How It's Made (2001–…): Season 2, Episode 10 - Gummies/Aluminium Cans/Fish Farming/Bronze Sculptures - full transcript

Find out exactly how gummies candy is made, how fish are farmed, how aluminum cans created and how bronze sculptures are erected.


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE,"

GUMMIES,

ALUMINUM CANS,

FISH FARMING,
AND BRONZE SCULPTURES.

THERE'S NOTHING KIDS LOVE MORE

THAN CANDIES THEY CAN
PULL AND STRETCH,

WHICH PROBABLY EXPLAINS
WHY GUMMY CANDIES AND LICORICE

HAVE ALWAYS BEEN
STICK-TO-YOUR-TEETH FAVORITES,

EXCEPT WITH PARENTS WHO DON'T
HAVE A FAMILY DENTAL PLAN.

EVERYONE CALLS THIS
RED LICORICE,

BUT THERE'S ACTUALLY
NO LICORICE ROOT IN IT.

THE INGREDIENTS ARE WHEAT,
SUGAR, AND CORN SYRUP,

WITH RED FOOD DYE

AND BOTH ARTIFICIAL AND
NATURAL STRAWBERRY FLAVORING.

THEY COOK THE MIXTURE
FOR 2 HOURS AT 216 DEGREES.

THIS SLOWLY FORMS A THICK PASTE.

THEY COOL IT DOWN,
THEN PUT IT THROUGH EXTRUDERS.

THE EXTRUDERS
WORK LIKE ICING NOZZLES,

SHAPING THE PASTE INTO A DESIGN
SUCH AS THE TWIRLS WE SEE HERE.

A WATER-LUBRICATED KNIFE
SLICES THE CONTINUOUS STRIPS

INTO 7- AND 8-INCH LENGTHS.

THE WATER ALSO RINSES OFF ANY
LICORICE BUILDUP ON THE BLADE.

THE CUT LICORICE
GOES ON ALUMINUM TRAYS.

THE STACKS OF TRAYS
THEN GO INTO AN OVEN

TO DRY FOR 8 HOURS
AT 140 DEGREES.

AS THE EXCESS MOISTURE
EVAPORATES,

THE LICORICE SHRIVELS.

WORKERS WEIGH THE CORRECT AMOUNT
OF LICORICE FOR EACH PACKAGE.

TO MAKE GUMMY CANDIES,

THEY USE WHAT ARE CALLED
PRINTING BOARDS --

LARGE SHEETS WITH RAISED SHAPES.

TO MAKE GUMMY WORMS,
FOR EXAMPLE,

THEY MOUNT THE GUMMY-WORM BOARD
ON A STAMPING MACHINE.

THE MACHINE THEN STAMPS
THE WORM SHAPES

ONTO TRAYS OF CORNSTARCH.

THIS CREATES A SERIES
OF CORNSTARCH MOLDS

FOR THE GUMMY WORMS.

WHILE THAT'S GOING ON,

ANOTHER MACHINE MIXES GELATIN,
SUGAR, CORN SYRUP,

COLOR, AND FLAVORING AND COOKS
THE MIXTURE AT 240 DEGREES.

A MACHINE CALLED THE DEPOSITOR

POURS THE MIXTURE
INTO THE CORNSTARCH WORM MOLDS.

THE MOLDS THEN GO
INTO A REFRIGERATED ROOM.

IN 12 TO 15 HOURS,
THE CANDIES COOL AND SOLIDIFY.

A MACHINE THEN FLIPS THE CANDIES
OUT OF THE TRAYS.

THE CORNSTARCH MOLDS
DISINTEGRATE.

AS THEY FALL DOWNWARD,
THE MACHINE SIFTS OUT THE LUMPS,

THEN RECYCLES
THE USED CORNSTARCH

INTO NEW CORNSTARCH TRAYS
FOR THE NEXT BATCH.

THE CANDIES
GO THROUGH A CLEANER.

AS THEY SPIN, AIR NOZZLES
BLAST OFF THE CORNSTARCH.

THE NEXT DRUM COATS THE CANDIES
WITH MINERAL OIL

TO MAKE THEM SHINY.

CHILDREN LOVE GUMMY WORMS

BECAUSE THEY'RE GOOEY
AND SLIPPERY AND WIGGLY,

BUT IT'S NOT JUST KIDS
WHO ARE HOOKED ON THEM.

MANY FISHERMEN
ACTUALLY USE THEM FOR BAIT.

BEFORE PACKAGING THE CANDIES,

THE WORKERS WEED OUT
ANY THAT ARE STRETCHED OUT

OR STUCK TOGETHER.

WONDER IF THEY GET TO EAT
THE REJECTS?

Narrator: A PRION IS WHAT CAUSES
KILLER NEUROLOGICAL DISEASES

SUCH AS MAD COW IN ANIMALS
AND CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB IN HUMANS.

IT'S A PROTEIN NORMALLY FOUND
IN THE MEMBRANES OF CELLS.

SCIENTISTS
ARE TRYING TO DETERMINE

WHAT CHANGES THAT PROTEIN
TO AN ABNORMAL FORM

TO CAUSE
THESE FATAL BRAIN DISEASES.

THE NEXT TIME YOU BUY A CANNED
SOFT DRINK, CONSIDER THIS --

THAT ALUMINUM CAN
WILL ALWAYS BE RECYCLABLE.

UNLIKE PLASTIC,
ALUMINUM NEVER DETERIORATES,

NO MATTER HOW OFTEN
IT'S MELTED DOWN AND USED AGAIN.

ALUMINUM CANS ARE SO LIGHTWEIGHT
THAT IT'S HARD TO BELIEVE

THEY'RE MADE FROM
A HUGE ROLL OF ALUMINUM SHEETING

THAT WEIGHS ALMOST 10 TONS.

THE SHEET
IS ABOUT 5 FEET WIDE

AND AS THIN
AS CONSTRUCTION PAPER.

A ROLL LIKE THIS IS LONG ENOUGH

TO MAKE THREE-QUARTERS
OF A MILLION DRINK CANS.

THE SHEET FEEDS INTO A PRESS
THAT PUNCHES OUT ROUND PIECES

THAT WILL BE FORMED INTO CANS.

THE PUNCH PRESS ACTUALLY
PERFORMS TWO OPERATIONS.

IT PUNCHES OUT A DISC
5 1/2 INCHES IN DIAMETER,

THEN BENDS IT INTO A CUP.

WHAT'S LEFT OF THE SHEET

GETS COMPACTED AND SENT BACK
TO THE ALUMINUM FACTORY,

WHERE IT'S RECYCLED
INTO NEW ROLLS.

THE CUP GOES INTO A MACHINE

CALLED THE DRAW-AND-IRON
BODY MAKER.

A TOOL DRAWS OUT THE ALUMINUM,
FORMING THE BODY OF THE CAN.

THE TOOL IS LUBRICATED
SO IT WON'T TEAR THE ALUMINUM

WHILE STRETCHING IT.

THE LUBRICANT
ALSO ACTS AS A COOLANT

BECAUSE THE ALUMINUM HEATS UP
AS IT'S BEING WORKED.

ONCE THE BODY IS FORMED,

A TRIMMER CLEANS
AND STRAIGHTENS THE EDGE.

NOW THE CANS MOVE ALONG
UPSIDE DOWN ON THE CONVEYER BELT

OVER TO THE WASHER.

THE WASHER PERFORMS
A 6-STAGE CLEANING.

THE FIRST TWO WASHES
ARE IN HYDROFLUORIC ACID

AT 140 DEGREES.

THE LAST FOUR WASHES
ARE IN DEIONIZED WATER,

NEUTRAL WATER WITH NO pH,
ALSO AT 140 DEGREES.

THE CANS COME OUT OF THE WASHER

AND GO UNDER A HOT-AIR DRYER.

THEY'RE NOW SHINY BECAUSE
THE HYDROFLUORIC-ACID WASH

REMOVED A THIN SURFACE LAYER
OF ALUMINUM.

NEXT, A ROLLER
PASSES OVER THE CANS,

COATING THE BOTTOM RIMS
WITH VARNISH.

THIS VARNISH COATING

ALLOWS THE CANS TO SLIDE EASILY
ON THE CONVEYER BELTS

AND INTO VENDING MACHINES.

IT SHOWS UP AS A BLUE RING
UNDER AN ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT.

THE CANS ARE NOW
READY TO BE PRINTED.

THIS ROTATION PRINTING SYSTEM
CAN APPLY UP TO FIVE COLORS,

ONE AT A TIME.

THE MACHINE THEN APPLIES A LAYER
OF VARNISH TO PROTECT THE INK.

THIS IS WHAT
THE PRINT AND VARNISH PROCESS

LOOKS LIKE IN SLOW MOTION,

AND HERE'S THE ACTUAL SPEED --
1,800 CANS PER MINUTE.

NEXT, THE CANS
FLY THROUGH AN OVEN

THAT INSTANTLY HARDENS THE INK

AND DRIES
THE PROTECTIVE VARNISH.

THE NEXT MACHINE

SPRAYS A WATER-BASED VARNISH
ON THE INSIDE OF THE CANS.

THIS CREATES A BARRIER BETWEEN
THE DRINK AND THE ALUMINUM,

SO THE DRINK WON'T END UP
TASTING LIKE METAL.

IT ALSO PREVENTS THE ALUMINUM

FROM BEING EATEN AWAY
FROM THE INSIDE

BY THE ACID
IN CARBONATED DRINKS.

NEXT, THE CANS GO THROUGH
A MACHINE CALLED THE NECKER

WHICH FORMS A 2-INCH NECK
ON THE CAN.

THIS IS DONE GRADUALLY
IN 11 STEPS,

SO AS NOT TO PUNCTURE
THE PAPER-THIN ALUMINUM.

THE NEXT MACHINE,
CALLED THE FLANGER,

FORMS A CURVED-OVER EDGE
AT THE TOP OF THE CAN,

WHICH WILL LATER ATTACH
TO THE PULL-TAB COVER.

THE CANS PASS THROUGH
A SOPHISTICATED VISION SYSTEM

THAT PHOTOGRAPHS THE INSIDE
OF EACH CAN.

ANY CAN
THAT DOESN'T MEET STANDARDS,

THAT HAS A BUMP OR INK INSIDE,
FOR EXAMPLE,

IS AUTOMATICALLY REMOVED
FROM THE PRODUCTION LINE.

THEY STRAP THE FINISHED CANS
ONTO A PALLET.

FROM HERE, THEY'RE SHIPPED
TO THE DRINK COMPANY,

WHICH FILLS THEM AND THEN
ATTACHES THE PULL-TAB COVER.

Narrator:
FISH FARMING GENERATES ABOUT 20%
OF THE WORLD'S FISH PRODUCTION.

SOME FISH FARMS
ARE VERY HIGH TECH,

WHILE OTHERS USE
MORE TRADITIONAL METHODS.

FISH FARMING BEGAN IN 2000 B.C.

IF THESE RAINBOW TROUT

ARE GOING TO HAVE THE ENERGY
TO MAKE BABY TROUT,

THEY'LL HAVE TO BE WELL FED.

ON TODAY'S MENU -- BROWN SHRIMP.

THE FISH FARMER
GIVES THE MATING PROCESS A HAND.

HE TAKES THE FEMALE FISH

AND PRESSES ON HER BELLY
TO SQUEEZE OUT HER EGGS.

A 1-POUND FISH
HAS ABOUT 1,000 EGGS.

IT TAKES ABOUT A MINUTE
TO GET THEM OUT.

NEXT, HE TAKES THE MALE FISH
AND SQUEEZES OUT HIS SPERM.

THIS ALSO TAKES ABOUT A MINUTE.

THE FERTILIZATION PROCESS
IS PRETTY LOW TECH --

NO MICROSCOPES, NO TEST TUBES.

THE FARMER MIXES
THE EGGS AND SPERM BY HAND.

HE THEN RINSES THE EGGS
WITH CLEAN WATER.

HE REPEATS THIS STEP
SEVEN OR EIGHT TIMES

UNTIL THE WATER RUNS CLEAR.

THE EGGS THAT
STAY AT THE SURFACE ARE DUDS,

SO THEY'RE DISCARDED.

THE FARMER TRANSFERS
THE GOOD EGGS TO BOTTLES,

THEN FILLS THE BOTTLES
TO THE TOP WITH WATER.

THE EGGS INCUBATE
FOR ABOUT A MONTH.

BY THE 25-DAY MARK,
IF AN EGG IS ALIVE,

TWO LITTLE BLACK DOTS APPEAR --
FISH EYES.

AFTER THE INCUBATION PERIOD,

THE FARMER EMPTIES THE BOTTLES

AND SPREADS THE EGGS
ON A SURFACE WITH SLATS.

THE EGGS LIE HERE UNDERWATER...

...UNTIL THEY HATCH
10 TO 15 DAYS LATER.

THE NEWLY HATCHED TROUT

SWIM DOWN THROUGH THE SLATS
INTO THE BASIN BELOW.

THE BABY TROUT FEED OFF THEIR
PLACENTA FOR THE FIRST 18 DAYS.

AFTER THAT, THEY EAT SPECIAL
TROUT FOOD MADE OF FISH MEAL.

THE TROUT GROW TO ABOUT
8 INCHES LONG

BY THE AGE OF 8 MONTHS.

AT THAT POINT, THE SMALLER TROUT
SWIMMING AROUND THEM

START LOOKING PRETTY APPETIZING.

SO THE FARMER HAS TO
CLASSIFY THE FISH BY SIZE

AND MOVE THEM
INTO SEPARATE BASINS.

TROUT REACH ADULTHOOD AT THE AGE
OF A YEAR AND A HALF.

NOW THE FARMER TRANSFERS THEM
INTO HIS MAN-MADE LAKE.

FROM HERE,
THE FISH WILL GO TO MARKET.

BUT BEFORE THEY LEAVE,
THE FARMER MATES THEM,

STARTING THE CYCLE
ALL OVER AGAIN.

Narrator: BRONZE IS THE OLDEST
METAL ALLOY KNOWN TO MAN.

IT IS IDEAL FOR CASTING WORKS
OF ART BECAUSE, WHEN MOLTEN,

IT FLOWS INTO EVEN
THE TINIEST CREVICES OF A MOLD.

THIS ALLOWS SCULPTORS TO ACHIEVE
INCREDIBLE DETAIL IN THEIR WORK.

MAN FIRST DISCOVERED HOW TO
CAST METAL AROUND 3500 B.C.,

DURING THE PERIOD
KNOWN AS THE BRONZE AGE.

MANY CIVILIZATIONS
HONORED THEIR ROYALTY AND GODS

WITH BRONZE STATUES.

WHEN IT COMES TO ART,

THE LATE 19th-CENTURY
FRENCH SCULPTOR AUGUSTE RODIN

WAS THE MASTER.

THEY SAY HIS BRONZES

WERE MORE LIFELIKE
THAN THE SUBJECTS THEMSELVES.

BRONZE IS ALSO A POPULAR MEDIUM
FOR MODERN ART.

SCULPTORS FIRST CARVE A REPLICA
OF THEIR SCULPTURE FROM WOOD

OR SHAPE IT OUT OF A PLASTER
OR CLAY.

THEY COAT IT WITH A LUBRICANT...

THEN WITH SILICONE RUBBER.

WHEN THE RUBBER HARDENS
ABOUT SIX HOURS LATER,

THE LUBRICATED REPLICA
SLIPS OUT EASILY,

LEAVING A DETAILED RUBBER MOLD.

NEXT, THEY POUR HOT WAX
INTO THE MOLD.

THE WAX COOLS
IN ABOUT 15 MINUTES,

LEAVING AN EXACT WAX REPLICA
OF THE SCULPTURE.

NEXT, THEY ATTACH
WHAT'S CALLED A SPREW --

A WAX CHANNEL THAT WILL FUNNEL
THE MOLTEN BRONZE INTO THE MOLD.

THEY DIP THE WAX REPLICA
INTO A CERAMIC MATERIAL.

THEN COAT IT
WITH POWDERED SILICONE,

A COMMON MINERAL,
TO STRENGTHEN THE CERAMIC.

NEXT STOP -- AN AUTOCLAVE.

IN ABOUT 10 MINUTES, UNDER THE
MACHINE'S HOT STEAM PRESSURE,

THE WAX INSIDE THE CERAMIC SHELL
MELTS AWAY,

LEAVING A HARDENED
AND HOLLOW CERAMIC MOLD.

THAT MOLD GOES INTO A KILN
AT 1,560 DEGREES.

AFTER TWO HOURS, IT'S FIRED.

THIS IS THE FINISHED MOLD INTO
WHICH THE BRONZE WILL BE CAST.

AT THE FOUNDRY, THEY HEAT
THE BRONZE TO 2,084 DEGREES...

THEN CAREFULLY POUR IT
INTO THE MOLD.

THE MOLTEN METAL TAKES
JUST A FEW MINUTES TO SOLIDIFY.

THEN THEY CHISEL OFF
THE CERAMIC CASING

TO REVEAL THE BRONZE STATUE
INSIDE.

THEY SANDBLAST THE STATUE
TO REMOVE THE CERAMIC RESIDUE.

THEN, THEY SAW OFF THE SPREW.

THEY WELD SHUT ANY HOLES
OR OTHER IMPERFECTIONS...

THEN POLISH THE STATUE
USING VARIOUS ABRASIVE HEADS.

THEY HEAT THE STATUE,
THEN SPRAY ON AN ACID COATING.

THIS COATING, CALLED PATINA,

GIVES THE BRONZE ITS SHIMMER
AND RICHNESS OF COLOR.

FINALLY, A COAT OF WAX
MAKES THE STATUE SHINE.