How It's Made (2001–…): Season 11, Episode 12 - Induction Cooktops/Truck Scales/Tetra Pak Containers/Harmonicas - full transcript

Discover how induction cooktops ,truck scales, tetra pak containers, and harmonicas are made.


Narrator:
MANKIND HAS ALWAYS COOKED
FOOD,

USING EVERYTHING
FROM CAMPFIRES AND BARBECUES

TO GAS AND ELECTRIC STOVE
TOPS.

NOW HE CAN USE
AN INDUCTION COOKTOP.

IT DOESN'T NEED A FIRE, A
FLAME,
OR A RED-HOT BURNER.

IT USES INNOVATIVE
COOKING TECHNOLOGY

OUR ANCESTORS
NEVER DREAMT POSSIBLE

AND WOULD SWEAR WAS PURE
MAGIC.

AN INDUCTION COOKTOP DOESN'T
USE
TRADITIONAL COOKING ELEMENTS

ABOVE OR BELOW
THE COOKING SURFACE.

IT USES COPPER INDUCTION COILS

THAT GENERATE HIGH-FREQUENCY
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS.

THESE FIELDS
EXCITE THE MOLECULES IN THE
PAN,

CREATING HEAT
ONLY IN THE COOKWARE ITSELF.

THAT'S WHY THE YOLK REMAINS
COLD

AND ONLY WHAT TOUCHES THE PAN
COOKS.

THE MAGIC STARTS
WITH A PUNCHING PRESS

THAT STAMPS
COMPUTER-GENERATED SHAPES

INTO SHEETS
OF COLD-ROLLED STEEL.

THESE CUTOUTS FIX THE POSITION

OF THE INDUCTION COILS THAT
SIT
UNDER THE GLASS SURFACE.

A PRESS BREAK BENDS
THE FOUR SIDES OF THE STEEL

SO IT WILL HOLD
A GLASS-CERAMIC TOP IN PLACE.

IN THE MEANTIME, A MACHINE
SPRAY-PAINTS THE BURNER BOX,

THE VISIBLE PART OF THE
COOKTOP.

A TECHNICIAN AFFIXES THE
LABELS

AND THE POWER CORD
ONTO A HOUSING BOX

THAT WILL CONCEAL THE
INDUCTION
ELECTRONICS AND COILS.

SHE SECURES THE POWER CORD
FOR STRAIN RELIEF.

SHE THEN ATTACHES
THE POWER-CORD GROUND

AND A SYSTEM GROUND WIRE
TO THE HOUSING BOX.

SHE PLACES A COVER ON THE BOX
AND SCREWS IT INTO PLACE.

ANOTHER TECHNICIAN PUTS
TOGETHER
THE INDUCTION ELECTRONICS.

THESE ASSEMBLIES
OF CIRCUIT BOARDS, COOLING
FANS,

AND SEMICONDUCTORS
DRIVE THE COOKTOP.

SHE COVERS THE ELECTRONICS
WITH INSULATION

AND A METAL CARRIER PLATE

THAT WILL SUPPORT
THE INDUCTION COILS.

THEN SHE FEEDS
THE USER-INTERFACE WIRES

THROUGH THE TOP
OF THE COIL-CARRIER PLATE.

THE TECHNICIAN
SCREWS THE CARRIER PLATE

AND THE ELECTRONIC ASSEMBLIES
TOGETHER,

THEN GROUNDS THE ELECTRONICS.

PROTECTIVE TAPE
AROUND THE OPENINGS

WILL PREVENT
THE USER-INTERFACE WIRES

FROM RUBBING
AGAINST THE COIL-CARRIER
PLATE.

AND SOME INSULATION WILL
PROTECT
THE ELECTRONIC ASSEMBLIES.

SHE CLOSES THAT SIDE
OF THE ELECTRONIC HOUSING BOX

AND ATTACHES
ALL THE POWER CABLES.

A SHEET OF INSULATION GOES
ON THE FLIP SIDE OF THE BOX,

WHERE SHE MOUNTS THE
ELECTROMAGNETIC-COIL
ASSEMBLIES.

THE IRON SLUGS
ON THE BACK OF EACH COIL POD

HELP DISTRIBUTE
THE ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY

TO THE COOKWARE EVENLY.

SHE CONNECTS THE COIL ASSEMBLY
TO THE SYSTEM BOARD.

THEN SHE PLACES THE REMAINING
FOUR COIL ASSEMBLIES

ONTO THE CARRIER PLATE

AND CONNECTS THEIR LEADS
TO THE SYSTEM BOARD.

MEANWHILE, ANOTHER TECHNICIAN
ASSEMBLES THE COMPONENTS

OF A GLASS
TOUCH-USER-INTERFACE PANEL.

SHE CONNECTS THE INTERFACE
TO THE STEEL HOLDER

THAT WAS BENT INTO SHAPE
AT THE START

AND IS NOW ATTACHED
TO THE BLACK BURNER BOX.

SHE COVERS THE COOKING SURFACE
AND CONTROL PANEL

WITH AN ATTRACTIVE
STAINLESS-STEEL FRAME,

THEN CONNECTS THE SYSTEM BOARD
TO THE CONTROL PANEL.

SHE CLOSES UP THE OTHER SIDE
OF THE BURNER BOX.

THEN SHE BOLTS EVERYTHING DOWN
TO COMPLETE THE COOKTOP.

A TECHNICIAN TESTS THE UNIT.

USING A METAL OBJECT TO
ACTIVATE
THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD,

HE VERIFIES THAT THE CONTROLS
RESPOND PROPERLY.

HE MAKES SURE ALL FIVE
INDUCTION COILS ARE WORKING

AND THE POWER OUTPUT
FROM EACH COIL IS CORRECT.

THE CONTROL PANEL
CONFIRMS IT'S A SUCCESS.

CLEAN, SAFE,
AND ENERGY-EFFICIENT,

INDUCTION COOKTOPS MAKE
COOKING FOOD QUICK AND EASY.

Narrator:
AT A HIGHWAY WEIGH STATION,

INSPECTORS WEIGH EACH
TRANSPORT
TRUCK ON A ROAD-LEVEL SCALE

TO CALCULATE TAXES
ON THE GOODS IT'S HAULING

AND TO MAKE SURE THE LOAD
DOESN'T EXCEED SAFETY LIMITS.

YOU ALSO FIND TRUCK SCALES
AT GRAIN SILOS, QUARRIES,

AND OTHER SITES
THAT MOVE BULK PRODUCTS.

THE KEY TO THIS ENORMOUS SCALE

IS THE TINY COMPONENT
CALLED A STRAIN GAUGE,

WHICH SENDS SIGNALS
TO THE SCALE'S COMPUTER

WHEN COMPRESSED.

THEY MAKE THE STRAIN GAUGE
FROM A LAMINATE

BY BONDING PAPER-THIN SHEETS
OF NICKEL-IRON FOIL,

EPOXY, AND TEFLON IN A PRESS.

THEN THEY COAT THE LAMINATE
IN A LIGHT-SENSITIVE CHEMICAL

AND APPLY A PLASTIC FILM

WITH AN IMAGE OF STRAIN GAUGES
IN NEGATIVE FORMAT.

THEN THEY EXPOSE THE SETUP
TO ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT.

THE LIGHT-SENSITIVE CHEMICAL
REACTS,

IMPRINTING THE IMAGES INTO
THE LAMINATE'S METAL SURFACE.

NOW THEY HAVE ROWS
OF STRAIN GAUGES.

AN INSPECTOR EXAMINES
EVERY GAUGE

AND MARKS ANY FLAWS
TO BE DISCARDED.

NOW A TECHNICIAN MEASURES
HOW MUCH VOLTAGE

FLOWS THROUGH EACH GAUGE.

IF IT'S TOO LOW, SHE RAISES IT

BY RUBBING OFF A MICROSCOPIC
AMOUNT OF SURFACE METAL.

WHEN THE STRAIN GAUGES ARE
FINISHED, THEY CUT THEM APART

AND SEND THEM
TO THE LOAD CELL DEPARTMENT.

THERE, WORKERS DELICATELY TAPE
FOUR STRAIN GAUGES

INTO EACH STAINLESS-STEEL
LOAD CELL.

THEN THEY SOLDER
ELECTRICAL WIRING TO EACH ONE.

THE WIRES ALL RUN
TO A CIRCUIT BOARD

AT ONE END OF THE LOAD CELL.

AND FROM THE LOAD CELL,

WIRING RUNS TO THE SCALE'S
COMPUTER READOUT.

THE SMALLEST AMOUNT
OF MOISTURE OR DIRT

WOULD CAUSE A STRAIN GAUGE
TO MALFUNCTION,

SO THEY WELD A CUP OVER EACH
ONE

TO HERMETICALLY SEAL IT
WITHIN THE LOAD CELL.

EVERY FINISHED LOAD CELL

UNDERGOES
A QUALITY-CONTROL CHECK

TO VERIFY
THAT IT WORKS PROPERLY.

THE TESTING MACHINE
APPLIES WEIGHT IN INCREMENTS

UNTIL IT HITS THE MAXIMUM
WEIGHT
THE CELL CAN BEAR --

34,000 KILOGRAMS,
OR 75,000 POUNDS.

THE TRUCK-SCALE STRUCTURE

IN WHICH THEY'LL INSTALL
THE LOAD CELLS

IS CALLED THE WEIGHBRIDGE.

THEY BEGIN ASSEMBLING IT
UPSIDE DOWN,

WITH A SURFACE
MADE OF STEEL PLATES.

TO BUILD THE BASE
OF THE WEIGHBRIDGE,

THEY LAY OUT A GRID OF THICK
STEEL TUBES AND CROSSBEAMS.

WORKERS LOWER A GUIDE TO HELP
THEM ALIGN THE PARTS
PERFECTLY.

BENEATH EACH LOAD CELL IS A
PIN.

IN ORDER TO WEIGH ACCURATELY,

A LOAD CELL HAS TO BE LEVEL,

SO IT'S CRITICAL TO MAKE SURE
THIS PIN IS LEVEL

BEFORE WELDING ON THE BULKHEAD
THAT HOLDS IT.

ONCE FULLY WELDED,

THE WEIGHBRIDGE IS ASSEMBLED
AND READY FOR PAINTING.

THE PAINT EQUIPMENT
LACES THE POWDERED PAINT

WITH A POSITIVE
ELECTRICAL CHARGE

AND THE WEIGHBRIDGE
WITH A NEGATIVE ONE.

THIS EVENLY DRAWS
THE PAINT PARTICLES

ONTO THE STEEL LIKE A MAGNET.

IN ANOTHER DEPARTMENT,
THEY ASSEMBLE THE STEEL STAND

ON WHICH THE LOAD CELL WILL
SIT.

A WELDER TACKS
THE PIECES TOGETHER,

THEN A ROBOT
DOES THE FULL WELDING.

NOW THAT ALL PARTS ARE READY,

FINAL ASSEMBLY
OF THE TRUCK SCALE CAN BEGIN.

THE WEIGHBRIDGE,
RIGHT-SIDE UP NOW,

CONTAINS EIGHT LOAD CELLS
AT DIFFERENT LOCATIONS.

THE FIRST STEP IS TO INSTALL
EACH LOAD-CELL STAND

INTO ITS RESPECTIVE POSITION.

THEY INSERT A LINK
ON EACH SIDE OF THE STAND.

THEY POSITION THE LOAD CELL
AT THE TOP OF THE LINKS...

...AND THE BULKHEAD PIN
AT THE BOTTOM.

THEN THEY CLOSE UP THE
LOCATION
WITH AN ACCESS PLATE.

THE LAST STEP
IS TO CALIBRATE THE SCALE.

THEY LAY A 10,000-POUND WEIGHT
ON DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE
SCALE

TO CHECK IF THE DIGITAL
READOUT
IS ACCURATE.

IT TAKES A LOT OF TIME
TO GET A TRUCK SCALE JUST
RIGHT,

[weight]
BUT IT'S DEFINITELY
WORTH THE "WAIT."

Narrator:
TETRA PAK CONTAINERS

KEEP DRINKS AND FOOD PRODUCTS
SAFE TO CONSUME FOR UP TO A
YEAR

WITHOUT REFRIGERATION OR THE
USE
OF ADDITIONAL PRESERVATIVES.

MADE MOSTLY FROM PAPER,
THEY'RE RECYCLABLE

INTO THINGS LIKE EGG CARTONS,
PAPER TOWELS, AND TOILET
PAPER.

A TETRA PAK CONTAINER

IS PACKAGING BUILT WITH NATURE
AND FRESHNESS IN MIND.

TETRA PAK CONTAINERS
HOLD ALL SORTS OF FOOD
PRODUCTS,

FROM SMOOTHIES TO FINE WINES.

THE PACKAGE GIVES PRODUCTS
A LONG SHELF LIFE

BECAUSE OF ITS SPECIAL LAYERS
--

THE PLASTIC LAYER,
THE PAPERBOARD, AND THE FOIL.

A PLASTIC COATING
MAKES THE PACKAGE LEAKPROOF.

TETRA PAK CONTAINERS

ARE MADE ENTIRELY
FROM RECYCLABLE MATERIALS.

THE FIRST STEP TO MAKING THEM
IS PRINTING.

A WORKER SELECTS
THE APPROPRIATE PRINTING
PLATES

FOR A GIVEN CUSTOMER

AND APPLIES THEM TO THE
CYLINDER
OF THE PRINTING PRESS.

THE PRESS TRANSFERS ONE COLOR
AT
A TIME TO THE PAPERBOARD LAYER

USING SOLVENT-FREE INK.

A TETRA PAK CONTAINER
CAN HAVE UP TO SIX COLORS.

AT FULL SPEED,
IT TAKES ONLY MINUTES TO
PRINT.

A STROBE LIGHT
VISUALLY STOPS THE MOTION,

HELPING THE PRESSMAN CHECK
THE QUALITY OF THE PRINTING.

A WORKER FEEDS
THE PRINTED PAPERBOARD

INTO A LAMINATION MACHINE

THAT WILL JOIN IT WITH
THE PLASTIC AND FOIL LAYERS.

AT THE SAME TIME,

A WORKER LOADS A ROLL
OF MICRO-THIN ALUMINUM FOIL

INTO THE LAMINATOR.

A GAS FLAME HEAT-TREATS
THE PAPERBOARD

TO ENSURE ADHESION
TO THE PLASTIC LAYER.

THE LAMINATOR EXTRUDES
LIQUEFIED PLASTIC

BETWEEN THE ROLL OF ALUMINUM
AND THE HEATED PAPERBOARD.

ROLLERS SQUEEZE
ALL THE LAYERS TOGETHER.

THE PRINTED PAPERBOARD, WITH
ALL
ITS PROTECTIVE LAYERS APPLIED,

THEN COMES OFF THE BACK END
OF THE LAMINATOR

IN A LARGE MASTER ROLL.

THE OPERATOR THREADS IT
INTO A CUTTING MACHINE

CALLED A SLITTER.

IT CUTS AND WINDS THE PRINTED
MATERIAL ONTO INDIVIDUAL
ROLLS.

THE SLITTER'S KNIVES CUT
THE MATERIAL INTO FOUR LANES,

EACH OF WHICH BECOMES
A SMALLER ROLL.

THE OPERATOR TRIMS THE EXCESS
MATERIAL FROM EACH ROLL.

THEN A CONVEYOR SYSTEM
SENDS THE ROLLS FOR SHIPPING

TO A PACKER TO BE FILLED
WITH THEIR PRODUCT.

AT THE PACKER'S PLANT,

AN OPERATOR LOADS THE ROLL
OF FLAT PACKAGES

INTO A FILLING MACHINE BUILT
AND INSTALLED BY TETRA PAK.

TENSION ROLLERS
GUIDE THE MATERIAL

INTO THE FILLING MACHINE
WHERE IT IS STERILIZED.

THE MACHINE THEN FORMS
AND SEALS THE MATERIAL

INTO ONE CONTINUOUS TUBE.

AND A LITTLE FURTHER DOWN,

THE MACHINE FILLS THE TUBE
WITH PRODUCT.

IT THEN CUTS THE TUBE INTO
INDIVIDUALLY SEALED
PACKAGES...

AND DROPS THEM
INTO A CHUTE FOR FOLDING.

IT EJECTS THE FINISHED
PACKAGES
ONTO A CONVEYOR BELT.

FINALLY, IT SENDS THE PACKAGES
ON THEIR WAY TO THE CUSTOMER.

LIGHTWEIGHT, COMPACT,
AND RECYCLABLE,

TETRA PAK CONTAINERS
ARE ECO-FRIENDLY,

AND THAT'S CERTAINLY SOMETHING
TO CELEBRATE

OVER A GLASS OF FINE WINE.

Narrator: THERE ARE TWO
MAIN TYPES OF HARMONICAS.

A DIATONIC HARMONICA
HAS 10 MOUTH HOLES.

IT PLAYS A 7-NOTE MAJOR SCALE
IN A SINGLE KEY OF MUSIC.

A CHROMATIC HARMONICA
HAS UP TO 16 HOLES,

PLUS A SPECIAL SLIDE MECHANISM
TO PRODUCE EXTRA NOTES

SO IT CAN PLAY IN ANY KEY.

[ HARMONICA PLAYS MELODY ]

AS AIR GOES THROUGH A
HARMONICA,
SO DOES SALIVA,

WHICH IS WHY THEY MAKE
THE INNER STRUCTURE

FROM A TYPE OF WOOD
THAT DOESN'T EXPAND OR SMELL

WITH REPEATED EXPOSURE
TO MOISTURE.

MAKING A STANDARD
CHROMATIC HARMONICA

BEGINS WITH A BLOCK OF
PEARWOOD

MEASURING
ABOUT 5 1/2 BY 1 1/4 INCHES.

THEY RUN IT AGAINST A CUTTER

THAT CARVES A ROW
OF AIR CHAMBERS FRONT AND
BACK.

THIS PRODUCES THE COMPONENT
KNOWN AS THE COMB.

A PRESS STAMPS SLOTS IN
A MILLIMETER-THICK BRASS PLATE

THAT WILL HOLD THE REEDS.

THE PLATE WILL EVENTUALLY GO
ON TOP OF THE COMB,

ITS SLOTS ALIGNING
WITH THE COMB'S AIR CHAMBERS.

ANOTHER MACHINE CUTS REEDS

FROM BRASS-BASED METAL
SPECIALLY
FORMULATED BY THIS COMPANY

TO PRODUCE QUALITY SOUND
AND BE CORROSION-RESISTANT.

WORKING ONE SIZE AT A TIME,

THEY CUT A BATCH
OF A FEW HUNDRED REEDS.

THEY TEST A REED FROM EACH
BATCH
WITH A TUNING MACHINE,

PLUCKING IT TO SEE IF IT
PRODUCES THE CORRECT PITCH.

THE SIZE AND PROFILE OF A REED
DETERMINES THE NOTE IT
PRODUCES.

THE LONGER IT IS, THE LOWER
THE NOTE, AND VICE VERSA.

NOW THEY RIVET THE REEDS
TO THE REED PLATE --

ONE REED FOR EACH NOTE.

CONSECUTIVE REEDS GO
ON OPPOSITE SIDES OF THE
PLATE.

WITH THIS CONFIGURATION,

BLOWING INTO THE HARMONICA
VIBRATES ONE REED,

WHILE DRAWING AIR OUT
VIBRATES THE OTHER.

THEY FLATTEN EACH RIVET
ON ONE SIDE OF THE PLATE.

THIS FASTENS THE REED SECURELY
AT THE BOTTOM,

LEAVING THE REST FREE
TO VIBRATE.

IF NECESSARY,
THEY FILE THE REED DOWN

SO THE SLOT DOESN'T OBSTRUCT
ITS MOVEMENT.

[ HUMMING ]

NOW A TUNING SPECIALIST
GETS TO WORK.

SHE PLAYS EACH REED ON THE
PLATE
AND COMPARES THE TONE

TO A PERFECTLY TUNED SET
OF REEDS FOR REFERENCE.

IF THE PITCH IS OFF, SHE
ADJUSTS
IT WITH A BIT OF FILING.

[ HIGH-PITCHED HUMMING ]

ONCE THE REED PLATE IS IN
TUNE,
IT GOES ON TOP OF THE COMB,

THE REEDS AND SLOTS ALIGNING
WITH THE COMB'S AIR CHAMBERS.

WORKERS ATTACH THE PARTS

WITH STEEL NAILS
THAT HAVE A BRASS PLATING

TO PREVENT CORROSION.

NOW FOR THE TWO-PIECE COVER

THAT ENCLOSES
THESE INTERNAL COMPONENTS.

FOR STANDARD MODELS, THE
FACTORY
USES STAINLESS STEEL,

STARTING WITH A SHEET

THAT'S LESS THAN
A HALF A MILLIMETER THICK.

FANCIER HARMONICAS HAVE
SILVER- OR GOLD-PLATED COVERS.

THE SHEET GOES THROUGH A PRESS
THAT HAS A SERIES OF DIES.

THEY PROGRESSIVELY STAMP OUT
THE COVER PIECES,

FIRST EMBOSSING THE ARTWORK,

THEN CUTTING THE SIZE,
THEN FORMING THE SHAPE.

WORKERS SANDWICH THE COMB
BETWEEN THE TWO COVER PIECES,

THEN ATTACH EVERYTHING
WITH EITHER BRASS-PLATED NAILS

OR BRASS- OR NICKEL-PLATED
SCREWS.

CHROMATIC HARMONICAS HAVE
A MOUTHPIECE OVER THE
BLOWHOLES.

IT'S USUALLY MADE
OF CHROME-PLATED BRASS

THAT THEY CURVE SLIGHTLY
IN A PRESS.

THE MOUTHPIECE SHIELDS THE
LIPS
FROM A SLIDE MECHANISM INSIDE.

THAT MECHANISM
HAS THREE PARTS --

A SLIDE WITH A BUTTON
POSITIONED
IN BETWEEN TWO PLATES.

THEY SCREW THE MOUTHPIECE
ONTO THE FRONT OF THE
HARMONICA.

WHEN YOU PRESS
THE MOUTHPIECE BUTTON,

IT REDIRECTS THE AIR,
RAISING THE NOTES HALF A TONE.

NO HARMONICA LEAVES THE
FACTORY
WITHOUT A SOUND TEST.

RATHER THAN BLOW
INTO EVERY INSTRUMENT,

THE TESTING DEPARTMENT
USES A MACHINE

THAT BLOWS AIR IN AND OUT.

[ HARMONICAS PLAYING ]

LAST STOP
IS THE CLEANING DEPARTMENT.

THERE, WORKERS INSPECT
FOR SCRATCHES,

THEN POLISH AND PACKAGE

SO THAT EACH AND EVERY
HARMONICA
WILL LOOK AS GOOD AS IT
SOUNDS.

[ HARMONICA PLAYS MELODY ]

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