How It's Made (2001–…): Season 3, Episode 11 - Radiators/Hatchery Chicks/Filo Pastry/Cross-Country Skis - full transcript

Learn how radiators are put together, hatchery chicks are produced, phyllo dough is made, and cross-country skis are constructed.


Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

CAR RADIATORS...

...HATCHERY CHICKS...

...PHYLLO DOUGH...

...AND CROSS-COUNTRY SKIS.

WHEN THE GASOLINE
IN A CAR ENGINE BURNS,

UP TO 70% OF THE ENERGY
GENERATED CONVERTS INTO HEAT.

A LOT OF THIS HEAT
GOES OUT THE EXHAUST SYSTEM,

BUT MUCH OF IT STAYS
HEATING UP THE ENGINE.

THE CAR'S COOLING SYSTEM
PREVENTS OVERHEATING.

THE SYSTEM'S KEY COMPONENT
IS THE RADIATOR.

A WATER-AND-ANTIFREEZE MIX
ABSORBS THE HEAT

GENERATED BY THE ENGINE.

THE FLUID THEN FLOWS THROUGH
THE RADIATOR TUBES TO COOL DOWN.

THE TUBES ARE MADE
FROM PAPER-THIN BRASS.

THE 1.5-INCH-WIDE STRIP

IS BENT BY ROLLERS
INTO THE SHAPE OF A FLAT TUBE.

THE TUBING
THEN RUNS THROUGH A VAT

OF BUBBLING-HOT MOLTEN LEAD.

AS THE TUBING EXITS THE VAT,

IT RUNS THROUGH COLD WATER
THAT HARDENS THE LEAD COATING.

A CUTTER THEN CHOPS THE TUBING
INTO PIECES,

THE LENGTH OF WHICH VARIES
ACCORDING TO THE MODEL

OF RADIATOR.

THESE ARE ABOUT 30 INCHES LONG.

MEANWHILE, ANOTHER MACHINE
SHAPES A NARROW STRIP

OF COPPER
JUST 6/100 OF AN INCH THICK

INTO WHAT ARE CALLED
"COOLING FINS."

AS WE'LL SEE IN SLOW MOTION,

THE MACHINE FOLDS
THE COPPER STRIP LIKE A FAN,

THEN PERFORATES IT,
CREATING MINI AIR VENTS.

WHEN THE HOT FLUID
RUNS THROUGH THE TUBES,

THESE FINS WILL TRANSFER
THE HEAT

TO THE AIR FLOWING
THROUGH THE RADIATOR.

THE COOLED FLUID
CAN THEN GO BACK

FOR ANOTHER ROUND
OF ABSORBING ENGINE HEAT.

THE COOLING FINS COME OUT
OF THE MACHINE CUT TO SIZE.

THEN WORKERS MANUALLY STACK
THE TUBES AND FINS

ONE ON TOP OF THE OTHER.

THEY STRAIGHTEN THEM OUT

AND APPLY A BRASS TAG INDICATING
THE MODEL NUMBER

AND DATE OF PRODUCTION.

THEN THEY COMPRESS AND STRAP
THE COMPONENTS TOGETHER.

ELSEWHERE, A COMPUTER-GUIDED
MACHINE PUNCHES OUT A PATTERN

ON BRASS SHEETS.

THESE WILL BECOME
WHAT ARE CALLED "HEADERS."

THERE'S ONE
ON EACH SIDE OF A RADIATOR.

THE PUNCHING TOOL
THEN CHANGES TO A KNIFE,

WHICH NOW CUTS
ALONG THE PERFORATION LINES.

USING A PRESS,
THEY BEND EACH HEADER.

THEN PUNCH SLOTS
FOR THE RADIATOR'S TUBES.

NOW, USING A MALLET,

THEY HAMMER THE HEADERS
ONTO THE ENDS OF THE TUBES.

THE BANGING INADVERTENTLY
CLOSES A FEW TUBES,

SO THEY USE A SPECIAL ROLLER
TO REOPEN THEM.

AFTER CLEANING THE SURFACE,

IT'S INTO AN OVEN
AT 600 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

IN JUST TWO MINUTES,
THE LEAD MELTS,

FUSING THE TUBES
AND COOLING FINS.

AFTER STRAIGHTENING OUT
ANY CROOKED TUBES,

WORKERS DIP THE HEADERS
IN A TANK OF HOT-LIQUID LEAD

FOR 30 SECONDS.

THIS SOLDERS THEM
TO THE SIDES OF THE RADIATOR.

THEY APPLY A FEW DROPS
OF LEAD ON THE CORNERS

FOR REINFORCEMENT.

THE HEADERS AND TUBE OPENINGS
ARE NOW ENCASED IN LEAD.

WORKERS NOW FEED A SHEET
OF BRASS INTO A PRESS

TO FORM THE TANKS
THAT GO ONTO THE HEADERS.

ONE CONTAINS A BRASS TUBE.

HOT TRANSMISSION OIL ENTERS ONE
END OF IT AND EXITS THE OTHER,

COOLING ALONG THE WAY.

ONCE WORKERS FINISH SOLDERING
THE TANKS TO THE HEADERS,

THEY SOLDER ON
WHAT'S CALLED THE FILLER NET,

A SPOUT FOR POURING ANTIFREEZE
INTO THE TANK.

ON THE OPPOSITE TANK, THEY
SOLDER ON A WATER-INTAKE PIPE.

THIS WILL BE THE ENTRY POINT

FOR THE FLUID
HEATED BY THE ENGINE.

FINALLY, THEY COAT
THE FINISHED RADIATOR

IN AN ASPHALT-BASED BLACK PAINT.

THE ASPHALT CONTENT
MAKES THE PAINT HEAT RESISTANT

AND PROTECTS THE RADIATOR'S
COOLING FINS.

Narrator: WHICH CAME FIRST,
THE CHICKEN OR THE EGG?

IT'S AN AGE-OLD QUESTION,

AND WE CAN'T GIVE YOU
THE DEFINITIVE ANSWER.

BUT WE CAN TAKE YOU
TO A HATCHERY

TO SEE HOW BABY CHICKS ARE BRED.

IT'S THE FIRST STEP
IN COMMERCIAL CHICKEN FARMING,

OR THE SECOND STEP
IF YOU THINK THE EGG CAME FIRST.

CHICKS COME FROM EGGS
FERTILIZED BY MATING,

BUT A HEN CAN LAY EGGS
WITHOUT MATING.

THOSE UNFERTILIZED EGGS
ARE THE ONES WE EAT.

THE FERTILIZED ONES
GO TO THE HATCHERY

THREE OR FOUR DAYS
AFTER BEING LAID.

HATCHERY WORKERS TRANSFER
THE EGGS ONTO SPECIAL TROLLEYS,

THEN ROLL THEM INTO
THE INCUBATOR,

WHERE THE TEMPERATURE
AND HUMIDITY LEVEL

MIMIC NATURAL CONDITIONS.

THE EGG YOLK, EGG WHITE, AND
SHELL ALL NOURISH THE EMBRYO.

EVERY HOUR,
THE TRAYS SHIFT 45 DEGREES

TO THE OPPOSITE SIDE AND BACK,

SIMULATING
THE WAY HENS TURN THEIR EGGS

WHILE WAITING
FOR THEM TO HATCH.

AFTER 18 1/2 DAYS,

THE EGGS COME OUT OF INCUBATION
AND GO ONTO A CONVEYER BELT.

THEY PASS
UNDER AN INFRARED SENSOR

THAT CHECKS FOR EGGS
THAT ARE TOO TRANSPARENT.

THESE ARE UNFERTILIZED EGGS
THAT SLIPPED THROUGH.

THE SENSOR TRIGGERS
A SUCTION DEVICE TO REMOVE THEM.

THEY GO TO A RENDERING PLANT
TO BECOME ANIMAL FEED.

THE FERTILIZED EGGS CONTINUE
ALONG TO THE NEXT STATION

TO BE VACCINATED AGAINST MAREK,
A POULTRY DISEASE.

AUTOMATED NEEDLES
PIERCE A HOLE IN EACH SHELL

AND INJECT A VACCINE

INTO THE AMNIOTIC FLUID
SURROUNDING THE CHICK.

NOW A SUCTION DEVICE TRANSFERS
THE EGGS TO HATCHING TRAYS,

168 EGGS PER TRAY.

ABOUT 150 OF THEM
CAN BE EXPECTED TO HATCH.

THE REST DIE IN INCUBATION
OR HAVE PHYSICAL DEFECTS.

DAY 19 --
THE CHICKS USE THEIR BEAKS

TO CRACK A HOLE
THROUGH THE SHELL,

THEN A HORIZONTAL LINE
ALL AROUND.

AFTER SIX TO EIGHT HOURS,

THE CHICKS FINALLY EMERGE
FROM THE SHELL.

THEY'RE COVERED IN SHORT
FEATHERS CALLED "DOWN,"

AND THEY'RE ABLE
TO WALK AND SEE.

AFTER ABOUT FOUR HOURS,
THEIR DOWN HAS DRIED.

NOW WORKERS ROLL THE CHICKS TO
WHAT'S CALLED THE SEPARATOR,

A MACHINE THAT SEPARATES
THE BIRDS FROM THE SHELL HALVES.

THE SHELLS ARE LARGER
THAN THE CHICKS,

SO THEY STAY ON TOP

WHILE THE CHICKS FALL DOWN
TO A CONVEYER BELT BELOW.

THE SHELLS,
WHICH ARE HIGH IN CALCIUM,

GO TO A RENDERING PLANT.

THE CHICKS MOVE ON TO BE
CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO GENDER.

WORKERS PUT THE FEMALES
DOWN ONE CHUTE,

THE MALES DOWN ANOTHER.

THEY DETERMINE THE SEX BY
CHECKING TWO ROWS OF FEATHERS.

IF ONE ROW'S SHORTER
THAN THE OTHER,

THE CHICK'S A FEMALE.

IF THE ROWS ARE THE SAME HEIGHT,
IT'S A MALE.

EACH CHUTE FEEDS
A SEPARATE CONVEYER BELT.

AN OPTICAL COUNTER TRACKS
THE NUMBER OF MALES AND FEMALES.

THE CHICKS NOW FALL

INTO SPECIALLY DESIGNED
TRANSPORTATION BOXES,

102 CHICKS PER BOX.

SOME CLIENTS REQUEST

THAT THEIR ORDER OF CHICKS BE
VACCINATED AGAINST BRONCHITIS.

THOSE BOXES PASS
UNDER AN AEROSOL SPRAYER

THAT SPRINKLES THEM
WITH A MILD DOSE OF VACCINE.

POULTRY FARMERS RAISE CHICKS
FOR THEIR MEAT OR EGGS.

FEMALES USED FOR EGG PRODUCTION
BEGIN LAYING EGGS

AT ABOUT 20 WEEKS OF AGE.

FOR MEAT PRODUCTION,

FEMALES REACH SLAUGHTER WEIGHT
AT ABOUT 38 DAYS.

MALES, DEPENDING ON MARKET SIZE,

TAKE FROM 40 TO 65 DAYS.

Narrator:
IF YOU LIKE GREEK FOOD,

THEN YOU'VE PROBABLY TASTED
BAKLAVA.

IT'S MADE WITH A PAPER-THIN,
FLAKY DOUGH CALLED "PHYLLO,"

THE GREEK WORD FOR "LEAF."

PHYLLO DOUGH ITSELF
IS LOW-FAT AND CHOLESTEROL-FREE.

UNFORTUNATELY, THE STUFF
THEY USUALLY FILL IT WITH ISN'T.

PHYLLO DOUGH CAN BE MADE BY HAND
OR BY MACHINE.

EITHER WAY, IT STARTS
WITH THE SAME DOUGH RECIPE.

THE PROPORTIONS ARE ROUGHLY
40% WATER TO 60% FLOUR.

THEY USE TWO TYPES
OF WHEAT FLOUR --

HIGH-PROTEIN FLOUR TO MAKE
THE DOUGH STRONG AND FLEXIBLE

AND LOW-PROTEIN FLOUR
TO MAKE ITS TEXTURE SMOOTH.

THEY ALSO ADD SORBATE,
A PRESERVATIVE,

TO INCREASE SHELF LIFE.

AFTER ABOUT 15 MINUTES
OF MIXING, THE DOUGH IS READY.

THEY CUT OFF A SECTION

AND FEED IT INTO A MACHINE
CALLED THE DIVIDER,

WHICH TRANSFORMS IT
INTO A CYLINDRICAL WAD.

THEY HAND-ROLL THE WAD
INTO A ROUGH BALL,

THEN FEED IT TWO OR THREE TIMES
THROUGH A MACHINE

THAT KNEADS THE DOUGH
INTO A ROUNDER, HARDER BALL

WITH NO AIR BUBBLES
TRAPPED INSIDE.

THEY CAN TELL WHEN IT'S READY
JUST BY FEELING IT.

THEN A MACHINE CALLED
THE SHEETER FLATTENS THE BALL

INTO WHAT LOOKS LIKE
PIZZA DOUGH.

WORKERS STACK ABOUT 30 SHEETS
WITH CRAFT PAPER IN BETWEEN

TO ABSORB SOME OF THE MOISTURE.

NOW THE KEY STEP --
OPENING THE DOUGH.

FIRST, THEY LAY A LARGE COTTON
CLOTH OVER THE WORK SURFACE.

IT MUST BE 100% COTTON
TO ABSORB THE MOISTURE.

OTHERWISE,
THE DOUGH WOULD STICK TOGETHER.

THEY TAKE THE SHEET OF DOUGH
AND BEGIN STRETCHING IT BY HAND

UNTIL IT'S APPROXIMATELY
27 SQUARE FEET.

EVEN THOUGH THE DOUGH
IS STRETCHED THIN,

IT DOESN'T TEAR.

THIS IS DUE PARTLY
TO ITS PROTEIN CONTENT

AND PARTLY
TO THE SKILL OF THE WORKER.

THEY REPEAT THE PROCESS
WITH ALL 30 SHEETS,

STACKING THEM
ONE ON TOP OF THE OTHER.

THEN THEY TAKE A PLANK OF WOOD,
CALLED A "SANIDA" IN GREEK,

AND ROLL THE DOUGH SHEETS
ONTO IT ONE BY ONE,

REMOVING THE CLOTHS
THAT WERE IN BETWEEN.

THEY SPRINKLE CORN STARCH

ON THE DOUGH,
JUST ENOUGH TO PREVENT STICKING.

TOO MUCH CORN STARCH
WILL BURN THE DOUGH.

NOW THEY MOVE THE SANIDA
TO ANOTHER TABLE

AND CUT ALONG ONE SIDE
OF THE DOUGH.

THEY REMOVE THE WOOD
AND OPEN THE SHEETS FLAT.

THEN THEY CUT RECTANGLES
MEASURING 13x17 INCHES,

STANDARD PHYLLO SIZE.

EACH SHEET OF PHYLLO DOUGH
IS ABOUT AS THIN

AS A SHEET OF TISSUE PAPER,

BUT IT'S STRONG
AND FLEXIBLE ENOUGH NOT TO TEAR

WHEN A BAKER WORKS WITH IT.

MACHINE-MADE PHYLLO DOUGH
IS A MUCH FASTER METHOD,

USED PRIMARILY FOR MASS-PRODUCED
FROZEN-FOOD ITEMS.

AN AUTOMATED MACHINE
CALLED THE STRETCHER

TRANSFORMS A BIG WAD OF DOUGH

INTO A THIN, FLAT SHEET,

APPLYING JUST THE RIGHT AMOUNT
OF CORN STARCH.

A CONTINUOUS AIR CURRENT
COMING FROM UNDERNEATH

CREATES AN AIR BUBBLE.

THE HEIGHT
OF THE BUBBLE TELLS THEM

WHETHER THE DOUGH
IS THE RIGHT CONSISTENCY.

THE DOUGH DRIES
UNDER INFRARED LAMPS.

THIS STEP IS NECESSARY

BECAUSE THIS METHOD
DOESN'T USE CRAFT PAPER

AND COTTON CLOTHS TO ABSORB
THE EXCESS MOISTURE.

THE DRIED SHEET OF DOUGH
ROLLS ONTO A SPOOL.

THEY CUT ALONG THE SIDE
TO RELEASE THE DOUGH

AND LAY IT FLAT.

USING A TEMPLATE,

THEY CUT
THE STANDARD SIZE RECTANGLE,

YIELDING ABOUT 800 SHEETS
OF PHYLLO DOUGH.

THEY ROLL ABOUT 20 SHEETS
TOGETHER AT A TIME

AND WRAP THEM IN PLASTIC.

THEN, THEY VACUUM-PACK
AND HEAT-SEAL THE PACKAGE.

PHYLLO DOUGH STAYS FRESH

FOR SIX WEEKS
IN THE REFRIGERATOR,

SIX MONTHS IN THE FREEZER.

Narrator: CROSS-COUNTRY SKIS

USED TO LOOK PRETTY MUCH
ALL THE SAME --

LONG, NARROW, AND WOODEN.

TODAY'S SKIS, HOWEVER,
COME IN MANY DIFFERENT STYLES,

SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED FOR THE
MANY TYPES OF CROSS-COUNTRY --

TELEMARK, BACK-COUNTRY,

ALL-TERRAIN, TOURING,
AND RACING.

ARCHEOLOGISTS IN SCANDINAVIA

HAVE UNCOVERED SKI ARTIFACTS
5,000 YEARS OLD.

THESE STONE-AGE SKIS

ENABLED PEOPLE
TO HUNT DURING THE WINTER.

SKIING BECAME SO VITAL
A MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION

THAT THE VIKINGS WORSHIPPED
A GOD AND GODDESS OF SKIING.

19th-CENTURY SCANDINAVIAN
SOLDIERS WORE SKIS

IN WINTER WARFARE.

THEY HELD RACES
IN THEIR SPARE TIME,

TURNING CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING
INTO A POPULAR SPORT.

FROM THERE, IT JUST SNOWBALLED.

ONE WAY TO MAKE CROSS-COUNTRY
SKIS IS COMPRESSION MOLDING,

A PROCESS
THAT USES HEAT AND PRESSURE

TO BOND THE COMPONENTS TOGETHER.

FIRST, A COMPUTER-GUIDED BLADE

CUTS OUT WHAT WILL BECOME
THE SKI'S UNDERSIDE,

CALLED THE GLIDING SURFACE.

IT'S MADE OF PRE-ASSEMBLED
FIBERGLASS LAMINATE

AND POLYETHYLENE THERMOPLASTIC,
A FRICTION-RESISTANT MATERIAL.

THEY LAY IT INTO THE BOTTOM HALF
OF A MOLD,

THEN GLUE ON STEEL EDGES
FOR GRIP.

THIS SPRAY
MAKES THE ADHESIVE DRY FASTER

SO THAT THEY CAN APPLY
THE PRINCIPLE ADHESIVE -- EPOXY.

A RUBBER SHOCK ABSORBER
GOES ON THE BACK,

FOLLOWED BY
A DURABLE PLASTIC REINFORCEMENT

CALLED
THE HEEL-PIECE PROTECTOR.

THE SKI'S WOODEN CORE

IS MADE OF ASPEN
AND BIRCH LAMINATED TOGETHER.

NEXT COMES A SHEET OF FIBERGLASS
IMPREGNATED WITH EPOXY

FOR EXTRA REINFORCEMENT.

THE WOOD CORE

IS NOW SANDWICHED BETWEEN
TWO HIGH-RESISTANCE LAYERS.

THEN, FOR DECORATION,

A PLASTIC FILM
WITH A SILK-SCREEN DESIGN.

WITH EVERYTHING NOW
IN THE BOTTOM HALF OF THE MOLD,

THEY CLAMP ON THE TOP

AND TAPE IT UP TO ENSURE
NOTHING SHIFTS OUT OF PLACE.

THEN IT'S INTO A PRESS
THAT COMPRESSES THE MOLD

AND HEATS IT
TO 185 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THIS ACTIVATES THE EPOXY,

HARDENING IT
IN 12 TO 15 MINUTES,

DEPENDING ON THE THICKNESS
OF THE SKI.

NOW THEY DO A ROUGH CUT
TO TRIM OFF THE EXCESS.

THEN THEY SAND ALL THE EDGES
UNTIL THEY'RE SMOOTH.

THEY RUN THE GLIDING SURFACE
ACROSS A GRINDING STONE,

THAT WHITE OBJECT YOU SEE BELOW.

THIS EXTRA STEP IS ONLY
FOR THE HIGHER-END MODELS.

ANOTHER WAY TO MAKE
CROSS-COUNTRY SKIS

IS BY A PROCESS CALLED
REACTION-INJECTION MOLDING.

FIRST, THEY PLACE
THE SKIS' TOP LAYER,

A FIBERGLASS-EPOXY SHEET,
IN THE MOLD...

THEN THE GLIDING SURFACE,

MADE OF PRE-ASSEMBLED
FIBERGLASS LAMINATE

AND POLYETHYLENE
WITH A HIGH-RESISTANCE BACKING.

INSTEAD OF A WOODEN CORE
IN THE MIDDLE,

THIS PRESS INJECTS
A SUPER-RESILIENT PLASTIC.

IN JUST THREE SECONDS,
THE INJECTION PHASE IS OVER,

AND THE REACTION PHASE BEGINS.

THIS DEMONSTRATION
SHOWS WHAT HAPPENS.

FIRST,
THE POLYURETHANE INFLATES...

...THEN IT HARDENS.

AFTER EIGHT MINUTES,

IT'S HARDENED ENOUGH
TO COME OUT OF THE MOLD.

THEY LET THE SKI CURE
FOR UP TO EIGHT HOURS,

AT WHICH POINT
IT'S STRONG ENOUGH

TO SUPPORT THE WEIGHT
OF A SKIER.

NOW, THESE THREE COMPONENTS --

THE TOP LAYER,
THE POLYURETHANE MIDDLE,

AND THE GLIDING SURFACE --
ARE ONE.

NOW COMES THE FINISHING.

FIRST THEY TRIM
AND BEVEL THE EDGES.

THEY SAND THE GLIDING SURFACE.

THEN THEY CARVE A GROOVE
DOWN ITS LENGTH.

THIS GIVES THE SKI
DIRECTIONAL STABILITY.

ALL THAT'S LEFT TO DO NOW
IS DECORATE THE SKIS.

FIRST THE BACKGROUND COLOR

AND A QUICK-DRYING,
SOLVENT-BASED LACQUER.

THEY APPLY THE DESIGN MANUALLY,
ONE COLOR AT A TIME,

USING
THE SILK-SCREENING PROCESS.

A TYPICAL DESIGN CONSISTS
OF FIVE TO SEVEN COLORS,

INCLUDING THE BACKGROUND.

TO KEEP THE SKIS
LOOKING VIBRANT,

THEY PROTECT THE PAINT WITH
A COAT OF TRANSPARENT VARNISH.

CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

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