How It's Made (2001–…): Season 11, Episode 6 - Cine Cameras/Glass Christmas Ornaments/Giant Tires - full transcript


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS

Narrator: A CINECAMERA
IS THE TYPE OF CAMERA THEY USE

FOR MAKING MOTION PICTURES.

IT CAPTURES WHAT IT SHOOTS
ON 16- OR 35-MILLIMETER FILM.

RUNNING LIKE
A WELL-OILED MACHINE,

ITS INTRICATE COMPONENTS
WORK WITH ULTIMATE PRECISION,

ALL INSIDE A POWERFUL MARVEL
OF TECHNOLOGY AND CRAFTSMANSHIP.

THE INTERNAL MECHANICS
AND ELECTRONICS OF A CINECAMERA

PERFORM AN IMPRESSIVE
CHOREOGRAPHY TO CAPTURE IMAGES.

TO MAKE THE MAIN HOUSING,

A COMPUTER-CONTROLLED
MILLING MACHINE

CUTS PRECISE SPACES
IN A BLOCK OF ALUMINUM.

THEN A PROBE SCANS IT
SO A COMPUTER CAN VERIFY

THE SHAPE MEETS
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATIONS.

NEXT, A VARIETY
OF COMPUTER-GUIDED DRILLS

AND CUTTERS
SHAPE THE FILM GATE --

THE COMPONENT THAT HOLDS
THE FILM FOR EXPOSURE.

A GRINDING WHEEL COMPLETES
THIS HIGHLY PRECISE TASK.

THEY BUFF THE FILM GATE
ON A ROTATING DRUM,

INFUSED WITH DIAMOND POWDER
AND A POLISHING COMPOUND.

NEXT, WORKERS APPLY GLUE
TO THE FILM GUIDE,

WHICH PUSHES THE FILM
INTO THE FILM GATE.

THEN THEY PUT GLUE
ON THE FILM MOVEMENT,

MATE THE GUIDE AND MOVEMENT,

THEN DRIVE IN SCREWS
TO SECURE THE BOND.

THESE TWO REGISTRATION PINS
HOLD THE FILM IN PLACE.

NOW FOR THE PULLDOWN CLAWS.

WORKERS MOUNT
THESE ALUMINUM DEVICES

INSIDE THE FILM MOVEMENT --
ONE ON EACH SIDE.

THEY MOVE FORWARD AND DOWNWARD

AS THE REGISTRATION PINS
RETRACT,

DRAGGING THE FILM
ALONG THE GUIDE.

AS THE CLAWS PULL THE FILM DOWN,
THE PINS ENTER.

THIS EXPOSURE REPEATS AT A RATE
OF 150 FRAMES PER SECOND.

NEXT, WORKERS SCREW ON A COVER

TO PROTECT
THE MOVEMENT'S FRAGILE PARTS.

ANOTHER COVER
FITS ON THE OTHER SIDE.

WORKERS THEN TEST
EACH OF THE BUTTONS.

NOW THEY ATTACH
THE CAMERA'S DRIVE SHAFT.

THE MOTOR DRIVES THE MOVEMENT
USING A TOOTHED BELT.

A MECHANICS TEST COMES NEXT

TO ENSURE THE CLAWS AND PINS
PERFORM WITH PRECISION.

THIS PART OF THE CAMERA
IS THE SHUTTER.

IT SITS BETWEEN
THE FILM AND LENS.

WORKERS MOUNT A MIRROR
OVER HALF THE SHUTTER.

THE MIRROR REFLECTS THE IMAGE
INTO THE VIEWFINDER

WHEN IT ROTATES IN
BEHIND THE LENS.

A DAB OF SPECIAL CLEANING FLUID
YIELDS A PRISTINE SURFACE.

ANY DIRT ON THE MIRROR
WOULD CREATE A FUZZY IMAGE.

THE PROTECTIVE COVER PLATES
WILL SHIELD EXISTING OPENINGS.

HERE THE SHUTTER AND MIRROR
SPIN IN UNISON.

IN THIS MODEL,
THE SHUTTER IS ELECTRONIC,

SO IT REQUIRES A TINY MICROCHIP

AND ELECTRICAL WIRES
WITH PLUGS ON THE ENDS.

TECHNICIANS SCRUTINIZE THE PARTS
AND CONNECTIONS.

THEN THEY TEST
THE ELECTRONICS AGAIN

TO ENSURE EVERYTHING IS WORKING,
STARTING WITH THE SHUTTER.

WITH ALL THE INTERNAL COMPONENTS
COMPLETE,

IT'S TIME TO INSTALL THEM
IN THE CAMERA'S HOUSING.

THE FILM GATE WE SAW EARLIER
SNAPS INTO POSITION.

NEXT, TECHNICIANS
CAREFULLY MOUNT THE FILM GUIDE

BEHIND THE FILM,
THEN FASTEN IT TIGHTLY.

LAST BUT NOT LEAST, THE SHUTTER
GENTLY SLIDES INTO POSITION.

THEY CLOSE UP ONE SIDE
OF THE HOUSING WITH THE COVER

TO PROTECT
THE CIRCUIT BOARD INSIDE.

WORKERS THEN LAY
AN ACCESSORY CONTROLLER

GENTLY INTO
THE CAMERA'S SIDE COVER.

IT TAKES TWEEZERS
AND A STEADY HAND

TO INSERT THIS FOCUSING SCREEN

THROUGH THE LENS MOUNT
AT THE FRONT OF THE HOUSING.

FINALLY, THE LENS TAKES
ITS PLACE FRONT AND CENTER.

WITH THE CAMERA STRUCTURE
NOW COMPLETE,

WORKERS ATTACH A MAGAZINE
CONTAINING THE FILM.

A LITTLE NUDGE HERE AND THERE

LEADS THE FILM
DOWN THE RIGHT PATH.

THE MOVEMENT SWINGS FORWARD

TO ALLOW THE FILM
TO RUN ITS COURSE.

WITH THE TOUCH OF A BUTTON,

THE FILM SUCCESSFULLY
RACES THROUGH A MECHANICAL MAZE.

THIS CAMERA EXCELS AT HIGH-SPEED
AND SPECIAL EFFECTS.

ALL IT NEEDS NOW IS SOME ACTION.

Narrator:
IT'S HARD TO BEAT

THE GLITTER AND GLOW
OF GLASS CHRISTMAS ORNAMENTS.

FOR MANY PEOPLE,
THE CHRISTMAS TREE

JUST WOULDN'T BE THE SAME
WITHOUT THEM.

THEY WERE INVENTED
IN THE 19th CENTURY

BY A GERMAN GLASSMAKER
WHO DECIDED TO IMPROVISE

BECAUSE HE COULDN'T AFFORD
TO DECORATE HIS TREE

WITH THE USUAL NUTS AND CANDY.

THEY'RE CHRISTMAS EYE CANDY.

TODAY'S GLASS ORNAMENTS
ARE A VISUAL TREAT.

TO MAKE SOME OF THE ORNAMENTS,

THEY START WITH A SKETCH
AND MAKE A PLASTER MODEL OF IT.

THEY USE IT
TO CREATE A TWO-PART METAL MOLD.

THEY TAKE A GLASS CYLINDER
AND FIRE ITS WIDER END

SO IT SOFTENS.

THE GLASSMAKER
BLOWS INTO THE PIPE END

TO STRETCH THE SUPPLE GLASS

INTO THE BASIC SHAPE
OF A BAUBLE ORNAMENT.

OTHER GLASS TUBES
ARE MORE BULBOUS AT THE CENTER,

AND THAT'S THE SECTION
THAT'S FIRED

AS THE GLASSMAKER BLOWS IT
INTO A MORE ELONGATED BUBBLE.

HE PLACES THAT BUBBLE IN
THE MOLD AND BLOWS EXTRA HARD.

THE GLASS EXPANDS
INTO ITS CREVICES

AND TAKES ITS SHAPE --
A SNOWMAN.

HE BURNS OFF
ONE OF THE BLOWPIPE ENDS

AND THEN AIMS THE TORCH AT THE
SNOWMAN'S NOSE TO PULL IT OUT.

A QUICK COOLDOWN
COULD SHATTER THIS ORNAMENT,

SO HE GRADUALLY
LOWERS ITS TEMPERATURE

WITH A LESS-INTENSE FLAME.

BLOWING AND MOLDING
GLASS FIGURINES IS QUICK WORK.

THE GLASSMAKER HAS JUST A FEW
SECONDS TO COMPLETE THE JOB

BEFORE THE GLASS BECOMES
TOO COOL AND STIFF TO SHAPE.

THE ORNAMENTS NOW HEAD
DOWN THE LINE TO GET SOME SHINE.

THIS WILL BE AN INSIDE JOB.

THE GLASSMAKER
POURS SILVERING SOLUTION

INTO THE BAUBLES
THROUGH THE STEM.

SHE THEN DIPS THE BAUBLE
IN WARM WATER.

THIS ACTIVATES
THE SILVERING CHEMICALS,

AND SHAKING THE ORNAMENT
ACCELERATES THIS PROCESS.

SHE SWIRLS
THE SILVERING LIQUID AROUND

TO COMPLETELY COAT
THE INSIDE OF THE ORNAMENT.

A FINAL DIP GIVES THIS BAUBLE
A MIRROR FINISH

FROM THE INSIDE OUT.

SHE EMPTIES
THE SILVERING SOLUTION

INTO ANOTHER TANK
FOR RECYCLING.

THEY ALSO USE THIS TECHNIQUE
ON THE FIGURINES,

LIKE THE SNOWMAN.

A QUICK SHAKE GIVES THIS GUY
AN INNER BEAUTY.

NEXT, THEY SUBMERGE
THE GLASS ORNAMENT IN LACQUER

TO GIVE IT SOME COLOR.

THE MIRROR FINISH INSIDE
SHINES THROUGH THE LACQUER.

NOW THE SNOWMAN ORNAMENT
GETS AN ARTIST'S TOUCH.

SHE AIRBRUSHES WHITE LACQUER
ONTO THE FIGURINE

FOR A FROSTY FINISH.

IT MAKES THE SNOWMAN
LOOK MORE LIKE OLD FROSTY.

THE ARTIST PAINTS
SOME OF THE DETAILS BY HAND,

LIKE THE TRIM ON THE HAT
AND ROBE OF THIS SANTA ORNAMENT.

THIS GIVES IT MORE VISUAL DEPTH.

ONCE THE PAINT DRIES,

SHE BRUSHES GLUE ONTO SECTIONS

WHERE SHE WANTS GLITTER DUST
TO STICK.

THE GLUE DRIES QUICKLY,
SO THE ARTIST APPLIES MORE.

WHEN IT COMES
TO CHRISTMAS SPARKLE,

YOU JUST CAN'T GET ENOUGH.

NEXT, SHE MAKES AN INCISION
IN THE STEM AND SNAPS IT OFF.

A METAL CAP
FITS ON THE ORNAMENT STUB.

TIME TO PACK UP THESE
FRAGILE BEAUTIES VERY CAREFULLY.

THEY PUT THEM IN BOXES THAT
CRADLE EACH ONE INDIVIDUALLY

TO ENSURE THEY ARRIVE SAFELY.

NOW THESE GLASS ORNAMENTS
ARE READY TO GO "OUT ON A LIMB"

TO ADD BEAUTY TO THE HOLIDAYS.

Narrator: TIRES FOR CONSTRUCTION
AND MINING EQUIPMENT

ARE TRULY GIANT-SIZED.

THEY CAN BE TWICE THE HEIGHT
OF A HUMAN BEING

AND WEIGH THOUSANDS OF POUNDS.

THESE GIANT TIRES ALSO COME
WITH A HEFTY PRICE TAG.

JUST ONE CAN COST MORE
THAN AN AVERAGE FAMILY SEDAN.

GIANT TIRES ARE MADE
TO CARRY HEAVY LOADS

IN CONDITIONS
THAT ARE SERIOUSLY OFF-ROAD,

LIKE MINING
AND CONSTRUCTION SITES.

TO MAKE GIANT TIRES,

THEY FEED RUBBER
INTO A POWERFUL MIXER.

THEY ADD SULFUR
AND ANTIOXIDANTS

TO BOOST
THE RUBBER'S DURABILITY,

AS WELL AS RECYCLE
PIECES OF USED TIRES.

AT THE TOP OF THE MIXER,

THEY ADD CARBON BLACK
IN MEASURED AMOUNTS.

IT'S AN OIL BY-PRODUCT THAT
HELPS BIND EVERYTHING TOGETHER.

THE MIXING GENERATES HEAT,
WHICH SOFTENS THE RUBBER,

MAKING IT DOUGHY.

THE RUBBER DOUGH
THEN FALLS BETWEEN ROLLERS

THAT SQUEEZE IT INTO A SHEET.

THE PROCESS IS CALLED MILLING.

THEY SLICE THE SHEETED RUBBER

AND FEED IT BACK
INTO THE MACHINE SEVERAL TIMES.

THIS REPEATED MILLING
ESSENTIALLY KNEADS THE RUBBER

TO GIVE IT
THE RIGHT CONSISTENCY.

ONCE THE RUBBER
HAS BEEN SUFFICIENTLY PROCESSED,

THEY FEED IT TO A CONVEYOR.

A WHEEL ROLLS OVER THE RUBBER
TO IMPRESS THE DATE

AND IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
ONTO IT.

THE RUBBER THEN WINDS THROUGH
A TANK OF SOAPY WATER.

AS IT EXITS,

IT FALLS OVER HANGERS
THAT MOVE IT THROUGH A DRYER.

A SOAPY RESIDUE REMAINS,

KEEPING THE LAYERS
FROM STICKING TOGETHER

AS THEY AWAIT MORE PROCESSING.

THEY WRITE THE I.D. NUMBER
ON A SAMPLE OF THE RUBBER

AND TAG THE PRODUCTION RUN
WITH THE SAME NUMBER.

THIS SIGNIFIES
THAT TESTING IS UNDER WAY.

THEY TUCK THE TEST SAMPLE
IN A CANISTER

AND SEND IT UP A CHUTE
TO THE LAB.

ONCE IT'S CONFIRMED THE RUBBER
HAS THE RIGHT CHARACTERISTICS,

IT'S READY TO BE MADE
INTO THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS

OF A GIANT TIRE.

AT THE NEXT STATION,

DOZENS OF STEEL CORDS
UNWIND INTO A MACHINE.

EACH CORD IS MADE
OF NUMEROUS STEEL THREADS,

AND EACH THREAD IS BRASS-PLATED.

THESE STEEL CORDS WILL BE USED
TO FORTIFY THE PROCESSED RUBBER.

THE CORDS ENTER A MACHINE
CALLED AN EXTRUDER.

IT GRINDS AND HEATS
SOME OF THE PROCESSED RUBBER

AND THEN FORCES IT AROUND
THE STEEL CORDS TO ENCASE THEM.

THE RESULT IS WHAT'S KNOWN
AS STEEL-BELTED RUBBER.

THEY CUT SEVERAL OF THE
STEEL-BELTED STRIPS ON AN ANGLE

AND FUSE THEM TOGETHER.

THIS EXPOSES STEEL CORD
AROUND THE EDGES,

SO HOT ROLLERS
SEAL THEM WITH RUBBER.

THE STEEL-BELTED RUBBER

WILL MAKE THE TIRES
MORE RESISTANT TO PUNCTURES.

BUT THEY MAKE
THE TIRES' BASIC STRUCTURE

FROM RUBBER-COATED NYLON CORD.

THEY CUT THE NYLON-RUBBER PLY
TO A SPECIFIC LENGTH.

WORKERS THEN PIECE
SEVERAL OF THESE SHEETS TOGETHER

TO FORM A LOOP.

THE PIECES ADHERE
BECAUSE UNCURED RUBBER

IS NATURALLY TACKY.

AND A MACHINE ROLLS THE LOOP
TO THE CORRECT SIZE.

THEY LAYER MORE
OF THE NYLON-RUBBER PLY

IN A CRISSCROSS FASHION
TO ADD STRENGTH.

THE MACHINE
THAT HELPS SIZE THE LOOP

ALSO APPLIES
A THIN LAYER OF ORDINARY RUBBER

BETWEEN EACH CRISSCROSSED LAYER.

THIS THICKENS THE RUBBER LOOP.

THE FINISHED LOOP
IS CALLED THE BAND.

IT'S THE SKELETON
OF THE GIANT TIRE.

THEY HOIST IT ONTO A CART

AND MOVE IT
TO THE NEXT STATION.

STAY TUNED, AS THEY SHAPE
AND INFLATE THIS BAND OF RUBBER

TO TURN IT INTO A GIANT TIRE.

Narrator:
WHEN IT COMES TO TIRES,
IT TAKES TIME TO SUPERSIZE.

MAKING A GIANT TIRE
CAN TAKE 24 HOURS OR MORE,

MAINLY BECAUSE THE RUBBER
NEEDS A LOT OF CURING.

IT'S NOT MASS PRODUCTION.
IT'S MASSIVE PRODUCTION.

AS A RESULT,

FACTORIES ONLY PRODUCE
A FEW OF THE LARGEST ONES A DAY.

THIS MACHINE IS ABOUT TO STRETCH
THE BIG BAND OF RUBBER

LIKE AN ELASTIC.

THE MACHINE PIVOTS,

AND ITS MANY ROLLERS
EXPAND AND TURN

TO TRANSFER THE BAND
TO A SPINNING DRUM.

THE MACHINE PUMPS AIR
AROUND THE PROTRUDING ROLLERS

TO MAKE THE TRANSFER EASIER,

WHILE THE DRUM TURNS
AT A CONSTANT SPEED

TO AID THE PROCESS.

ONCE THE TRANSFER IS COMPLETE,

THE ROLLERS RETRACT,
AND THE AIR ESCAPES.

THIS CAUSES THE RUBBER TO SHRINK
TO THE DRUM AND TAKE ITS SHAPE.

THEY FOLD THE OVERLAP
INTO THE CENTER OF THE DRUM.

THE GIANT RUBBER BAND NOW HAS
THE BASIC CONTOUR OF A TIRE.

NEXT, ANOTHER MACHINE

COATS NUMEROUS STEEL WIRES
WITH RUBBER,

CREATING STRIPS
OF RUBBERIZED STEEL.

THIS WILL BE USED
TO MAKE THE BEAD --

THE PART OF THE TIRE
THAT SITS ON THE WHEEL RIM.

THEY WIND THE RUBBERIZED STEEL
AROUND A METAL WHEEL

UP TO 20 TIMES TO FORM THE BEAD.

THEY REMOVE THE BEAD
AND INSPECT IT.

THEN THEY PACK
A THICK LAYER OF RUBBER ONTO IT

SO IT WILL BE EASIER
TO SHAPE TO THE TIRE.

USING A SPECIAL
APPLICATOR WHEEL,

THEY PUSH THE BEAD AGAINST THE
LIP OF THE RUBBER TIRE SHAPE.

THE BEAD ADHERES, BUT IT NEEDS
TO BE MORE SOLIDLY ATTACHED.

A SPINNING DISK FORCES THE BEAD
MORE FIRMLY

TO THE RUBBER TIRE SHAPE.

THEN THE TIRE ASSEMBLER
FOLDS BACK THE EXTRA RUBBER

FROM THE TIRE

AND WRAPS IT AROUND THE BEAD,
USING SHEER PHYSICAL STRENGTH.

THEY INSTALL TWO OR THREE BEADS
ON EACH SIDE OF THE TIRE.

THE MULTIROLLER DEVICE
TAKES OVER FROM THE ASSEMBLER

AND FOLDS BACK EXTRA RUBBER
TO LOCK THE BEADS IN PLACE.

NEXT, THE TIRE TURNS

AS THEY WIND STEEL-BELTED RUBBER
AROUND IT,

FOLLOWED BY A CONTINUOUS STRIP
OF ORDINARY RUBBER.

THAT STRIP BUILDS UP CONTOURS
FOR TREAD.

THE ASSEMBLER THEN WRAPS
A THICK PIECE OF ORDINARY RUBBER

AROUND THE OUTER EDGE.

THIS IS THE TIRE'S SIDEWALL.

THE SPINNING-DISC DEVICE

PRESSES THE SIDEWALL
TO THE TIRE.

THIS TIRE IS NOW READY
TO MOVE ON.

HERE, A HUGE RUBBER BLADDER
INFLATES AND DEFLATES

AS THEY SPRAY IT
WITH A NONSTICK COATING.

THIS BLADDER WILL ACT
AS THE INNER PART OF A MOLD.

THEY LIFT THE TIRE
ONTO THE DEFLATED BLADDER.

THEY THEN PUMP STEAM INTO IT,
EXPANDING THE TIRE.

A METAL MOLD WITH
A TREAD PATTERN ENGRAVED IN IT

CLOSES AROUND THE SWELLING TIRE.

THE TIRE COOKS IN THIS MOLD
FOR UP TO 18 HOURS,

CAUSING THE RUBBER TO CURE.

THE GIANT TIRE
POPS OUT OF THE MOLD WITH TREAD.

THE BRAND NAME
AND IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS

HAVE ALL BEEN MOLDED
INTO THE RUBBER.

AFTER COOLING,

AN INSPECTION TEAM EXAMINES
THE GIANT TIRE INSIDE AND OUT.

AND ONCE IT GETS THE OKAY,
IT'S READY TO ROLL.

AND WITH ALL THAT DEEP TREAD,

EACH GIANT TIRE IS GUARANTEED
TO MAKE A BIG IMPRESSION

ON THE JOBSITE.

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