How It's Made (2001–…): Season 4, Episode 5 - Grinding Wheels/Compost/Window Blinds/Milk - full transcript

Discover how grinding wheels are made, compost is prepared, window blinds are constructed, and milk is processed.


Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

...GRINDING WHEELS...

...COMPOST...

...WINDOW BLINDS...

...AND MILK.

A GRINDING WHEEL IS A TOOL
USED TO GRIND DOWN, POLISH,

OR CUT MATERIALS
SUCH AS METAL OR GLASS.

LIKE A SANDER,
IT USES ABRASIVE GRAINS

TO WEAR AWAY THE SURFACE
IN MINUTE PARTICLES.

GRINDING ACTUALLY
SHARPENS THE WHEEL

BY BREAKING APART THE GRAINS
AND CREATING NEW SHARP POINTS.

A GRINDING WHEEL IS MADE

FROM SEVERAL CHEMICAL
AND MINERAL INGREDIENTS.

THE FORMULA VARIES

ACCORDING TO WHAT THE WHEEL
WILL BE INTENDED TO GRIND,

POLISH, OR CUT.

FOR METALWORK,

THEY USE ABRASIVES
THAT ARE ALUMINUM-OXIDE BASED.

FOR CUTTING CEMENT, STONE,
AND OTHER NONMETAL OBJECTS,

THEY USE ABRASIVES
THAT ARE SILICON-CARBIDE BASED.

EVEN WITHIN
THOSE TWO CATEGORIES,

THE FORMULAS WILL DIFFER.

A WHEEL DESIGNED FOR HARD STEEL

WILL BE DIFFERENT THAN A WHEEL
DESIGNED FOR SOFTER METALS.

COMPUTER-PROGRAMMED SCALES

AUTOMATICALLY WEIGH OUT
THE VARIOUS INGREDIENTS,

INCLUDING ADDITIVES
SUCH AS IRON OXIDE --

FOR WHEELS THAT CUT
OR GRIND IRON --

AND THE MINERAL CRYOLITE,
WHICH LUBRICATES THE ABRASIVES.

POWDERED AND LIQUID RESINS BOND
ALL THE INGREDIENTS TOGETHER.

THE POWDERED RESIN AND ADDITIVES

ARE THE FIRST INGREDIENTS
TO GO INTO THE MIXER.

AFTER ABOUT A MINUTE,

THE ABRASIVES
AND LIQUID RESIN GO IN.

ANOTHER FIVE MINUTES
OF CHURNING,

AND THE MIXTURE IS THE
CONSISTENCY OF DAMP BEACH SAND.

THEY SCREEN OUT
ANY GLOBS OR CHUNKS

SO THAT THE MIX HAS A SMOOTH
AND EVEN TEXTURE.

A DEVICE CALLED A SHUTTLE

SPREADS THE MIXTURE
INTO A WHEEL-SHAPED MOLD.

THE DIAMETER AND DEPTH
OF THE MOLD CAVITY

CORRESPONDS TO THE DIMENSIONS

OF THE SPECIFIC
GRINDING-WHEEL MODEL.

AT THE BASE OF THE MOLD

IS A REINFORCEMENT DISC
MADE OF FIBERGLASS.

NEXT, A GALVANIZED-STEEL RING

GOES IN THE CENTER
OF EACH WHEEL.

ITS FOUR SMALL ANCHORS
GRIP THE MIXTURE.

THIS RING IS DESIGNED
TO PROTECT THE SHAFT

THAT SPINS THE GRINDING WHEEL.

A HYDRAULIC PRESS
NOW COMPACTS THE MATERIAL,

APPLYING UP TO 5,000 POUNDS
OF PRESSURE PER SQUARE INCH.

THAT'S THE WEIGHT
OF ABOUT 30 CARS.

EVERY SINGLE GRINDING WHEEL
COMING OFF THE LINE

IS WEIGHED TO ENSURE IT MEETS
DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS.

NEXT, THE WHEELS GO INTO AN OVEN

WHOSE TEMPERATURE
RISES GRADUALLY

FROM 70 TO 390 DEGREES
FAHRENHEIT

OVER A PERIOD OF 24 HOURS.

THIS CURES THE RESIN,

BONDING ALL THE INGREDIENTS
TOGETHER.

WHEN THE GRINDING WHEELS
COME OUT,

THEY'RE HARD AS A ROCK.

THE LAST STEP OF THE PRODUCTION
PROCESS IS LABELING.

THE AUTOMATED MACHINERY
MOVES THE WHEELS

FROM STATION TO STATION
USING SUCTION.

IT APPLIES EIGHT DROPS
OF HOT GLUE AROUND THE CENTER,

THEN SLAPS ON THE FIRST LABEL.

THE LABEL BEARS
THE MANUFACTURER'S LOGO

AND LISTS THE GRINDING WHEEL'S
DIMENSIONS,

ITS INTENDED USE,
AND THE MAXIMUM SPIN SPEED.

THE EQUIPMENT
THEN FLIPS EACH WHEEL

AND GLUES A SECOND LABEL
ONTO THE OTHER SIDE.

THIS LABEL LISTS
THE SAFETY INFORMATION.

THE DIAMETER OF A GRINDING WHEEL

CAN RANGE FROM 2 INCHES
TO MORE THAN 20 INCHES.

IT CAN BE
JUST .04 OF AN INCH THIN

OR UP TO 1/2 AN INCH THICK.

THE SMALLEST WHEELS ARE DESIGNED
FOR THINGS LIKE AUTO-BODY WORK

WHILE THE LARGEST ONES
CAN CUT THROUGH RAILWAY TRACKS

AND THICK-METAL
CONSTRUCTION BEAMS.

Narrator: MANY GARDENERS
ARE RELYING ON NATURE

TO NURTURE THEIR GARDENS.

THEY'RE CHOOSING
COMPOST-BASED SOIL MIXES

OVER CHEMICALLY
FERTILIZED MIXES.

COMPOST IS DECOMPOSED
ORGANIC MATTER.

NOT ONLY IS IT
ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY,

IT'S CHOCK-FULL OF NUTRIENTS
AND USEFUL MICRO-ORGANISMS.

COMPOSTING
IS THE ECOLOGICAL ALTERNATIVE

TO BURNING OR BURYING
ORGANIC WASTE.

IT ALL STARTS AT THIS
COMPOSTING FACTORY

WITH MANURE FROM FARMS,

BIODEGRADABLE SOLID WASTE
FROM PAPER MILLS,

AND GRASS CLIPPINGS AND LEAVES
FROM LOCAL GOVERNMENTS.

SOME MATERIALS ARRIVE IN BULK,

OTHERS IN PLASTIC GARBAGE BAGS.

WORKERS CAREFULLY INSPECT
THE LEAVES AND GRASS CLIPPINGS,

REMOVING ANY
NONBIODEGRADABLE OBJECTS

THAT GOT INTO THE BAGS --

THINGS LIKE PIECES OF PLASTIC,
RUBBER, OR METAL,

SHARDS OF GLASS, OR EVEN STONES.

AFTER COMBINING
ALL THE WASTE INGREDIENTS,

THEY ADD BULKING MATERIALS
SUCH WOOD CHIPS AND BARK.

THEN THEY STACK THE MIXTURE
IN OUTDOOR PILES TO DECOMPOSE.

THE MIX'S MAKEUP
IS BY NO MEANS RANDOM.

IT'S SCIENTIFICALLY DESIGNED

TO CREATE AN IDEAL ENVIRONMENT
FOR LIVE MICRO-ORGANISMS.

BILLIONS OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI
GROW AND REPRODUCE,

FEEDING ON THE NITROGEN
AND CARBON

THAT ARE NATURALLY PRESENT
IN THE ORGANIC MATTER.

THEY SLOWLY AND GRADUALLY
TRANSFORM THE WASTE

INTO COMPOST, WHICH, WHEN READY,

WILL LOOK LIKE RICH,
BLACK EARTH.

ALL THIS MICROBIOLOGICAL
ACTIVITY

HEATS THE WASTE PILES TO A
STEAMING 150 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT,

EVEN IN THE DEAD OF WINTER.

THE FACTORY TURNS THE PILES
MONTHLY TO AERATE THEM.

THIS STIMULATES DECAY

AND ENSURES IT OCCURS EVENLY
THROUGHOUT THE PILE.

THE ACTIVE-BREAKDOWN PHASE
TAKES 6 TO 10 MONTHS.

A CURING PHASE FOLLOWS --

AN ADDITIONAL
SIX TO EIGHT MONTHS,

AT THE END OF WHICH
THE COMPOST STABILIZES.

BECAUSE THE OUTDOOR PILES
ARE EXPOSED TO PRECIPITATION,

HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF NITROGEN,
PHOSPHOROUS, AND POTASSIUM

LEECH INTO THE RUNOFF WATER.

DRAINAGE DITCHES COLLECT
AND CARRY THIS WATER

TO HOLDING PONDS.

FROM THERE IT GOES THROUGH
A TREATMENT SYSTEM

CONSISTING MAINLY OF AERATION
AND SETTLING PONDS.

AS WE SEE IN THIS DEMONSTRATION,

THEY AERATE THE WATER AND ADD
CERTAIN CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS.

THE POLLUTANTS BOND
AND SETTLE AT THE SURFACE

TO BE SKIMMED OFF.

THE TREATED WATER HAS TO MEET
STRICT GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS

BEFORE IT'S RELEASED
TO THE ENVIRONMENT.

BACK TO THE COMPOST NOW.

ONCE THE CURING PHASE IS OVER,

THE COMPOST GOES THROUGH
A SCREENING PROCESS

WHICH REMOVES ANY LUMPS
OR FOREIGN OBJECTS

SUCH AS PEBBLES OR PARTIALLY
DECOMPOSED WOOD CHIPS.

THE FINISHED COMPOST
COMES OUT SILKY-SMOOTH.

BEFORE THE COMPOST
IS SENT TO MARKET,

IT UNDERGOES STRICT
QUALITY-CONTROL TESTING.

THE FACTORY'S LABORATORY

CONDUCTS DETAILED
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

TO ENSURE THE COMPOST

IS AT PRECISELY
THE RIGHT LEVEL OF MATURITY

AND THAT IT CONTAINS
THE CORRECT BALANCE OF NUTRIENTS

AND STABILIZED ORGANIC MATTER.

THEN, A SERIES
OF GROWTH-CHAMBER TESTS.

TO ENSURE THE PRODUCT
PERFORMS WELL,

THE LAB GERMINATES SEEDS

AND GROWS TEST PLANTS
IN COMPOST-BASED MIXES.

ONCE THE QUALITY-CONTROL
DEPARTMENT

GIVES THE GREEN LIGHT,

THE COMPOST CAN BE SHIPPED OUT

EITHER IN BULK OR PACKAGED BAGS.

COMPOST IS SOLD AS IS
OR ADDED TO SOIL MIXES.

IT IMPROVES THE SOIL STRUCTURE

AND ACTIVELY RETAINS MOISTURE
AND FERTILIZERS.

COMPOST IS A CHEMICAL-FREE WAY
TO NOURISH PLANTS

AND STIMULATE
THEIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS.

THIS GIVES THEM EXTRA STRENGTH
TO GROW FAST AND STAY HEALTHY.

Narrator: TODAY'S WINDOW BLINDS
COME IN MANY STYLES --

ROLLER SHADES, ROLL-UP SHADES,

PLEATED SHADES,
AND HORIZONTAL BLINDS,

TO NAME JUST A FEW.

THE ADVANTAGE OF HORIZONTALS

IS THAT YOU CAN
LEAVE THE BLIND DRAWN

AND SIMPLY TILT THE SLATS
TO LET IN TONS OF LIGHT,

A BIT OF LIGHT,
OR NO LIGHT AT ALL.

MOST MANUFACTURERS

MAKE THEIR WOOD HORIZONTAL
BLINDS FROM BASSWOOD.

IT'S A HARDWOOD,
SO IT'S DURABLE.

IT'S LIGHTWEIGHT,

SO THE BLIND DOESN'T END UP
WEIGHING A TON,

AND IT ABSORBS
WOOD STAIN EVENLY.

FIRST THEY FEED THE ROUGH WOOD
THROUGH A PLANER.

THEY CUT IT DOWN TO 2 INCHES --
THE WIDTH OF THE SLATS.

THEN, FOLLOWING
A LASER GUIDELINE,

THEY TRIM OFF ANY EXCESS
AND SQUARE THE PIECE,

USING A STRAIGHT-LINE RIPSAW.

NOW THE PIECE
GOES THROUGH A MACHINE

THAT'S SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED
TO CUT THIN SLATS OF WOOD.

ITS SHARP STEEL BLADES
SLICE RIGHT THROUGH,

CREATING UP TO 15 SLATS,
EACH .2 OF AN INCH THICK.

HERE'S THE PIECE OF BASSWOOD
BEFORE SLICING AND AFTER.

THE SLATS NOW PASS
UNDER AN OSCILLATING SANDER

TO PREP THEM FOR STAINING.

AFTER CUTTING THEM
TO THE WIDTH OF THE WINDOW,

WORKERS SPRAY WOOD STAIN
ON BOTH SIDES OF EACH SLAT,

THEN A COAT OF SEALER
TO LOCK IN THE COLOR.

ONCE THE SEALER DRIES,
THEY SAND THE SLATS MANUALLY

TO PREPARE THEM FOR A FINAL
PROTECTIVE COAT OF LACQUER.

NEXT, USING A DIE,

THEY PUNCH TWO SLOTS
IN EACH SLAT

6 INCHES FROM EACH END.

THESE ARE FOR
THE COLOR-COORDINATED CORDS

THAT WILL OPERATE THE BLIND.

NOW FOR THE ASSEMBLY.

THEY HANG LADDER-SHAPED CORDS

CALLED LADDER TAPES
FROM THE BLIND'S HEADRAIL,

THEN SLIDE ONE SLAT
ONTO EACH RUNG.

THEN THEY THREAD THE BLIND CORD
THROUGH THE SLOTS IN THE SLATS,

HOOKING IT UP
TO THE CONTROL MECHANISM

HIDDEN IN THE HEADRAIL.

A CORD DANGLES DOWN THE FRONT

FOR RAISING AND LOWERING
THE BLIND.

THEY ALSO MOUNT A WAND, OR CORD,
FOR TILTING THE SLATS.

THE EXCESS LADDER TAPE
IS TUCKED INTO A BOTTOM RAIL.

TO MAKE ALUMINUM BLINDS,

THEY START WITH LONG STRIPS
OF PREFORMED STEEL.

THESE WILL BE THE BLIND'S
HEADRAIL AND BOTTOM RAIL.

WORKERS CUT THEM
TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH,

WHICH IS THE WIDTH
OF THE WINDOW.

THEY MAKE HOLES IN THE HEADRAIL
FOR THE CORD LOCK --

THE DEVICE THAT LOCKS THE BLIND
TO THE DESIRED HEIGHT --

AND THE TILTER, THE MECHANISM
THAT ANGLES THE SLATS.

NOW THEY INSTALL
THOSE COMPONENTS.

THE CORD LOCK SNAPS
RIGHT INTO THE HOLE --

NO HARDWARE REQUIRED.

THAT'S KNOWN
AS A PRESSURE FIT.

THEY PRESSURE-FIT THE TILTER,
AS WELL.

NEXT COME THE TAPE ROLLS,

THROUGH WHICH THEY RUN
THE LADDER TAPES.

THEY CUT THE APPROPRIATE LENGTH
AND COLOR OF BLIND CORD,

THEN THREAD IT
THROUGH THE CORD LOCK.

THE TILTER TURNS A ROD,
WHICH TURNS THE TAPE ROLL,

WHICH TILTS THE LADDER TAPES,
ANGLING THE SLATS.

AND SPEAKING OF SLATS,

THEY'RE CUT FROM ROLLS
OF 1-INCH-WIDE ALUMINUM.

WORKERS SIMPLY FEED A ROLL
INTO THE FORMING MACHINE.

THEN THE REST OF THE PROCESS
IS AUTOMATED.

FIRST THE MACHINE GIVES THE FLAT
METAL A SEMICIRCULAR CURVE.

THEN IT PUNCHES CORD HOLES

AND THEN, AS YOU CAN SEE
ON THE FAR LEFT OF THE SCREEN,

CUTS IT INTO SLATS.

BUT THAT'S NOT ALL --

THIS SAME MACHINE
ALSO ASSEMBLES THE BLIND,

SLIDING A SLAT ONTO EACH RUNG
OF THE LADDER TAPES.

ALL THAT'S LEFT TO DO BY HAND

IS THREAD THE BLIND CORD
AND INSTALL THE BOTTOM RAIL.

FROM THIS POINT ON,
IT'S JUST WINDOW DRESSING.

Narrator:
GETTING MILK OUT OF A COW

HAS SURE COME A LONG WAY

SINCE THE DAYS OF SITTING
ON A STOOL AND DOING IT BY HAND.

TODAY'S CUTTING-EDGE DAIRY FARMS
ARE FULLY AUTOMATED.

SOPHISTICATED EQUIPMENT
FEEDS THE COWS,

CLEANS UP THEIR MANURE,
MILKS THEM,

AND EVEN CHECKS
THE QUALITY OF THE MILK.

HISTORIANS AREN'T SURE

WHEN HUMANS FIRST BEGAN
DRINKING ANIMAL MILK.

THEY BELIEVE THAT PEOPLE

IN ANCIENT BABYLON,
EGYPT, AND INDIA

RAISED DAIRY CATTLE
AS EARLY AS 4000 B.C.

FOR CENTURIES,

THE FAMILY COW
WAS THE MAIN SOURCE OF MILK.

BUT AS CITIES BECAME
MORE POPULATED,

KEEPING YOUR OWN PERSONAL COW
BECAME RATHER IMPRACTICAL,

SO FARMERS LIVING
OUTSIDE CITY LIMITS

BEGAN TO ESTABLISH
DAIRY BUSINESSES.

THE KEY TO GOOD MILK OUTPUT
IS A GOOD DIET.

EVERY DAY, A DAIRY COW CHOWS
DOWN UP TO 100 POUNDS OF FEED --

A MIX OF HAY, GRASS, AND GRAINS,

SUPPLEMENTED WITH MINERALS
AND PROTEINS SUCH AS SOY.

ON A HOT DAY,
SHE CAN DRINK THE EQUIVALENT

OF A BATHTUB FULL OF WATER.

COWS PRODUCE MILK
ONLY DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD

THAT FOLLOWS
THE BIRTH OF A CALF.

STARTING AT 15 TO 17 MONTHS
OF AGE,

THEY'RE INSEMINATED YEARLY
FOR ABOUT SIX YEARS.

THE NEWBORN CALF SUCKLES
FOR A COUPLE OF DAYS,

THEN GOES TO A SEPARATE AREA
TO BE RAISED.

BUT THE MOTHER CONTINUES
TO LACTATE

FOR ANOTHER 10 TO 12 MONTHS,

PRODUCING ABOUT 12 GALLONS
OF MILK PER DAY.

THIS IS THE MILK THAT'S
COLLECTED FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION.

THE BARN FLOOR IS AUTOMATICALLY
CLEANED AROUND THE CLOCK

TO PREVENT THE COWS
FROM WALKING IN THEIR MANURE,

WHICH WOULD SPREAD DISEASE
AND INFECTION.

ANIMAL WELFARE IS AT THE CORE

OF THIS STATE-OF-THE-ART
DAIRY FARM.

A HAPPY AND STRESS-FREE COW
PRODUCES BETTER MILK,

SO THESE COWS
AREN'T CONFINED TO STALLS.

THEY WALK AROUND FREELY
INSIDE OR OUTSIDE,

EATING AND DRINKING
AS THEY PLEASE.

THEY SCRATCH THEMSELVES AGAINST
THIS MOTION-TRIGGERED BRUSH.

IT IMPROVES
THEIR BLOOD CIRCULATION

AND CLEANS THEIR HIDES.

EACH COW WEARS
AN IDENTIFICATION TAG.

IT EMITS A LOW FREQUENCY --

A DIFFERENT ONE FOR EACH ANIMAL.

THIS ENABLES THE COMPUTERIZED
MILKING SYSTEM

TO COLLECT DATA
ON EACH COW'S MILKING HABITS

AND MONITOR
THE QUALITY OF HER MILK.

NO TRADITIONAL TWICE-A-DAY
MILKING HERE --

THE COWS DECIDE WHEN THEY FEEL
LIKE BEING MILKED.

JUST LIKE THE PRESSURE
IN OUR BLADDERS

TELLS US WHEN IT'S TIME
TO GO TO THE BATHROOM,

WHEN THE COWS FIND THE PRESSURE
IN THEIR UDDERS UNCOMFORTABLE,

THEY JUST MOSEY ON DOWN
TO THE MILKING STALL.

THE STALL IS DESIGNED
NOT TO FORCE THE COW

INTO AN UNCOMFORTABLE
OR MOTIONLESS POSITION.

IT SETS UP IN SUCH A WAY

THAT SHE'S NOT SEPARATED
FROM THE HERD.

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH SHOWS
THAT SEPARATION INDUCES STRESS.

AS IT PREPARES
TO CLEAN HER UDDER

WITH DISINFECTANT AND WATER,

THE ROBOTIC MILKING SYSTEM
READS THE I.D. TAG

AND RECORDS THAT THIS COW
IS NUMBER 328,

COMING IN FOR A MILKING
AT 4:41 IN THE AFTERNOON.

NEXT, A LASER PINPOINTS
THE EXACT LOCATION

AND POSITION OF THE FOUR TEATS.

IT FEEDS THAT INFORMATION
TO THE COMPUTER,

WHICH THEN GUIDES THE ROBOT

TO ATTACH THE TEAT CUPS
ONE BY ONE.

ONCE THE ROBOT DETECTS
THE PRESENCE OF MILK,

EXTRACTION BEGINS,

EACH SUCTION CUP
SIMULATING THE SUCKING ACTION

OF A NURSING CALF.

A SOPHISTICATED MACHINE
ANALYZES THE MILK.

IF THE QUALITY IS NOT UP TO PAR

OR IF THE MACHINE DETECTS SIGNS
THE COW HAS AN INFECTION,

MILK WITH ELEVATED TEMPERATURE,
OR MINUTE TRACES OF BLOOD,

THE SYSTEM AUTOMATICALLY
REJECTS THE BATCH

AND RED-FLAGS THE PROBLEM COW.

AS THE UDDER-CLEANING BRUSHES
GET DISINFECTED,

THE ROBOT TRACKS THE OUTPUT
OF EACH TEAT SEPARATELY.

THAT WAY, NO TEAT IS UNDERMILKED
OR OVERMILKED,

WHICH CAN LEAD
TO HEALTH PROBLEMS.

ONCE THE SUCTION CUPS COME OFF,

THE ROBOT DISINFECTS EACH TEAT.

AS BESSIE GOES ON HER WAY
FEELING MIGHTY RELIEVED,

THE ROBOT DISINFECTS
THE TEAT CUPS FOR THE NEXT COW.

THE MILK THAT PASSES INSPECTION
COLLECTS IN A JAR,

THEN GETS TRANSFERRED TO A GIANT
REFRIGERATED RESERVOIR.

THEY WASH OUT THAT JAR
BETWEEN COWS.

TO KEEP THE MILK FRESH,

THEY STORE IT
AT 37 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT --

ABOUT THE TEMPERATURE
OF YOUR REFRIGERATOR.

CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

IF YOU HAVE ANY COMMENTS
ABOUT THE SHOW,

OR IF YOU'D LIKE TO SUGGEST
TOPICS FOR FUTURE SHOWS,

DROP US A LINE AT...

OpenSubtitles recommends using Nord VPN
from 3.49 USD/month ----> osdb.link/vpn