.

YOU CAN MOLD IT
THEN IMMEDIATELY EXTRACT IT,

AND IT HOLDS ITS SHAPE.

CONCRETE PIPES CAN BE
AS SMALL AS 10 INCHES

OR AS LARGE AS 11 1/2 FEET.

IT HAS A HUNDRED-YEAR LIFE SPAN.

DRY-MIX CONCRETE
IS MADE OF STONE,

COARSE SAND,
PORTLAND CEMENT --

WHICH IS A FINELY-GROUND BLEND
OF CLAY AND LIMESTONE --

WATER, AND A CHEMICAL
THAT ACTS AS A WATER REDUCER.

TRUCKS UNLOAD THE SAND AND STONE
INTO OUTDOOR STORAGE BINS.

THE MATERIALS AUTOMATICALLY DROP
ONTO A CONVEYOR BELT

WHICH TRANSPORTS THEM TO STORAGE
SILOS ABOVE THE FACTORY FLOOR.

THE CEMENT ARRIVES
BY CEMENT TANKER,

WHICH BLOWS IT INTO A SILO.

ALL THE SILOS FEED THE MIXER.

AS THE INGREDIENTS BLEND,

THE CEMENT AND WATER
COMBINE TO FORM A PASTE

THAT COATS THE SAND AND STONE.

THE WATER REDUCER ENABLES THEM
TO USE MINIMAL WATER.

THE LESS WATER, THE STRONGER
AND MORE DURABLE THE CONCRETE.

MEANWHILE,
WORKERS USE A SPECIAL MACHINE

TO BUILD WHAT'S CALLED
THE CAGE --

A CIRCULAR STEEL FRAME

THAT WILL FORM THE PIPE'S
INTERNAL STRUCTURE,

ITS BACKBONE.

THEY INSERT 8-FOOT-LONG
STEEL RODS

IN A CIRCULAR CONFIGURATION,

PUSHING EACH ROD PARTWAY THROUGH
THE MACHINE TO THE OTHER SIDE.

THERE, AN AUTOMATED SPOT-WELDER
FUSES A STEEL CABLE TO ONE ROD.

THEN THE MACHINE BEGINS TURNING,

WINDING THE CABLE TIGHTLY
AROUND THE RODS.

HERE A WORKER IS TURNING
THE MACHINE MANUALLY

JUST TO SHOW US THE PROCESS
IN SLOW-MOTION.

THIS IS WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE
AT THE NORMAL AUTOMATED SPEED.

AS THE RODS
PASS THROUGH THE MACHINE,

THE WELDER FUSES THE CABLE TO
THEM IN ONE CONTINUOUS SPIRAL.

AS THE SPIRALED CABLE
REACHES THE END OF THE RODS,

THE MACHINE'S CLAWS
SPREAD OUTWARD,

FORMING A WIDER SECTION
ON THE END.

THIS IS CALLED
THE BELL SECTION.

WORKERS POSITION IT
ON A BASE RING

DESIGNED TO HOLD THE CAGE
IN PLACE.

THEN THEY CLOSE A HINGED
STEEL MOLD OVER IT.

NOW THEY'RE READY TO POUR
THE CONCRETE.

A FORKLIFT TRANSPORTS THE MOLD

TO A MACHINE CALLED
THE PACKER HEAD.

THEY POSITION THE MOLD
DIRECTLY UNDER IT.

A LONG, DRILL-LIKE SCREW
DESCENDS INTO THE MOLD.

AS CONCRETE POURS IN,

THE SCREW TURNS AT HIGH SPEED,
MOVING UP AND DOWN.

ITS BLADES PROPEL THE CONCRETE
OUTWARD AGAINST THE MOLD WALLS,

FORMING THE PIPE.

THIS PROCESS IS CALLED
CENTRIFUGAL PROJECTION FORMING.

THE PROCESS FOR MAKING
LARGE-DIAMETER PIPES

IS SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT.

A WELDER FUSES SPACERS TO
THE CAGE, BOTH INSIDE AND OUT.

THESE WILL CENTER THE CAGE
INSIDE THE MOLD.

WORKERS POSITION THE CAGE
ONTO A BASE RING,

THEN LOWER THE OUTER PART
OF THE MOLD --

CALLED THE OUTSIDE FORM --
OVER IT.

AFTER SECURING IT TO THE RING,

THEY LOWER THE UNIT OVER
THE SMALLER, INNER PART OF MOLD,

CALLED THE INSIDE FORM.

AN OVERHEAD FUNNEL
POURS CONCRETE

INTO THE CAVITY
BETWEEN THE TWO MOLD FORMS.

POWERFUL ELECTRICAL VIBRATORS
SHAKE THE MOLD.

THIS FORCES THE THICK CONCRETE
DOWNWARD, FILLING THE CAVITY.

THIS PROCESS IS CALLED
VIBRATION FORMING.

WITH EITHER
PIPE-FORMING TECHNIQUE,

THE MOLDED CONCRETE
IS QUITE FRAGILE,

SO THE MOLDS GO OFF TO
THE CURING WAREHOUSE TO HARDEN.

THERE, WORKERS REMOVE THEM,

LEAVING THE PIPES
STANDING UPRIGHT.

STEAM HOSES TRANSFORM THE CURING
WAREHOUSE INTO A SAUNA.

THE TEMPERATURE RISES
TO 140 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT,

THE RELATIVE HUMIDITY 100%.

THE CONCRETE HARDENS
IN ABOUT 12 HOURS.

CONCRETE PIPES
BURIED UNDERGROUND

HAVE TO BE ABLE TO WITHSTAND THE
WEIGHT OF THE EARTH ABOVE THEM,

SO THE COMPANY SUBJECTS SAMPLE
PIPES TO EXTREME PRESSURE

TO TEST THEIR
MAXIMUM RESISTANCE.

CONCRETE PIPES JOIN TOGETHER
WITH WATERTIGHT RUBBER GASKETS.

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