How It's Made (2001–…): Season 11, Episode 2 - Anatomical Models/Jukeboxes/Tortilla Chips/Spark Plugs - full transcript


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, LLC

Narrator:
IN THE 18th CENTURY,

ANATOMICAL MODELS BECAME
WIDELY
USED FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES.

HOWEVER, THEY WERE UNIQUE
PIECES
CARVED IN WAX,

WHICH MADE THEM
EXPENSIVE AND FRAGILE.

TODAY, THEY'RE MADE OF
PLASTIC-BASED RESIN

AND ARE FOUND IN MEDICAL
SCHOOLS, DOCTORS' OFFICES,

EVEN ART SCHOOLS.

THIS MODEL OF A HUMAN TORSO
HAS 20 REMOVABLE PARTS.

THE FRONT, SIDES, AND BACK
ALL PROVIDE DIFFERENT VIEWS

OF THE BODY'S INNER
AND OUTER STRUCTURE.

WORKERS CAST
EACH PART OF THE MODEL

USING A PLASTIC-BASED
POLYMER RESIN.

THEY POUR THE RESIN INTO
NICKEL
MOLDS OF THE DIFFERENT PARTS,

LIKE THIS SKULLCAP MOLD...

OR THIS HEART MOLD.

THEN THEY JOIN THE TWO MOLDS
THAT MAKE UP EACH PART

AND CLAMP THEM SHUT.

THE MOLDS GO INTO A GAS OVEN
SET TO 437 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

AS THE HEAT
PENETRATES THE MOLDS,

THE RESIN EVENLY COATS
THE ENTIRE INNER SURFACE.

AFTER ABOUT 10 TO 12 MINUTES,
THEY COME OUT PIPING HOT.

WORKERS SPRAY THEM WITH WATER
TO COOL THEM DOWN

BEFORE THEY UNCLAMP THE MOLD
AND RELEASE THE WARM CASTING.

HERE ARE SOME SHOULDER MUSCLES
FRESH FROM THEIR MOLD...

...THE CROSS-SECTION
OF A HEART...

AN ARM...

...AND A LEG THAT WORKERS
SET TO COOL INTO SHAPE

ON A FORM
MADE OF HEAT-RESISTANT GYPSUM.

USING A NEEDLE,

A WORKER PUNCTURES THE RESIN
TO RELEASE TRAPPED AIR

SO THE PART DOESN'T SHATTER.

THEN HE DRILLS SMALL HOLES

FOR THE PINS THAT WILL HOLD
THE PARTS TOGETHER.

EACH PART IS HAND-PAINTED
TO SINGLE OUT KEY FEATURES.

AN ARTIST CAREFULLY PAINTS IN
THE VEINS IN BLUE ON THIS
LEG...

AND THEN USES YELLOW
FOR THE NERVE ENDINGS...

AND RED FOR THE ARTERIES.

EVEN THE TOENAILS
GET SOME COLOR.

BEFORE THEY CAN ASSEMBLE
THE MODEL,

WORKERS MUST FIRST INSERT
METAL PINS INTO EACH PART.

THEY HELP ATTACH THE PARTS
TO ONE ANOTHER.

NOW THE ARTIST CAN FINISH
PAINTING IN THE ARTERIES

ON THIS SHOULDER MUSCLE.

THE GRAY AREAS
INDICATE THE LIGAMENTS.

NEXT, SHE TURNS HER ATTENTION
TO THE HEAD,

PAINTING IN THE EYES FIRST
TO GIVE THE FIGURE SOME LIFE.

IT'S ALL IN THE DETAILS.

THIS FINAL TOUCH REALLY MAKES
THE EYES COME ALIVE.

THE PARTS GO INTO A WARM OVEN
FOR ABOUT 15 MINUTES

TO SOFTEN THE PLASTIC.

THIS MAKES THEM
EASIER TO ASSEMBLE.

HERE, A WORKER LOWERS
THE MODEL'S HEAD

ONTO A METAL PIN
SET IN THE TORSO.

SHE PUTS THE BRAIN INSIDE
THE MODEL'S SKULL

AND COVERS IT WITH THE
SKULLCAP.

NEXT, SHE ADDS MUSCLES
TO AN ARM,

GUIDING THE PIN INTO A HOLE
ON THE ADJOINING PART.

SHE ADDS THE BICEP, A MUSCLE
THAT HELPS FLEX THE HAND...

AND, FINALLY, THE DELTOID,

THE MUSCLE THAT LIFTS THE ARM
AT THE SHOULDER JOINT.

SHE TAPES UP THE ARM
TO KEEP ALL PARTS TOGETHER

AS SHE ATTACHES IT TO THE
TORSO.

NICKEL-PLATED HOOKS
AND FASTENERS

HOLD THE REMOVABLE PARTS
IN PLACE ON THE ASSEMBLED
MODEL.

THIS LIFE-SIZE MUSCULAR FIGURE
MEASURES IN AT 4 1/2 FEET.

IT HAS 45 SEPARATE PARTS,
ALL ANATOMICALLY CORRECT.

THE HUMAN BODY -- TRULY
AN EXTRAORDINARY STRUCTURE.

Narrator:
THE JUKEBOX ACTUALLY STARTED
OUT

AS A MEMO-RECORDING DEVICE
FOR EXECUTIVES.

THAT PHONOGRAPH RECORDER
WAS INVENTED BY THOMAS EDISON

BACK IN THE 19th CENTURY.

IT EVOLVED INTO
A COIN-OPERATED MUSIC MACHINE

BECAUSE MUSIC
IS A LOT MORE FUN TO DANCE TO

THAN THE BOSS' ORDERS --
"TAKE A MEMO."

PUT A COIN IN THE SLOT AND
PEOPLE WILL DANCE TO YOUR
TUNE.

RECORDS REPLACED
THE PHONOGRAPHIC CYLINDER

EARLY IN THE 20th CENTURY.

AMPLIFIERS WERE ADDED
IN THE 1930s

AND GAVE THE BIG BOX
A BIG SOUND.

IN THE 1980s,
COMPACT DISCS CAME ALONG,

PUTTING A DIFFERENT SPIN
ON THE JUKEBOX.

WITH THOSE SMALLER DISCS,

MANUFACTURERS COULD PACK
A LOT MORE MUSIC INTO A
MACHINE.

NOW COMPACT-DISC TECHNOLOGY
IS BECOMING OUTDATED,

AND THE LATEST JUKEBOXES
CONTAIN COMPUTERS

THAT DOWNLOAD SONGS
FROM THE INTERNET.

TO MAKE A MODERN JUKEBOX,
THEY START WITH THE DOOR.

THEY SANDWICH A RED PANEL
WITH SWIRLED DESIGNS ON IT

BETWEEN LAYERS OF PLASTIC.

THE ASSEMBLER ALIGNS THEM,
THEN SCREWS THEM TOGETHER.

HE SNAPS THE JUKEBOX NAME
INTO A SNAZZY PIECE OF
PLASTIC,

THEN FITS IT
IN ONE OF THE CUTOUTS

IN THE FRONT OF THE DOOR.

NEXT, HE INSTALLS ALUMINUM
FRAMEWORK AROUND THE DOOR.

HE SUPPORTS IT AT THE CORNERS
WITH METAL BRACKETS.

HE SCREWS A LITTLE METAL WHEEL
ON THE LATCH

SO THE DOOR
WILL OPEN AND CLOSE SMOOTHLY.

HE MOUNTS THE TOUCH SCREEN
IN THE BIG CUTOUT ON THE DOOR.

HE STRINGS WIRING FOR LIGHTING
AROUND THE PERIMETER OF THE
DOOR

AND FASTENS TWO LONG PANELS
EQUIPPED WITH L.E.D. LIGHTS

TO THE BACK.

HE PLUGS IN THE LIGHTS
FOR A TEST,

AND IT PROVES THIS DOOR
IS FLASHY ENOUGH

FOR THE ENTERTAINMENT BIZ.

HE RUNS PLASTIC TRIM
ALONG THE PERIMETER OF THE
DOOR

AND SCREWS A LONG METAL HINGE
TO ONE SIDE OF IT.

THIS JUKEBOX DOOR
IS NOW COMPLETE,

AND THE REST IS AN INSIDE JOB.

THE ASSEMBLER INSTALLS
AN EXHAUST FAN

IN THE JUKEBOX CABINET.

HE SCREWS AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER
TO THE BACK WALL.

THE WIRELESS ROUTER
THAT ALLOWS THE JUKEBOX T

GOES IN NEXT.

HE MOUNTS
THE POWER-SUPPLY SYSTEM

TO THE SIDEWALL OF THE
CABINET.

HE TUCKS THE COMPUTER
INTO A LOWER CORNER OF THE
BOX.

THE POWER TRANSFORMER FOR THE
AMPLIFIER GOES ON THE BACK
WALL.

HE INSTALLS
AN AUDIO-CONTROL SYSTEM

JUST BELOW THE TRANSFORMER.

HE CONNECTS THE AMPLIFIER
TO THE AUDIO-CONTROL SYSTEM,

AND THEN HE WIRES
THE COMPUTER TO THE ROUTER.

HE HOOKS UP
A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

THAT PASSES INFORMATION
BETWEEN
ALL THE DEVICES IN THE
JUKEBOX.

AND HE INSTALLS A TRANSFORMER
FOR THE SPEAKER SYSTEM.

NOW THE JUKEBOX
IS READY FOR THE SHOWPIECE --

THAT LIGHT-STUDDED DOOR
WITH THE TOUCH SCREEN.

HE SCREWS THE DOOR'S LONG
HINGE
TO THE CABINET.

HE INSPECTS HIS INSTALLATION
JOB

AND DETERMINES
NO ADJUSTMENTS ARE NEEDED.

SO HE FASTENS THE BILL BOX
TO THE BACK OF THE DOOR...

AND INSTALLS THE COMPUTER
HARD DRIVE IN THE CABINET.

AND, FINALLY, THE MONEY TEST.

HE FEEDS THE JUKEBOX SOME CASH

AND MAKES MUSICAL SELECTIONS
TO CHECK ITS FUNCTION.

AT THE JUKEBOX FACTORY,

WHEN THE JOB IS DONE,
IT REALLY IS PARTY TIME.

Narrator: ON THEIR OWN,
DIPPED IN SALSA OR GUACAMOLE,

OR TOPPED WITH CHILI
AND MELTED CHEESE,

TORTILLA CHIPS ARE THE
QUINTESSENTIAL MEXICAN SNACK,

EVEN THOUGH THEY'RE ACTUALLY
AN AMERICAN INVENTION.

IN THE LATE 1940s,
A LOS ANGELES TORTILLA FACTORY

BEGAN CUTTING AND FRYING
LEFTOVER TORTILLAS,

SELLING
THE FIRST TORTILLA CHIPS.

WHEN THE CHIPS ARE DOWN,
THEY USUALLY GO FAST.

TORTILLA CHIPS
START OUT AS RAW YELLOW CORN.

THE SUPPLIER CLEANS THE
KERNELS

AND DRIES THEM
TO A MOISTURE CONTENT OF 14%,

THEN SHIPS THEM
TO THE CHIP FACTORY.

THERE, THE CORN GOES INTO
LARGE
STAINLESS-STEEL COOKING
KETTLES

FILLED WITH
ALMOST-BOILING WATER.

WORKERS THEN ADD LIME,

AN INGREDIENT THAT DOES
MANY THINGS.

IT'S ANTIBACTERIAL, IT GIVES
THE CORN A PARCHED FLAVOR,

IT HELPS LOOSEN THE HULL --
THE KERNEL'S SHELL --

SO IT WILL COME OFF LATER ON,

AND LETS MOISTURE
PENETRATE THE KERNEL.

EACH COOK KETTLE CONTAINS
MORE THAN 650 POUNDS OF CORN

AND ALMOST 200 POUNDS
OF WATER AND LIME COMBINED.

NEXT STOP IS A SOAK TANK.

THE COOKED CORN
SITS THERE FOR 12 HOURS

TO FURTHER ABSORB WATER.

ONCE THE MOISTURE CONTENT
HITS 45%

AND THE HULLS
ARE SOFT AND LOOSE,

A PUMPING SYSTEM
MOVES THE CORN TO THE WASHER.

THIS MACHINE STRAINS THE WATER

SO THAT WHAT'S LEFT
IS JUST SOFT, HYDRATED CORN.

THE NEXT STOP IS THE TUMBLER,

A ROTATING DRUM
WITH PERFORATED WALLS.

WATER JETS
BLOW OFF THE LOOSE HULLS.

THE CORN TRAVELS ON A CONVEYOR
FROM THE TUMBLER TO THE MILL.

AN AUGER FEEDS THE CORN
INTO A STONE GRINDER.

IT LITERALLY PULVERIZES THE
CORN KERNELS BETWEEN TWO
STONES,

PRODUCING A SOFT CORN DOUGH
CALLED MASA.

THE MASA EXITS THE MILL
THROUGH A NARROW NOZZLE

THAT SHAPES THE DOUGH
INTO A THIN SHEET.

THE SHEET
THEN RUNS THROUGH ROLLERS

THAT HAVE TRIANGULAR DIES
ON THEIR SURFACE.

THE TRIANGLES MOVE INTO AN
OVEN

HEATED TO
644 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THEY SPEND JUST
16 SECONDS INSIDE,

BUT THAT'S ENOUGH TIME
TO DRY THE DOUGH

TO THE POINT WHERE IT WON'T
BREAK APART WHEN HANDLED.

THE HEAT ALSO TRAPS TINY
POCKETS
OF MOISTURE IN THE DOUGH,

CREATING LITTLE BLISTERS.

THIS GIVES THE TORTILLA CHIPS
THEIR TRADEMARK BUMPY TEXTURE.

FROM THE OVEN,

A CONVEYOR BELT TRANSPORTS
THE TRIANGLES TO THE FRYER.

THE CORN OIL
IS 360 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THEY TAKE JUST 55 SECONDS
TO FRY INTO CHIPS.

A MESH CONVEYOR BELT
THEN LIFTS THEM OUT.

AS THEY LEAVE, THE EXCESS OIL
DRAINS BACK INTO THE FRYER.

AT THE NEXT STOP,

AUGERS FEED NACHO-FLAVOR
SEASONING INTO A TUMBLER.

THE SEASONING'S MAIN
INGREDIENTS
ARE POWDERED CHEDDAR,

PARMESAN AND ROMANO CHEESES,
AND SPICES.

NOZZLES SPRAY THE CHIPS
WITH CORN OIL

TO MAKE THE SURFACE ADHESIVE.

THEN THE SEASONING TUMBLES ON
AND STICKS.

AFTER EXITING THE TUMBLER,

THE CHIPS TRAVEL
TO THE PACKAGING DEPARTMENT.

CHUTES ROUTE THEM
TO DIFFERENT PACKAGING
MACHINES.

THE PACKAGING EQUIPMENT

REPRESENTS TECHNICAL
CHOREOGRAPHY AT ITS FINEST.

EACH MACHINE
HAS 14 BUCKET-SHAPED SCALES.

WHEN THERE'S ENOUGH FOR
ONE PACKAGE, A TRAP DOOR
OPENS.

THE CHIPS DROP
JUST AS A FORMING DEVICE

SHAPES A PIECE OF FOIL
AND PLASTIC FILM INTO A BAG.

THE CHIPS LAND IN THE BAG.

THEN A HEAT SEALER IMMEDIATELY
CLOSES THE TOP AND CUTS IT
FREE

WHILE SIMULTANEOUSLY SEALING
THE BOTTOM OF THE NEXT BAG.

FROM BUCKET TO BAG TO BOWL.

Narrator: IT TAKES A SPARK
TO GET YOUR MOTOR RUNNING.

THE SPARK PLUG WAS INVENTED
IN THE 19th CENTURY

TO FIRE
THE INTERNAL-COMBUSTION
ENGINE.

THERE ARE USUALLY SEVERAL
IN AN ENGINE,

AND THEY FIT
INTO THE CYLINDER HEAD.

WHEN THE PLUGS ARE ALL
WORKING,

IT MEANS YOUR TRIP
WILL HAVE A GOOD START.

THE SPARK PLUG PRODUCES WHAT
LOOKS LIKE A MINI LIGHTNING
BOLT

TO IGNITE THE GAS
THAT RUNS YOUR CAR.

TO MAKE SPARK PLUGS,

THEY BLEND ALUMINA CERAMIC
POWDER AND OTHER INGREDIENTS

WITH WATER.

AFTER A THOROUGH MIXING,

THE MILKY-LOOKING BREW
DRAINS INTO A BIG DRYER,

WHICH CONVERTS IT
BACK TO POWDER.

THE POWDER FUNNELS INTO A
MOLD.

IT CLOSES TO PRESS THE POWDER

INTO THE SHAPE
OF SPARK-PLUG INSULATORS,

AND A BINDING INGREDIENT IN
THE
MIX HELPS THEM KEEP THEIR
SHAPE.

AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM
LOADS THEM ONTO MANDRELS

THAT SPIN THE CERAMIC
INSULATORS
AGAINST A GRINDING WHEEL.

IT GRINDS THEM
INTO A MORE GRADUATED SHAPE

AND DOES A VERY PRECISE JOB.

THESE CERAMIC SHAPES
ARE QUITE FRAGILE,

AND THEY'LL NEED TO BE BAKED
IN ORDER TO HARDEN.

BUT FIRST, A TESTER
DOUBLE-CHECKS THE MEASUREMENTS

WITH A LASER TOOL.

THEN THEY BAKE
IN THIS VERY HOT KILN

UNTIL THEY'RE EXTREMELY HARD.

THIS TAKES UP TO 24 HOURS.

WHILE THE INSULATORS
ARE IN THE KILN,

TOOLS RAM STEEL THROUGH
SHAPED CAVITIES CALLED DIES.

THEY'RE ESSENTIALLY
PUNCHING OUT SHELLS

THAT WILL BE
THE SPARK-PLUG CASINGS.

OTHER TOOLS BORE INTO
THE UPPER PART OF THE SHELLS

TO GIVE THEM
A HEXAGONAL PROFILE.

THIS WILL LATER ENABLE
MECHANICS

TO WRENCH THEM
INTO A VEHICLE'S ENGINE BLOCK.

MORE TOOLING
CONTOURS THE SPARK-PLUG
SHELLS,

AND THE RESULT
IS QUITE A TRANSFORMATION.

A CONVEYOR NOW SHUTTLES
THE SPARK-PLUG SHELLS FORWARD,

AS NICKEL-ALLOY WIRE
UNWINDS OVERHEAD.

AN AUTOMATED WELDER
FUSES THE WIRE TO THE SHELLS.

THIS WIRE WILL SERVE AS THE
SPARK PLUG'S GROUND ELECTRODE,

AND IT WILL BE BENT TOWARDS
A FIRING ELECTRODE LATER.

THE SPACE BETWEEN THEM
WILL CONTAIN THE SPARK.

RIDGED ROLLERS CARVE THREADS
IN THE STEEL SHELLS

SO THEY CAN BE SCREWED
INTO THE ENGINE BLOCK.

THE SHELL THEN GETS
A PROTECTIVE SILVERY FINISH.

THE CERAMIC INSULATORS
ARE NOW OUT OF THE KILN,

AND IT'S TIME
TO ROLL ON THE INSIGNIA.

THE INSULATORS THEN BRUSH BY
A RUBBER WHEEL

THAT COATS THEM WITH GLAZE
AS A PROTECTIVE FINISH.

THEY INSTALL CENTER ELECTRODES
IN THE INSULATORS,

AND POWDER FUNNELS INTO THEM

TO FILL THE SPACE
AROUND THE ELECTRODES.

THE POWDER IS A MIX
OF GLASS AND METAL.

AUTOMATED PRONGS
COMPRESS IT IN THE INSULATORS.

GRIPPERS THEN INSERT
THE TERMINAL STUDS

INTO THE INSULATOR.

THE STUD WILL ACT
AS THE ELECTRICAL CONNECTION

TO THE CENTER ELECTRODE.

THE INSULATORS
NOW GO INTO AN OVEN.

THE BLACK POWDER MELTS AROUND
THE STUDS AND CENTER
ELECTRODES

TO SEAL THEM
INSIDE THE INSULATOR CAVITY.

NOZZLES SQUIRT OIL ONTO THE
METAL SHELLS TO LUBRICATE
THEM.

THE INSULATORS FUNNEL
INTO THE GRIP OF ROBOTS

WHICH WILL INSTALL THEM
IN THE SHELLS.

THEY SLIDE IN EASILY
BECAUSE OF THE LUBRICATION
JOB.

TOOLS CALLED SHRINKING PUNCHES

APPLY AN ELECTRICAL CURRENT
TO EACH SHELL

TO FIT IT TIGHTLY
TO THE INSULATOR.

A ROBOT POSITIONS THE ASSEMBLY
RIGHT SIDE UP

WITH THE SIDE ELECTRODE
PROTRUDING,

THEN BENDS THAT SIDE ELECTRODE
TOWARDS THE CENTER ONE.

THE ROBOT
THEN COLLECTS THE SPARK PLUGS

AND SENDS THEM DOWN THE LINE.

IT'S TIME FOR AN INSPECTION.

SHE LOOKS FOR IMPERFECTIONS
IN THE GLAZE, THE INSCRIPTION,

AND THE NICKEL PLATING.

SHE MEASURES THE SPACE
BETWEEN THE TWO ELECTRODES

BEFORE SENDING THEM OVER
TO THE PACKAGING DEPARTMENT.

AND NOW THESE SPARK PLUGS

ARE READY TO KEEP YOUR ENGINE
FIRING ON ALL CYLINDERS.

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