How It's Made (2001–…): Season 2, Episode 2 - Honey/Fibre-Optics/Bricks/Pipe Organs - full transcript

Discover how honey, fiber optics, bricks and pipe organs are produced in this episode.


Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

...HONEY...

FIBER OPTICS...

BRICKS...

AND PIPE ORGANS.

IT'S WINNIE THE POOH'S
FAVORITE TREAT.

IT'S SWEET AND STICKY.

AND IT'S PRODUCED
BY AN INDUSTRIOUS INSECT,

WHOSE MINIATURE SOCIETY

IS ONE OF THE MOST SOPHISTICATED
IN THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.

IT ALL BEGINS IN A FIELD,

WHERE WORKER HONEYBEES
SUCK NECTAR

FROM FLOWER BLOSSOMS,
SUCH AS CLOVER.

THEY STORE IT
IN THEIR HONEY SACK,

THEN RETURN TO THE HIVE,

WHERE OTHER WORKER BEES
SUCK IT OUT AND CHEW IT,

BREAKING DOWN
THE NECTAR'S COMPLEX SUGARS

INTO TWO SIMPLE SUGARS
CALLED GLUCOSE AND FRUCTOSE.

THE BEES THEN DEPOSIT THE NECTAR
INTO THE CELLS

OF THE WAX HONEYCOMBS
THEY'VE BUILT.

THEY FAN IT WITH THEIR WINGS

UNTIL MOST OF
ITS WATER CONTENT EVAPORATES

IN THE WARM AIR OF THE BEEHIVE.

WHAT'S LEFT
IS THICK AND GOOEY HONEY.

THE BEES THEN CAP EACH
HONEY-FILLED CELL WITH BEESWAX.

THAT'S WHEN
THE BEEKEEPER STEPS IN.

BEES WILL STING
IF TAKEN BY SURPRISE,

SO THE BEEKEEPER SPRAYS THE HIVE

WITH SMOKE
FROM BURNING PINE NEEDLES,

A SCENTED WARNING
THAT FOREIGNERS

ARE ABOUT TO ENTER THE HIVE.

INSIDE THE HIVE ARE WOODEN
FRAMES HANGING SIDE BY SIDE,

EACH HOLDING A HONEYCOMB.

A HIVE CAN HOUSE
HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF BEES,

ALL DESCENDANTS OF THE PROLIFIC
GRAND POOH-BAH OF BEEDOM,

THE QUEEN BEE.

SHE'S THE BIG ONE IN THE MIDDLE.

THE QUEEN BEE LAYS
UP TO 2,000 EGGS A DAY,

CREATING THE WORK FORCE NEEDED
TO FEED AND PROTECT THE COLONY.

BUT THE BEEKEEPER
TRICKS THE COLONY'S DEFENDERS.

HE REPLACES THE HIVE'S COVER

WITH A DEVICE CALLED
A BEE ESCAPE,

THAT SMELLS LIKE CHERRIES.

BEES DISLIKE THE SCENT,

SO MOST FLY TO
THE BOTTOM SECTIONS OF THE HIVE.

ANOTHER WARNING SPRAY,

AND THE BEEKEEPER
REMOVES THE BEE ESCAPE.

NOW HE CAN ESCAPE
WITH THE HONEYCOMBS.

INSIDE THE HONEY FACTORY,
THEY PUT THE HONEYCOMB FRAMES

ON WHAT'S CALLED
AN UNCAPPING MACHINE.

LIKE A RAZOR,

IT SHAVES THE WAX CAPS OFF THE
HONEY-FILLED CELLS OF THE COMBS.

THEY SCRAPE OFF
THE REMNANTS MANUALLY.

THEN THEY SET THE FRAMES
ON ANOTHER MACHINE

CALLED A HONEY EXTRACTOR.

IT SPINS THE HONEYCOMBS

UNTIL ALL THE HONEY
IS FORCED OUT OF THE CELLS.

AFTERWARDS,
THEY FILTER THE HONEY

TO REMOVE ANY PIECES OF WAX
CAPPING THAT SLIPPED THROUGH.

THEN THE HONEY IS READY
FOR BOTTLING.

SOME BEEHIVES
CONTAIN SMALLER FRAMES,

DESIGNED TO PRODUCE HONEY

THAT ISN'T EXTRACTED
FROM THE HONEYCOMB.

WORKERS REMOVE THE FRAME

AND CUT THE HONEYCOMB
INTO PIECES AS IS

WITH A HEATED KNIFE.

THAT SEALS THE WAX
AROUND THE HONEY INSIDE.

YOU EAT IT, WAX AND ALL.

THE BEESWAX LINING OF THE
HONEYCOMB GOES TO MAKE CANDLES,

FURNITURE POLISH, LIPSTICKS,
AND OTHER PRODUCTS.

WHEN PRODUCERS HAVE MORE
LIQUID HONEY THAN THEY CAN SELL,

THEY SIMPLY LET IT GRANULATE,
DEVELOP SUGAR CRYSTALS,

AND TURN HARD AND WHITE.

THEN, WHEN THE ORDERS COME IN,

THEY RETURN IT
TO ITS ORIGINAL LIQUID FORM

BY HEATING IT TO 130 DEGREES.

THEY VACUUM-CLEAN THE JARS...

...THEN FILL THEM.

ONE BEEHIVE CAN YIELD
UP TO SEVEN POUNDS OF HONEY

IN A SINGLE DAY.

THAT'S MUCH MORE THAN
THE BEES NEED FOR THEMSELVES.

THE SURPLUS IS WHAT
WE END UP EATING.

HONEY PRODUCTION TODAY
IS BOTH EFFICIENT AND HUMANE.

FOR CENTURIES, THE ONLY WAY
TO HARVEST HONEY FROM HIVES

HAD BEEN TO KILL THE BEES.

THEN, IN 1851,

AN AMERICAN BEEKEEPER
INVENTED A WAY TO GET THE HONEY,

YET SPARE THE BEES.

HIS METHOD, WITH THE REMOVABLE
HONEYCOMB FRAMES,

IS THE ONE WE STILL USE TODAY.

Narrator: AMERICAN RESEARCHERS
HAVE INVENTED A PLASTIC

THAT REPAIRS ITSELF WHEN BROKEN.

JUST APPLY HEAT --
A SIMPLE HAIR DRYER WILL DO --

AND THE BREAK
AUTOMATICALLY MENDS ITSELF.

THIS COULD SOLVE A
LONGTIME PROBLEM IN ELECTRONICS,

BECAUSE WHEN COMPONENTS
HEAT UP AND COOL DOWN,

THEY WEAKEN THE PLASTIC
AROUND THEM.

EVERY TIME YOU TALK ON THE PHONE
OR GO ON THE INTERNET,

WHAT YOU SAY OR TYPE
TRAVELS TO ITS DESTINATION

THROUGH FIBER OPTICS,

VOICE AND DATA GETS TRANSMITTED

VIA PULSES OF LIGHT
THROUGH HAIR-THIN GLASS FIBERS.

THOSE FIBERS
START OUT AS LARGE GLASS TUBES.

FIRST, WORKERS UNWRAP THE TUBES.

THEN THEY SUBMERGE THEM

IN A CORROSIVE BATH
OF HYDROFLUORIC ACID

THAT REMOVES ANY OIL RESIDUES.

THEN THEY SET A TUBE
INTO EACH END OF A LATHE.

AS THE TUBES SPIN,

THEY'RE HEATED
WITH A HYDROGEN-OXYGEN FLAME.

WHEN THE GLASS TURNS WHITE,

IT'S GETTING CLOSE
TO HITTING PEAK TEMPERATURE.

AT ABOUT 3,500 DEGREES,
THE TWO TUBES FUSE TOGETHER.

THEY PUT THIS NEW,
LONGER TUBE ONTO ANOTHER LATHE.

AS THE TUBE SPINS,

THEY INJECT A MIXTURE
OF CHEMICAL GASES INSIDE,

WHILE A TRAVERSING BURNER
HEATS EVERYTHING UP.

THE GAS MIXTURE CONTAINS
LIQUID FORMS OF SILICON --

AN ABUNDANT CHEMICAL ELEMENT
FOUND IN NATURE --

AND GERMANIUM,

A CHEMICAL ELEMENT
SIMILAR TO TIN

THAT'S USED AS A SEMICONDUCTOR
IN TRANSISTORS

AND OTHER ELECTRONIC DEVICES.

AS THE GASES HEAT,
THEY UNDERGO A CHEMICAL REACTION

THAT LEAVES A WHITE SOOT
ON THE INSIDE OF THE GLASS TUBE.

THE HEAT FUSES THE SOOT,

FORMING WHAT WILL
EVENTUALLY BECOME THE CORE

OF THE OPTICAL FIBER.

THE GLASS TUBE ITSELF
WILL FORM THE FIBER'S COVERING.

WHEN THERE'S ENOUGH FUSED SOOT,

THEY TURN UP THE HEAT UNTIL THE
SOOT ITSELF TURNS INTO GLASS.

THEN THEY HEAT THE GLASS TUBE
ENOUGH TO SOFTEN IT,

AND TO SOFTEN
THE NEW GLASS INSIDE.

THE INTENSE HEAT EVENTUALLY

MAKES THE TUBE
COLLAPSE ON ITSELF

TO FORM A SOLID ROD.

THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE
OPTICAL FIBER HAS BEEN ACHIEVED.

BUT IT'S IN THE FORM OF A BIG,
BULKY ROD CALLED A PREFORM,

SO THE NEXT STEP
IS TO THIN IT OUT.

FIRST, THEY EXCISE THE PREFORM

FROM THE UNCOLLAPSED SECTION
OF THE GLASS TUBE.

THEN THEY INSTALL IT VERTICALLY
INTO THE DRAWING TOWER,

WHICH WILL DRAW OUT
THE FINAL SHAPE.

THE DRAWING TOWER'S OVEN

HEATS ONE END OF THE PREFORM
TO 3,600 DEGREES.

THE GLASS SOFTENS.

GRAVITY HELPS PULL IT DOWN,

LIKE HONEY DRIPPING
FROM A SPOON.

THEN, USING A GLOB OF GLASS
AS A WEIGHT,

THEY STRETCH THE SOFT GLASS
AND KEEP STRETCHING IT

UNTIL THEY'VE FORMED
A THIN GLASS FIBER.

A SERIES OF PULLEYS MEASURES
THE TENSION ON THE FIBER

AS IT'S BEING DRAWN.

A SPECIAL MONITOR MAKES SURE

THE FIBER'S PRECISELY
THE RIGHT DIAMETER --

JUST .005 OF AN INCH.

THEN THE FIBER
PASSES THROUGH U.V. LAMPS

THAT BAKE ON AN ACRYLIC COATING

TO PROTECT AGAINST DUST
AND OTHER CONTAMINANTS.

FINALLY, THE FIBER
IS ROLLED ONTO A DRUM.

FROM HERE,
IT'S EITHER SHIPPED OUT AS IS

OR PUT INTO A CABLE.

FIBER-OPTIC CABLES
ARE EXPENSIVE TO PRODUCE,

BUT THEY'RE SMALLER AND LIGHTER
THAN TRADITIONAL COPPER CABLES.

THEY CARRY MORE INFORMATION
AND NEED FEWER REPEATERS

TO KEEP THE SIGNAL
FROM DETERIORATING.

AND, UNLIKE COPPER CABLES,

THEY'RE IMMUNE TO
ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE.

THEY'RE ALSO HARD TO TAP
WITHOUT BEING DETECTED.

AND ALL THIS IS MADE POSSIBLE

BY A COMPLICATED PROCESS BASED
ON A VERY SIMPLE PRINCIPLE --

LIGHT TRAVELING THROUGH GLASS.

Narrator:
THOSE THREE LITTLE PIGS
KNEW WHAT THEY WERE DOING

WHEN THEY BUILT
THAT BRICK HOUSE.

NOT ONLY ARE BRICKS WOLF-PROOF,

THEY'RE ALSO FIREPROOF,
PEST-RESISTANT,

AND WEATHER-RESISTANT.

NO WONDER
THEY'RE ONE OF THE WORLD'S

OLDEST BUILDING MATERIALS.

BRICKS ARE OFTEN MADE OF SHALE,

A LIGHTWEIGHT ROCK THAT
SPLITS EASILY INTO THIN LAYERS.

QUARRY MACHINES
DIG 16 INCHES DOWN

TO EXPOSE THE SHALE
TO THE ELEMENTS FOR 2 YEARS.

THIS WEAKENS IT,

MAKING IT EASIER TO PROCESS
ONCE IT GETS TO THE FACTORY.

A 4-FOOT-HIGH STONE WHEEL

WITH A STEEL TIRE
GRINDS THE SHALE INTO POWDER.

IT GRINDS UP 50 TONS
OF SHALE PER HOUR.

A SCREEN SIFTS OUT ANY PIECES
THAT NEED MORE GRINDING.

THE POWDER GOES TO THE PUG MILL
THAT MIXES IT WITH WATER.

THIS MAKES A THICK PASTE

THAT WILL GO THROUGH
THE EXTRUSION MACHINE NEXT.

THE EXTRUDER FORCES THE PASTE
THROUGH A RECTANGULAR OPENING

TO FORM ONE LONG,
CONTINUOUS PIECE CALLED A SLUG.

AT THE SAME TIME, IT SHAVES OFF
THE CRUSTIER TOP LAYER

TO EXPOSE WHAT WILL BECOME
THE FACE OF THE BRICK.

IF THIS GRAY SHALE MIXTURE
IS FIRED AS IS,

IT WILL NATURALLY PRODUCE
A RED BRICK.

TO ENGINEER A DIFFERENT COLOR,
THEY COAT THE SLUG IN SAND

MIXED WITH AN OXIDE MINERAL
SUCH AS ZINC OR IRON.

NEXT, THEY TEXTURE THE SURFACE
WITH A TEXTURED ROLLER.

THIS IS JUST ONE
OF MANY POPULAR DESIGNS.

THEN A LARGE KNIFE
COMES DOWN LIKE A GUILLOTINE

AND SLICES THE SLUG
INTO 5-FOOT LENGTHS.

YOU MIGHT BE WONDERING WHERE
THOSE THREE HOLES CAME FROM.

WELL, REMEMBER HOW THE PASTE
GOES THROUGH THE EXTRUDER

TO FORM THE SLUG?

INSIDE ARE THREE PINS.

THEY MAKE THREE HOLES DESIGNED
TO DECREASE THE BRICK'S WEIGHT.

OUT OF EACH 5-FOOT LENGTH,
THEY CUT 20 3-INCH BRICKS.

THE ONES ON THE ENDS ARE UNEVEN,

SO THEY GO BACK INTO THE MIX
TO MAKE NEW SLUGS.

NEXT COMES THE DELICATE JOB

OF STACKING THESE
NEWLY MINTED BRICKS-TO-BE.

A MACHINE FIRST SEPARATES THEM.

THEN, USING INFLATING BAGS,
IT GRASPS THEM,

RAISES THEM...

...THEN STACKS THEM.

MEANWHILE, THE WATER IN THE
BRICKS IS STARTING TO EVAPORATE.

TO HASTEN THAT PROCESS,

THE BRICKS GO INTO A DRYER
FOR TWO DAYS.

THE DRYER GETS ITS HOT AIR FROM
THE HEAT GENERATED BY THE KILN,

WHERE THE BRICKS GO NEXT
FOR FIRING.

THE KILN IS REALLY A GIANT OVEN.

IT BAKES THE BRICKS
AT 1,900 DEGREES.

1 1/2 DAYS LATER,
THE BRICKS ARE READY.

THE TRANSFER MACHINE
TAKES THEM OUT OF THE KILN.

BUT BEFORE THEY GO TO MARKET,

A TECHNICIAN
DOES A QUALITY CHECK.

HE WEIGHS AND MEASURES A SAMPLE

TO SEE IF IT MEETS
THE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS.

BRICKS ARE SUPPOSED TO
ABSORB SOME WATER,

BUT NOT TOO MUCH.

YET, IF THEY
REPEL WATER COMPLETELY,

THEY'LL ALSO REPEL
THE WET MORTARS THE MASONS USE

TO STICK THE BRICKS TOGETHER.

SO TO TEST ABSORBANCY,

THE TECHNICIAN
BREAKS A BRICK IN HALF.

HE WEIGHS IT BEFORE AND AFTER

SOAKING IT IN WATER
FOR 24 HOURS.

BY COMPARING THE WEIGHTS,

HE CAN SEE HOW MUCH WATER
THE BRICK HAS ABSORBED.

ONCE THE BATCH GETS THE OKAY,

THEY STACK THE BRICKS
INTO CUBES OF 500 TO 600.

EACH BRICK WEIGHS 5 1/2 POUNDS,

SO EACH CUBE WEIGHS IN
AT ABOUT 1/4 TON.

BRICK IS ONE OF THE STURDIEST
BUILDING MATERIALS AROUND.

IT DOESN'T ROT, FADE,
WARP, OR DENT

THE WAY SOME
OTHER MATERIALS CAN.

BRICKS ARE ALSO
ENERGY-EFFICIENT.

THEY ABSORB HEAT TO HELP
COOL YOUR HOUSE IN THE SUMMER

AND HOLD HEAT TO HELP
KEEP IT WARMER IN THE WINTER.

Narrator: THE MUSIC IT MAKES
IS AS COMPLEX AS IT IS MAJESTIC.

THE PIPE ORGAN
IS ONE OF THE LARGEST

AND MOST TECHNICALLY
SOPHISTICATED INSTRUMENTS.

BUILDING ONE
IS AN INCREDIBLE FEAT

OF ENGINEERING
AND CRAFTSMANSHIP.

EARLY MAN
DISCOVERED HE COULD MAKE MUSIC

BY BLOWING ACROSS HOLLOW REEDS
OF DIFFERENT LENGTHS.

IN ANCIENT EGYPT,

AN ENGINEER DEVISED
WHAT WOULD LATER BECOME

THE BASIC TECHNOLOGY
OF THE PIPE ORGAN,

A STEADY AIRFLOW
WITHOUT MOUTH-BLOWING

WHILE CONTROLLING THE AIR
TO EACH PIPE

TO CREATE DIFFERENT NOTES.

BY THE MIDDLE AGES,

THE PIPE ORGAN WAS A FIXTURE
IN CHURCHES THROUGHOUT EUROPE.

JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH COMPOSED
HIS GREATEST WORKS FOR ORGAN

WHILE WORKING AS THE
MUSICAL DIRECTOR OF A CHURCH.

[ PIPE-ORGAN MUSIC PLAYS ]

A CONCEPT ARTIST
CREATES THE DESIGN.

THE DESIGN THEN GOES
TO A DRAFTSPERSON,

WHO PREPARES
THE TECHNICAL DRAWINGS.

THE ORGAN'S PIPES ARE MADE
OF A MIXTURE OF TIN AND LEAD.

TIN -- THE HARDER METAL --
GIVES BRIGHTNESS TO THE SOUND,

WHILE LEAD --
THE SOFTER METAL --

GIVES IT WARMTH.

ARTISANS POUR
THE MOLTEN ALLOY INTO A TRAY,

THEN DRAW IT OUT
TO FORM A SHEET.

AS THE SHEET COOLS,

THE TWO METALS REACT
TO EACH OTHER, CREATING SPOTS.

THE SHEET GOES INTO STORAGE

TO GIVE THE ALLOY TIME
TO STABILIZE.

TWO TO THREE MONTHS LATER,

IT'S READY TO BE FORMED
INTO ORGAN PIPES.

FIRST, THEY CUT PIECES OF METAL
IN THE SHAPE OF EACH PIPE

USING TEMPLATES
AND LARGE RULERS.

THEN THEY ROLL EACH PIECE
USING A MANDREL.

THE LARGER THE ORGAN,
THE MORE PIPES IT HAS.

PIPES ARE GROUNDED
IN SETS OF 61,

CORRESPONDING TO
THE 61 BLACK-AND-WHITE KEYS

ON THE KEYBOARD.

AND ELABORATE ORGAN
CAN HAVE MORE THAN 10,000 PIPES.

THE PIPEMAKER CAREFULLY SEALS
THE BODY OF EACH PIPE BY HAND,

USING TIN SOLDER.

NEXT, HE SOLDERS
THE BODY OF THE PIPE

TO THE FOOT AND LANGUET.

THE LANGUET IS THE PART
THAT PRODUCES THE PIPE'S SOUND.

THE PROCESS OF GIVING
A SPECIFIC SOUND TO EACH PIPE

IS CALLED VOICING.

THIS WORK IS DONE
BY A TRAINED MUSICIAN

CALLED A VOICER.

HE ENLARGES THE MOUTH
OF THE PIPE, CALLED THE CUT-UP,

UNTIL IT'S APPROXIMATELY
1/4 OF THE WIDTH ACROSS.

HE ADJUSTS THE PIPE SOME MORE,

BLOWING AIR THROUGH IT TO JUDGE
HOW TO FURTHER REFINE THE TONE.

NEXT COME THE WINDCHESTS,
ALSO CALLED THE SOUNDBOARDS.

THESE ARE THE LARGE WOODEN BOXES
FILLED WITH AIR

ON WHICH THE PIPES STAND.

UNDER EACH PIPE IS AN
AIR CHANNEL COVERED BY A VALVE.

THE VALVE IS MADE OF LEATHER
AND SITS ON A WOODEN BOARD.

WHEN THE ORGANIST PUSHES
A KEY ON THE KEYBOARD,

THE CORRESPONDING VALVE
DROPS DOWN LIKE A TRAPDOOR,

RELEASING AIR INTO THE PIPE
TO PLAY THE NOTE.

[ PIPE-ORGAN MUSIC CONTINUES ]

THEY GLUE THE VALVES
TO THE WINDCHESTS ONE AT A TIME,

USING ANIMAL GLUE.

IT'S SUPPLER AND DRIES FASTER
THAN SYNTHETIC GLUE.

THE VALVES ARE CONNECTED
TO THE ORGAN'S KEYS MECHANICALLY

BY LONG TRACKS OF CEDARWOOD
OR BY ELECTRICAL WIRING.

THE ELECTRIC SIGNAL
TRIGGERS ELECTROMAGNETS

TO CAUSE A SUDDEN
AIR DEPRESSION,

MAKING THE TRAPDOOR VALVE
DROP DOWN AND LET THE AIR IN.

THE CONSOLE
IS THE ORGAN'S BRAIN.

IT CONTAINS ALL THE CONTROLS
FOR THE KEYS AND SETS OF PIPES.

THE ORGAN'S WHITE KEYS

ARE MADE OF LINDEN WOOD
COVERED WITH BONE,

THE BLACK KEYS
OF EBONY OR ROSEWOOD.

AN ARTISAN ADJUSTS THE KEYS
USING A WEIGHT.

WHEN THE WEIGHT RISES,
THE TENSION IS JUST RIGHT.

THE CONSOLE, KEYS,
AND ALL THE OTHER COMPONENTS

ARE FINALLY PUT TOGETHER
IN THE ASSEMBLY ROOM.

AFTER TESTING,

THEY DISASSEMBLE THE ORGAN
AND SHIP IT TO ITS DESTINATION,

WHERE IT'S REASSEMBLED.

THE VOICERS COME ON-SITE

TO PERFORM WHAT'S CALLED
TONAL FINISHING.

THEY CHECK AND ADJUST EACH PIPE

ACCORDING TO THE ACOUSTICS
OF THE ROOM.

THIS PROCESS
CAN TAKE MANY MONTHS

FOR A LARGE AND ELABORATE ORGAN.

CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

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