How It's Made (2001–…): Season 3, Episode 12 - Electric Baseboard Heaters/Molded Pulp Containers/Chicken/Video Games - full transcript

Find out how everyday items, including electric baseboard heaters, molded pulp containers and video games are made.


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

ELECTRIC BASEBOARD HEATERS...

...MOLDED PULP CONTAINERS...

...PREPARED CHICKEN...

...AND VIDEO GAMES.

ELECTRIC BASEBOARD HEATERS
ARE INEXPENSIVE,

EASY TO INSTALL, AND PRACTICALLY
MAINTENANCE-FREE.

UNLIKE RADIATORS,
THEY'RE INCONSPICUOUS

AND THEY TAKE UP
VERY LITTLE SPACE.

AND BEST OF ALL, YOU CAN CONTROL
THE TEMPERATURE ROOM BY ROOM.

A BASEBOARD HEATER
IS SIMPLY WIRES

AND A HEATING ELEMENT
IN A STEEL CASING.

THEY MAKE THE ELEMENT
USING A STRIP

OF PAPER-THIN ALUMINUM
7 INCHES WIDE.

IT'S LUBRICATED WITH SOAP, THEN
GOES THROUGH A FORMING MACHINE.

A DIE PUNCHES THE STRIP
INTO LITTLE SQUARES CALLED FINS.

THEY MEASURE HALF AN INCH
BY THREE-QUARTERS OF AN INCH

AND HAVE A CIRCLE IN THE MIDDLE.

THE MACHINE PIERCES THE CIRCLES
AND CUTS THE FINS APART.

THIS MACHINE CHURNS OUT
600 FINS PER MINUTE.

IT STACKS THEM ON STEEL TUBES,
THE LENGTHS OF WHICH VARY

ACCORDING TO THE LENGTH
OF THE HEATER.

AS EACH TUBE FILLS TO CAPACITY,

A WORKER TAKES IT AWAY
TO BE WIRED UP.

ELSEWHERE IN THE FACTORY,
THEY MAKE THE HEATER'S CASING

USING WHAT'S KNOWN
AS COLD ROLLED STEEL,

A FLEXIBLE TYPE OF STEEL

THAT CAN BE WORKED
WITHOUT USING HEAT.

AFTER A SQUIRT OF OIL
FOR LUBRICATION,

THE FIRST DIE CUTS HOLES

FOR ATTACHING THE BASEBOARD
TO THE WALL.

THEN THE SECOND DIE CUTS HOLES

FOR ATTACHING THE HEATING
ELEMENT TO THE CASING.

NOW THE STEEL TRAVELS THROUGH
WHAT'S CALLED THE ROLL FORMER --

A MACHINE
WHOSE SERIES OF ROLLERS

SUCCESSIVELY BEND
A FLAT STRIP OF METAL,

ONE FOLD AT A TIME,

INTO THE SHAPE OF THE CASING.

FROM START TO FINISH,
20 ROLLERS MAKE 20 BENDS.

THE PROCESS TAKES
ABOUT 150 SECONDS PER CASING.

AFTER THE LAST FOLD,
A COMPUTER-CONTROLLED DIE

CUTS THE CASING
TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH.

THE HIGHER THE HEATER'S WATTAGE,

THE LONGER THE CASING HAS TO BE.

MODELS RANGE FROM 300 WATTS --
ABOUT 2 FEET LONG --

TO 2,500 WATTS --
ABOUT 8 FEET LONG.

NEXT, THEY PUT A STEEL JUNCTION
BOX ON EACH END OF THE CASING.

THESE HOLD THE WIRES

THAT THE ELECTRICIAN CONNECTS
TO THE HOUSE WIRING.

WORKERS SPOT-WELD BOTH
JUNCTION BOXES SIMULTANEOUSLY.

AFTER A THOROUGH WASHING,
COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SPRAYERS

COAT THE CASINGS
IN PAINT POWDER.

THEN IT'S INTO AN OVEN

FOR 20 MINUTES
AT 365 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THIS TRANSFORMS THE POWDER
TO LIQUID, DRYING IT INSTANTLY.

AFTER RUNNING A RED WIRE

FOR THE ELECTRICAL CURRENT
THE LENGTH OF THE CASING,

THEY RIG UP WHAT'S CALLED

A LINEAR HIGH LIMIT
TEMPERATURE CONTROL --

A SAFETY DEVICE
THAT PREVENTS THE UNIT

FROM OVERHEATING
AND CATCHING FIRE.

GAS INSIDE
THE TEMPERATURE CONTROL

EXPANDS UNDER INTENSE HEAT,

TRIGGERING THE DEVICE
TO CUT THE CURRENT.

NOW THEY INSTALL SUPPORTS

TO HOLD THE HEATING ELEMENT
IN PLACE.

THEY'RE MADE OF SATIN-COAT
STEEL, A RUST-RESISTANT METAL.

AS THE ELEMENT HEATS UP,
IT NATURALLY EXPANDS.

TO PREVENT IT FROM SCRATCHING
AGAINST THE METAL CASING

AND MAKING ANNOYING NOISES,

THEY INSTALL A HEAT-RESISTANT
PLASTIC BUSHING.

NOW THEY CONNECT THE RED WIRE

THAT WILL CARRY
THE ELECTRICAL CURRENT

TO THE HEATING ELEMENT'S
BLACK WIRE,

CAPPING IT
WITH A WIRE CONNECTOR.

THEY CLIP IT TO THE COVER
OF THE JUNCTION BOX --

EASY ACCESS FOR THE ELECTRICIAN
INSTALLING THE BASEBOARD.

THEN THEY CLOSE
THE JUNCTION BOX COVER.

AT THE OTHER END,

THEY CONNECT THE RED WIRE
AND THE BLACK WIRE

TO THE TEMPERATURE-CONTROL WIRE.

THIS RUNS THE ELECTRICAL CURRENT

THROUGH THE SAFETY DEVICE
AT ALL TIMES.

AFTER A VOLTAGE TEST,

THEY CLOSE IT UP AND SNAP ON
A PANEL TO COVER THE ELEMENT.

BEING TOASTY WARM IS NOW
JUST AN INSTALLATION AWAY.

Narrator: "MOLDED PULP"
ISN'T EXACTLY A HOUSEHOLD WORD.

BUT IT IS A HOUSEHOLD ITEM.

CHANCES ARE, YOU'VE GOT
AN EGG CARTON IN YOUR FRIDGE

THAT'S MADE OF IT.

THIS THICK,
CARDBOARDLIKE MATERIAL

CAN BE SHAPED
INTO A VARIETY OF CONTAINERS,

LIKE THOSE DRINK CARRIERS

THEY GIVE YOU
AT THE FAST-FOOD RESTAURANTS.

FARMS SHIP OUT THEIR EGGS
IN TRAYS CALLED FILLER FLATS.

THESE FLATS BEGIN
AS RECYCLED PAPER --

OLD PHONE BOOKS, NEWSPAPERS,
MAGAZINES, CARDBOARD --

PRETTY MUCH ANY PRODUCT
MADE OF PAPER FIBERS.

THE FACTORY EVEN RECYCLES
ITS OWN FLATS

THAT HAD BEEN REJECTED
BY QUALITY CONTROL.

THE RAW MATERIALS GO
INTO WHAT'S CALLED THE PULPER --

A GIANT BLENDER
THAT MASHES EVERYTHING UP

AND BLENDS IT WITH HOT WATER

THAT'S 110 TO 150 DEGREES
FAHRENHEIT.

THE HOT WATER SWELLS THE FIBERS,
CAUSING THEM TO BREAK APART.

AFTER 20 MINUTES,
THEY BECOME PULP,

A WATERY MIXTURE ROUGHLY
THE CONSISTENCY OF HOT OATMEAL.

THE PULP EXITS
OUT THE BOTTOM OF THE PULPER

THROUGH A FILTER
THAT SCREENS OUT PLASTICS

AND OTHER CONTAMINANTS.

SHAPING THE FLATS
IS A FULLY AUTOMATED PROCESS.

FORMATION MOLDS DESCEND
INTO A VAT FILLED WITH PULP.

A VACUUM SUCKS
THE MUSHY MIXTURE ONTO THEM.

WATER JETS RINSE OF THE EXCESS.

ROTATING ABOVE
ARE TRANSFER MOLDS.

THEY GRAB THE FLATS OFF
THE FORMATION MOLDS

AND MOVE THEM ONTO A CONVEYOR.

BEFORE THE TRANSFER MOLDS
GRAB THE FLATS, THOUGH,

A BRUSH APPLIES
A WATER-BASED LUBRICANT.

THIS ENSURES THE FLATS
WON'T STICK TO THE MOLDS.

IT'S JUST LIKE GREASING
A BAKING PAN.

THE MOLDS THEMSELVES ARE MADE
OF BRONZE, PLASTIC, OR ALUMINUM,

DEPENDING ON HOW LONG
THE FACTORY INTENDS TO USE THEM.

THEY'RE COVERED
WITH A STAINLESS-STEEL MESH.

THIS MESH ENSURES AN EVEN VACUUM
THROUGH THE MOLD

SO THE PULP
SPREADS OVER IT EVENLY.

THE SOGGY FLATS NOW GO INTO AN
OVEN FOR 12 MINUTES TO DRY OUT.

THE 400-DEGREE-FAHRENHEIT HEAT
EVAPORATES THE WATER.

THIS BONDS THE FIBERS TOGETHER,
FORMING A RIGID MATERIAL.

AFTER THEY EXIT THE OVEN,

A DEVICE APPROPRIATELY CALLED
AN UP-ENDER

FLIPS THEM UP SO THAT THEY STACK
INTO EACH OTHER.

A BUILT-IN COUNTING MECHANISM
TRIGGERS THE MACHINE

TO SECTION OFF THE REQUIRED
NUMBER OF FLATS PER PACKAGE...

...THEN COMPRESSES THEM...

...AND SEALS THEM IN PLASTIC
FILM TO KEEP THE DUST OUT.

THE FACTORY USES
THE SAME MOLDING PROCESS

TO MAKE FOUR-CUP DRINK CARRIERS.

THESE, TOO, GO INTO
AN OVEN TO DRY OUT THE PULP,

BUT ONLY FOR SIX MINUTES --

HALF THE TIME
THE FILLER FLATS NEED

BECAUSE THIS PRODUCT
IS SMALLER AND LIGHTER.

AUTOMATED COMPACTORS STACK
THE FINISHED DRINK CARRIERS.

THEN WORKERS COMPRESS THEM
FOR PACKING AND SHIPPING.

THE FACTORY ALSO MAKES
DISPOSABLE URINAL BOTTLES

FOR HOSPITALS.

THEY ADD CHEMICALS TO THE PULP

TO MAKE THE BOTTLES
LIQUID-TIGHT.

THESE MOLDS
ARE THREE-DIMENSIONAL

AND LINED WITH MESH
ON THE INSIDE.

WHEN THEY SUBMERGE
INTO THE PULP VAT,

A VACUUM SUCKS IN THE PULP.

WHEN THEY RESURFACE,

WATER JETS RINSE THE EXCESS PULP
OFF THE BOTTLE NECKS,

AND THE VACUUM
SUCKS OUT THE WATER.

A SPIKED CONVEYOR BELT

TRANSPORTS THE BOTTLES
TO THE DRYING OVEN.

THEY DRY AT A LOWER TEMPERATURE

THAN THE FLATS
AND DRINK CARRIERS DO --

350-DEGREES FAHRENHEIT --

AND FOR LONGER TIME --
A HALF-HOUR.

THIS ENSURES THE CHEMICALS THAT
MAKE THE BOTTLES LIQUID-TIGHT

CURE THOROUGHLY.

WHILE URINAL BOTTLES CAN'T BE
RECYCLED FOR SANITARY REASONS,

DRINK HOLDERS AND FILLER FLATS
ARE RECYCLABLE,

MAKING THEM EXTREMELY
ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY.

Narrator: IN THE YEAR 2001,

THE AVERAGE PERSON
ATE 61 POUNDS OF CHICKEN.

GIVEN THAT RATE OF CONSUMPTION,

IF WE HAD TO PROCESS
THE POULTRY OURSELVES,

CHANCES ARE, WE'D BE IN
A RATHER FOUL MOOD BY DINNER.

THANK GOODNESS
FOR CHICKEN-PROCESSING PLANTS.

THE CHICKENS
ARRIVE AT THE FACTORY

WITH THEIR FEET, LEGS,
AND HEADS ALREADY CUT OFF.

WHAT'S LEFT ARE THE BREASTS
AND WINGS.

THE SLAUGHTERHOUSE ALSO REMOVED
THE INTERNAL ORGANS.

A CONVEYOR BELT TRANSPORTS
THE CHICKENS

TO THE CUTTING
AND DEBONING ZONE,

A BUSTLING
ASSEMBLY-LINE OPERATION.

WORKERS PROP EACH CHICKEN
ON A CONE-SHAPED STAND,

IN ORDER TO HAVE
BOTH HANDS FREE.

CUTTING UP A CHICKEN PROPERLY

ISN'T AS EASY
AS YOU MIGHT THINK.

THE WORKERS
GET SPECIAL TRAINING.

IT'S CRUCIAL THEY KEEP
THEIR KNIVES WELL-SHARPENED

AND WIPE THEM AFTER
EVERY FIVE OR SO CHICKENS.

THE FIRST CUTS REMOVE THE WINGS.

STARTING ON ONE SIDE

AND POSITIONING
THE KNIFE HORIZONTALLY,

IN LINE WITH THE TOP
OF THE CONE,

THE WORKERS MAKE AN INCISION

WHERE THE WING
JOINS THE SHOULDER,

THEN CUTS DOWNWARD,
ACROSS THE BACK OF THE CHICKEN,

THEN A QUICK CUT
AND TWIST TO DETACH THE WING.

IT'S THE SAME PROCEDURE
ON THE OTHER WING.

THE INCISIONS
AT THE WING/SHOULDER JOINT

MUST SLICE THROUGH
THE TENDON COMPLETELY,

OTHERWISE, DETACHING THE WING
IS DIFFICULT.

AND STRUGGLING
WITH A SLIPPERY WING

WHILE HOLDING A KNIFE
IN YOUR HAND

CAN RESULT IN A SERIOUS INJURY.

THE NEXT CUTS
REMOVE THE SKIN AND BREASTS.

THEY PEEL OFF THE SKIN,
THEN PULL ON THE TWO BREASTS,

AND MAKE A QUICK INCISION
TO RELEASE THEM.

THEY SLICE THE BREASTS APART,

CAREFULLY CHECKING FOR BONES

THAT MIGHT HAVE BROKEN OFF
FROM THE CARCASS

AND COULD BE HIDING IN THE MEAT.

THE NEXT CUTS
REMOVE THE TENDERS --

THE MEAT
LOCATED UNDER THE BREAST.

WORKERS MAKE AN INCISION
IN THE MIDDLE,

JUST UNDER THE WISHBONE,

AND DOWN THE LENGTH
OF THE CARCASS.

THIS DETACHES THE TENDERS,

ENABLING THE NEXT WORKER
ON THE LINE TO PULL THEM OFF.

MEANWHILE, WAITING IN THE WINGS
ARE THE WINGS.

WORKERS LOAD THEM ONTO A MACHINE

APPROPRIATELY CALLED
THE WING-CUTTER --

A MINI FERRIS WHEEL THAT TAKES
THE WINGS FOR A LITTLE RIDE,

RIGHT INTO A SHARP KNIFE

THAT CHOPS THEM
INTO THREE SECTIONS --

THE DRUMETTE, THE CHUBBY PART
WITH THE MOST MEAT;

THE WINGLET, THE MIDDLE PART;

AND THE WING TIP, THE POINTY
PART WITH BARELY ANY MEAT.

THIS FACTORY TRANSFORMS

THE MEATIER DRUMETTES
AND THE WINGLETS

INTO FROZEN,
READY-TO-EAT CHICKEN WINGS.

THE FIRST STEP
IN THAT PROCESS IS SEASONING.

WORKERS LOAD THE PIECES
INTO A GIANT DRUM.

AS THE DRUM ROTATES,
THEY INJECT THE SEASONING --

BARBECUE OR HONEY GARLIC,
FOR INSTANCE.

AFTER ABOUT AN HOUR, THE CHICKEN
WINGS COME OUT EVENLY COATED.

NOW THESE FRESHLY SEASONED WINGS
GO INTO A GAS-FIRED OVEN,

WHERE THEY BAKE AT APPROXIMATELY
480-DEGREES FAHRENHEIT

FOR 8 TO 11 MINUTES.

THEY COME OUT FULLY COOKED
AND READY TO EAT.

THEY GO INTO A FREEZING
MECHANISM FOR ABOUT A HALF-HOUR,

THEN TO THE AUTOMATED-PACKAGING
DEPARTMENT,

WHERE THEY'RE SEALED
IN A BAG.

THESE CHICKEN PIECES --
WINGS, TENDERS, AND BREASTS --

ARE PREPARED DIFFERENTLY.

AFTER SEASONING, THEY TRAVEL
THROUGH A ROTATING DRUM

THAT COATS THEM IN
A FLOUR-AND-BREAD-CRUMB MIXTURE,

THEN INTO A SECOND DRUM
FOR A SECOND COAT.

NEXT STOP, A 40-SECOND
DEEP FRY IN CANOLA OIL,

JUST LONG ENOUGH
TO ADHERE THE COATING.

THEN FROM THE FRYING PAN
INTO THE FIRE, AS THEY SAY --

WELL, INTO THE OVEN, ACTUALLY.

AFTER 20 MINUTES AT ABOUT
480-DEGREES FAHRENHEIT,

THESE CHICKEN PIECES
ARE FULLY COOKED

AND READY TO BE FROZEN
AND PACKAGED.

Narrator: THEY STARTED OUT
A GENERATION AGO

AS SIMPLE BLACK-AND-WHITE
PING-PONG GAMES ON A TV SCREEN.

TODAY'S VIDEO GAMES ARE VIVID,
SOPHISTICATED, AND FAST-MOVING,

DRIVEN BY STATE-OF-THE-ART
COMPUTER SOFTWARE

FEATURING THE LATEST
IN HIGH-TECH GRAPHICS.

IT ALL STARTED IN 1952

WITH A CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY
PhD THESIS

ON HUMAN/COMPUTER INTERACTION.

THE STUDENT INVENTED
A PRIMITIVE TICK-TACK-TOE GAME

ON A VACUUM-TUBE COMPUTER --

THE VERY FIRST COMPUTER GAME
WITH GRAPHICS.

A TEAM AT M.I.T.

DESIGNED THE FIRST RECOGNIZED
COMPUTER GAME IN 1962.

THEN, IN 1972,

A STANFORD STUDENT
INVENTED THE ARCADE GAME "PONG,"

WHICH LATER BECAME
A HOME VIDEO GAME

YOU COULD PLAY
ON YOUR TV SET.

IT ALL BEGINS WITH THE PEOPLE

WHO FORM WHAT'S CALLED
THE CORE TEAM.

THEY BRAINSTORM
IN MEETING AFTER MEETING

TO HAMMER OUT THE CONCEPT --

HOW THE GAME WILL LOOK,
HOW IT'LL WORK.

THEN THEY PLAN OUT
THE PRODUCTION SCHEDULE,

ASSIGNING WHO WILL DO WHAT WHEN.

THEY BREAK DOWN THE GAME
ON PAPER

AND COLOR-CODE
THE COMPONENTS.

THEN THEY POST THEM
ON A BULLETIN BOARD

THAT'LL ACT AS THE PRODUCTION'S
NERVE CENTER.

NOW WORK
ON THE ARTISTIC CONCEPT BEGINS.

ARTISTS SKETCH OUT
THE CHARACTERS AND BACKGROUNDS

ON PAPER
IN A SCENE-BY-SCENE STORYBOARD.

MEANWHILE, GRAPHIC ARTISTS

RECREATE THOSE STORYBOARD
DRAWINGS THREE-DIMENSIONALLY

ON THE COMPUTER.

THIS STEP ENABLES
THE DEVELOPMENT TEAM

TO USE THE LATEST
IN COMPUTER-ANIMATION TECHNOLOGY

TO BRING THE GAME ELEMENTS
TO LIFE.

THEY ADD COLORS,
TEXTURES, SHADING,

AND OF COURSE, MOVEMENT.

AFTER DEVELOPING A PRELIMINARY
VERSION OF EACH CHARACTER,

THE ANIMATORS
SUPERIMPOSE A SKELETON.

BY MANIPULATING THE SKELETON,
THEY MAKE THE CHARACTER MOVE.

THEY EXPERIMENT
WITH DIFFERENT MOVEMENTS

UNTIL THEY DECIDE WHICH ONES
THEY'LL USE FOR THE GAME.

THE ANIMATORS HAVE TO DESIGN
EVERY MOVEMENT

EACH CHARACTER CAN POTENTIALLY
MAKE IN THE GAME.

THAT'S 700 MOVEMENTS
FOR THIS MAIN CHARACTER ALONE.

ONCE THAT'S DONE,

THEY FLESH OUT THE CHARACTER'S
FEATURES AND COSTUMES.

THE EVOLUTION OF THE CHARACTERS

FROM THE FIRST PENCIL DRAWING
TO THE FINAL VERSION

IS QUITE REMARKABLE.

OTHER ANIMATORS
WORK ON THE BACKGROUNDS,

THE GAME'S PLAYING FIELD.

ONCE THEY HAVE
A ROUGH VERSION LAID OUT,

THEY REFINE IT BY ADDING
DETAILS, COLORS, AND TEXTURES.

TO GIVE IT DEPTH AND DIMENSION,

THEY USE VIRTUAL LIGHTING
TO CREATE SHADING AND SHADOWS.

TO ADVANCE THE STORY LINE,
THIS PARTICULAR VIDEO GAME

IS INTERSPERSED WITH ONE-MINUTE
ANIMATED MOVIES.

THESE SEGMENTS,
CALLED CINEMATICS,

ARE ANIMATED IN HIGH-RESOLUTION
TO PRODUCE A TOP-QUALITY IMAGE.

THE INTERACTIVE GAME,
ON THE OTHER HAND,

IS IN LOW RESOLUTION

BECAUSE COMPUTERS CAN'T PROCESS
HIGH-RES IMAGES QUICKLY ENOUGH

FOR FAST-MOVING PLAY.

THE ANIMATORS HAVE TO CREATE
EVERY CHARACTER TWICE,

IN BOTH HIGH
AND LOW RESOLUTION.

MEANWHILE, FOR THE CINEMATICS,

THEY ANIMATE THE STORYBOARD
USING ROUGH-DRAFT CHARACTERS.

THIS IS SIMPLY
TO CALCULATE THE TIMING

AND TO MAP OUT A CLEAR PATH
ACROSS THE BACKGROUNDS

SO THE CHARACTERS
DON'T COLLIDE WITH THE SCENERY.

TO MAKE THE CINEMATIC'S ACTION
LOOK REALISTIC,

THEY USE A TECHNIQUE
CALLED MOTION CAPTURE.

THE ANIMATORS
VIDEOTAPE THEMSELVES

PERFORMING THE ACTION,

THEN USE ANIMATION SOFTWARE
TO REPRODUCE IT ON THE COMPUTER.

COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS CREATE
THE VIDEO GAME'S MENU SETTINGS,

AMONG OTHER FEATURES.

COMPUTER ENGINEERS DESIGN
THE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,

THE BRAIN THAT RUNS THE GAME.

IT'S MADE UP OF THOUSANDS
OF COMPUTER CODES.

FOR THE CINEMATICS,

ACTORS RECORD THE CHARACTERS'
LINES IN A SOUND STUDIO.

AN AUDIO TECHNICIAN

MIXES THE VOICES WITH MUSIC
AND SOUND EFFECTS

AND SYNCHRONIZES EVERYTHING
WITH THE ACTION.

NOW THEY TAKE THE VIDEO GAME
OUT FOR A TEST-DRIVE.

DO THE CHARACTERS MOVE
THE WAY THEY'RE SUPPOSED TO?

DO THEY GO
WHERE THEY'RE SUPPOSED TO?

OR DO THEY RUN INTO TREES
AND WALK THROUGH WALLS?

THIS IS THE DEVELOPMENT TEAM'S
LAST CHANCE

TO RID THE GAMES OF ANY BUGS.

AFTER THAT, THE COMPANY CAN
FINALLY MARKET THE VIDEO GAME

AND HOPE IT BECOMES A HIT.

IF YOU HAVE ANY COMMENTS
ABOUT THE SHOW,

OR IF YOU'D LIKE TO SUGGEST
TOPICS FOR FUTURE SHOWS,

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