How It's Made (2001–…): Season 11, Episode 11 - Heated Skate Blades/Gliders/Hand Bells/Fire Hoses - full transcript


Narrator: HOCKEY SKATES
ARE NOT ALL CREATED EQUAL.

THAT'S WHY PROFESSIONAL
HOCKEY PLAYERS

ARE ALWAYS LOOKING FOR WAYS
TO GET THAT CUTTING EDGE.

THEY KNOW CHAMPIONSHIPS
ARE WON OR LOST

IN FRACTIONS OF A SECOND,

AND THAT'S WHEN
HEATED SKATE BLADES

CAN MAKE ALL THE DIFFERENCE.

WITH A SIMPLE TOUCH,

HEATED SKATE BLADES
ARE REVOLUTIONIZING

THE GAME OF HOCKEY.

THEY GIVE MUCH MORE CONTROL
AND SPEED ON THE ICE.

THEY DO THIS
USING A SMART BOARD,

THE BRAIN OF THESE
PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING BLADES.

IT ALL STARTS WITH CUSTOM-MADE,
STAINLESS-STEEL BLADES.

A TECHNICIAN PLACES THEM INSIDE
AN INJECTION-MOLDING MACHINE.

LIQUID PLASTIC
IS INJECTED INTO A CAVITY,

CREATING A PLASTIC OVERMOLD.

ONCE BONDED WITH THE OVERMOLD,

THE BLADES ARE READY TO RECEIVE
THE ELECTRONIC SMART BOARD.

THE SMART BOARD FITS INTO
THE PLASTIC OVERMOLD

THAT RUNS ALONG THE TOP EDGE
OF THE BLADE.

AFTER REMOVING EXCESS PLASTIC
FROM THE MOLD,

THE TECHNICIAN PLACES
THE PREPARED BLADES

ONTO A MOUNTING TRAY.

HE USES THERMOCONDUCTIVE GLUE

TO ENSURE CONTACT
BETWEEN THE HEATING WIRE,

THE TEMPERATURE-CONTROLLING
SMART BOARD,

AND THE BLADE OVERMOLD.

AFTER THAT, THE TECHNICIAN
INSERTS INSULATING MATERIAL

ALONG THE ENTIRE LENGTH
OF THE OVERMOLD

SO THE HEATING WIRES MAKE
PERFECT CONTACT WITH THE STEEL.

ONCE THE SMART BOARD IS SECURE,

THE TECHNICAL PLACES THE BLADES

INTO A LOW-DENSITY
INJECTION MACHINE

THAT ENCAPSULATES
THE SMART BOARD

WITH IMPACT- AND
MOISTURE-RESISTANT RESIN.

THE SMART BOARD
IS NOW WATERPROOF.

MEANWHILE, ANOTHER HIGH-PRESSURE
INJECTION-MOLDING MACHINE

MAKES THE BLADE HOLDERS THAT
SUPPORT THE FINISHED BLADES.

THESE BLADE HOLDERS WILL BE
GIVEN AN ACTUAL POWER SUPPLY --

A HIGH-PERFORMANCE
LITHIUM-POLYMER

RECHARGEABLE BATTERY THAT MAKES
HEATING THE BLADES POSSIBLE.

THE BATTERY
WILL BE CLEVERLY CONCEALED

INSIDE THE HEEL
OF THAT MOLDED CHASSIS.

TO DO THIS, A TECHNICIAN
FIRST ATTACHES RIVETS

INTO THE HEELS
OF THE BLADE HOLDERS,

THEN MOUNTS THE BLADE HOLDERS
ONTO AN AUTOMATIC RIVET PRESS.

THIS MACHINE PRESSURE-PUNCHES
THE RIVETS

SO THEY WILL MAKE A PROPER
CONNECTION TO THE BATTERY

FOR RECHARGING.

A PRINTER HEAT-PRESSES THE BRAND
NAME AND LOGO ON THE HEEL.

THE LOGO SITS OVER
THE FLEXIBLE PROXIMITY SENSOR,

OR THE ON-AND-OFF BUTTON

THAT A TECHNICIAN
WRAPS AROUND THE BATTERY.

THEN SHE BURIES
THE COMBINED UNIT

INTO THE HEEL
OF THE BLADE HOLDER

TO PROTECT IT FROM MOISTURE
AND IMPACT.

SHE THEN LOCKS IT INTO PLACE.

NEXT, THE TECHNICIAN ATTACHES
A THREADED INSERT BOLT

TO THE BLADE OVERMOLD.

THIS SPECIAL BOLT
HOLD THE BLADE IN PLACE

AND ALLOWS FOR QUICK AND EASY
BLADE CHANGING.

THE TECHNICIAN THEN CONNECTS
THE BLADE TO THE BLADE HOLDER

AND PRESSES THE BLADE
FIRMLY INTO THE CHASSIS.

THEN SHE LOCKS ALL ELECTRONIC
AND MECHANICAL COMPONENTS

INTO PLACE.

A CHARGING UNIT POWERS UP
THE BATTERY FOR TESTING.

THEN THE TECHNICIAN SEALS OFF
THE HEEL CHAMBER

TO FURTHER PROTECT THE BATTERY.

SHE TURNS ON THE SMART BOARD TO
MAKE SURE ALL SYSTEMS ARE GO.

AN L.E.D. CONFIRMS THE BLADES
ARE HEATING PROPERLY.

IN THE MEANTIME,
ANOTHER TECHNICIAN

ASSEMBLES THE MOLDED
CHARGING UNIT FOR THE BLADES.

THE TECHNICIAN
HAND-TRIMS THE MOTHERBOARD

THAT CONTROLS THE CHARGER

SO IT WILL FIT FLAWLESSLY
INTO THE CHARGING UNIT.

SHE INSERTS
THE FINISHED MOTHERBOARD

INTO THE BACK OF THE UNIT

AND CHECKS TO MAKE SURE
IT WORKS PROPERLY.

THEN SHE SNAPS ON AN AIRTIGHT
COVER THAT SEALS THE UNIT,

FULLY PROTECTING THE MOTHERBOARD
AGAINST WETNESS AND SHOCK.

FINALLY, SHE PLUGS IN
THE CHARGING UNIT

TO CONFIRM IT WORKS.

A RECHARGEABLE BATTERY,
A MANUAL,

A CONVENIENT CHARGING UNIT,
AND A PAIR

OF PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING
SKATE BLADES COMPLETE THE KIT.

THEY HEATED SKATE BLADES ARE NOW
READY TO SHIP AROUND THE WORLD.

THEY'RE QUICK AND EASY
TO MOUNT ON THE BOOT,

WITH THE BUILT-IN SMARTS TO HELP
CREATE THE NEXT CHAMPION.

Narrator: GLIDING INVOLVES
FLYING UNPOWERED AIRCRAFT,

THOUGH SOME MODELS ARE FITTED
WITH A SMALL ENGINE

AND PROPELLER

SO THEY HAVE THE POWER TO LAUNCH
INTO THE AIR ON THEIR OWN.

NO MATTER WHAT THE MODEL,

THE SPORT OF GLIDING
IS ALL ABOUT THE JOY

OF USING THE FORCES
OF THE ATMOSPHERE TO FLY HIGHER,

FASTER, AND LONGER.

GLIDERS,
LIKE THIS MODEL VERSION,

HAVE THREE MAIN PARTS --
WINGS, FUSELAGE, AND TAIL.

WORKERS BUILD EACH PART
OF THE GLIDER IN TWO PIECES,

USING RESIN AND STEEL MOLDS.

THEY BEGIN
WITH THE FUSELAGE MOLD.

THEY LAY DOWN STRIPS OF KEVLAR,

A STRONG,
HEAT-RESISTANT MATERIAL.

THEN THEY APPLY EPOXY RESIN
TO THE KEVLAR FIBER

TO REINFORCE IT.

THEY LEAVE THE EPOXY TO DRY

AND THE NEXT DAY APPLY
STRIPS OF CARBON FIBER

TO REINFORCE THE FUSELAGE.

THE DIRECTION IN WHICH WORKERS
LAY DOWN THE FIBER LAYERS

IS KEY.

IN FLIGHT, GLIDERS ARE SUBJECT
TO STRONG FORCES

THAT CAN BEND
AND TWIST THE STRUCTURE.

THEY MUST BE STURDY
YET AS LIGHT AS POSSIBLE.

THE GLIDER'S TAIL BOOM
GETS THE SAME TREATMENT,

EXCEPT WHERE THE ANTENNA
WILL GO,

AS RADIO SIGNALS DON'T PENETRATE
THE CARBON FIBER VERY WELL.

WORKERS APPLY A THIN COAT
OF WHITE GEL PAINT

TO THE 30-FOOT WING MOLD.

GLIDERS ARE ALWAYS WHITE

SO THEY DON'T ABSORB
THE SUN'S RAYS AND OVERHEAT.

THEY ROLL A SHEET OF CARBON
FIBER OVER THE PAINTED MOLD.

THEN THE ENTIRE ASSEMBLY TEAM

SKILLFULLY APPLIES
AN EVEN COAT OF RESIN.

THEY'VE GOT TO BE QUICK.

THE RESIN CURES
IN JUST 30 MINUTES.

THEY ADD A FINAL LAYER
OF CARBON FIBER

TO STRENGTHEN
A PORTION OF THE WING

THAT'S SUBJECT
TO STRONG WIND CURRENTS.

AFTER LAYING A WHITE FLEECE
OVER THE LAYERS OF CARBON FIBER,

THEY SEAL IT
BETWEEN TWO SHEETS OF PLASTIC.

A VACUUM COMPRESSES THE LAYERS,

WHICH DRAWS
EXCESS RESIN TO THE SURFACE

WHERE WORKERS CAN REMOVE IT.

THE TWO WING PARTS
ARE GLUED TOGETHER

USING THE SAME EPOXY RESIN

THAT BONDS AND SEALS
THE CARBON FIBERS.

MIXING IN SOME COTTON FLAKES
HELPS THICKEN THE RESIN,

WHICH THEY APPLY TO THE MAIN
SPAR, THE WING'S BACKBONE,

THEN TO THE FRONT, BACK,
AND CENTER PORTIONS.

USING A CRANE, WORKERS CAREFULLY
FIT THE TWO WING MOLDS TOGETHER.

THE MOLDS' WEIGHT FORCES OUT
ANY EXCESS GLUE.

THEY TIGHTLY CLAMP
THE TWO MOLDS TOGETHER

AND LEAVE THEM
TO HARDEN OVERNIGHT

IN AN OVEN HEATED
TO 140 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THE NEXT DAY,
THERE'S A LOUD POP

WHEN WORKERS SEPARATE
THE TWO MOLDS.

THEY CARRY THE COMPLETED
WING STRUCTURE,

WHICH WEIGHS ONLY 132 POUNDS,

OVER TO ANOTHER AREA
TO TRIM THE RESIN OVERFLOW

AND SAND DOWN THE SEAMS.

USING A DIAMOND-TIP CUTTER,

THEY CUT THE WING IN TWO
FOR TRANSPORT,

REVEALING ITS INNER STRUCTURE.

THEN THEY MAKE SURE THEY CAN
EASILY PUT IT BACK TOGETHER

BEFORE GOING ON TO THE PAINT
SHOP WHERE THEY REASSEMBLE IT.

WORKERS SCAN THE SURFACE

AND MARK THE AREAS
THEY WILL SAND BY HAND.

THEY MOUNT THE GLIDER'S FUSELAGE
ON A ROTATING STAND

SO THEY CAN EASILY ACCESS
THE ENTIRE SURFACE.

THEY SAND IT AND THEN POLISH IT
TO A MIRROR FINISH.

AS WORKERS ASSEMBLE THE GLIDER,
THEY INSPECT EVERY SYSTEM.

THEY CHECK THE ENGINE COMMAND

THAT LOWERS THE GLIDER'S
LAUNCH PROPELLER

AND RETRACTS IT
INTO THE FUSELAGE.

THE LANDING GEAR MUST LOWER
AND RETRACT SMOOTHLY

OUT OF THE GLIDER'S
UNDERCARRIAGE.

NOW THEY REASSEMBLE THE WINGS.

THEY CHECK THE AIR BRAKE
LOCATED IN THE WING.

AND, FINALLY,
THEY INSTALL THE CANOPY.

THE GLIDER IS COMPLETE.

STURDY YET LIGHT,
THIS MIDSIZE MODEL

CAN REACH SPEEDS
OF NEARLY 186 MILES PER HOUR

THANKS TO ITS SLEEK DESIGN.

Narrator: HAND BELLS CAN BE SEEN
IN CHURCH CHOIRS,

SCHOOLS, AND RING CONCERTS.

THERE, SKILLED RINGERS READ
MUSIC SIMILAR TO A PIANO SCORE,

PLAYING ALL THE NOTES FOUND
ON A MODERN MUSICAL KEYBOARD.

FINELY CRAFTED AND TUNED,

HAND BELLS WILL CONTINUE TO
ENTERTAIN GENERATIONS TO COME.

[ BELLS RINGING ]

HAND BELLS HAVE A LONG TRADITION
OF MAKING BEAUTIFUL MUSIC,

FROM CHURCH HYMNS
TO THE MUSIC OF BEETHOVEN.

IT ALL STARTS
WITH A CASTING MOLD

THAT A WORKER ENCLOSES IN
A TWO-PART CONTAINER, OR FLASK.

HE FILLS THE BOTTOM HALF OF THE
FLASK WITH SPECIAL, COARSE SAND

THAT'S IDEAL
FOR MAKING SAND MOLDS.

HE COMPACTS THE SAND,

AND THEN HE TURNS
THE METAL FLASK OVER.

HE PLACES GUIDE RODS
ONTO THE BELL SHAPES

AND FILLS THE TOP PART
OF THE FLASK WITH SAND.

HE PUTS A RAMMING BOARD
ON AGAIN,

AND HE COMPACTS THE SAND THAT
FILLS THE TOP PART OF THE FLASK.

NOW HE REMOVES THE GUIDE RODS.

THEN HE REMOVES
THE TOP HALF OF THE FLASK

AND TAKES OUT THE CASTING MOLD.

HE RECONNECTS
THE TOP OF THE FLASK

AND THEN FREES IT COMPLETELY
FROM THE SAND MOLD.

A WORKER PLACES BRONZE INGOTS
INTO A CRUCIBLE

TO MELT THEM DOWN.

HE PLACES HEAT-SENSITIVE
MATERIAL ONTO THE SAND MOLD,

AND THEN HEAVY WEIGHTS TO HOLD
THE MOLD TOGETHER SAFELY.

WHEN THE MELTED BRONZE REACHES
ABOUT 2,200 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT,

A WORKER GUIDES THE CRUCIBLE
OVER TO THE SAND MOLD

AND POURS THE MOLTEN METAL
INTO THE CAVITY OF THE MOLD.

HE STOPS POURING

WHEN HE SEES THE HEAT-SENSITIVE
MATERIAL SMOKING.

THIS INDICATES
THE MOLD CAVITY IS FILLED.

WORKERS THEN USE A VIBRATING BED
AND SMALL HAMMERS

TO FREE THE FINISHED CASTINGS
FROM THE SAND MOLD.

ROTOBLASTING
CLEANS THE DIRTY CASTINGS.

A WORKER TRIMS OFF
THE EXCESS PIECES

THAT FEED THE MOLTEN METAL
INTO THE BELL CAVITY.

HE SANDS THE SHARP EDGES
OF THE BELL

AND THEN DRILLS THE CENTER HOLE
FOR THE ASSEMBLY SCREW.

THE BELL CASTING
THEN GOES ON A LATHE.

HERE, A CARBIDE CUTTING TOOL,

WORKING WITH A STYLUS THAT
FOLLOWS A TEMPLATE OF THE BELL,

REMOVES THE COARSE
CASTING SURFACE

AND MAKES THE BELL SHINY.

THIS TURNING OPERATION
ALSO SHAPES THE BELL

TO GIVE IT THE RIGHT TONE.

ANOTHER CARBIDE CUTTING TOOL

SHAPES THE INSIDE
OF THE BELL CASTING,

GIVING IT SHINE
AND THE DESIRED TUNING, AS WELL.

USING A CUSTOM-MADE
TRACING DEVICE,

A WORKER REPRODUCES THE OUTSIDE
SHAPE OF THE BELL ON PAPER.

HE THEN TRACES THE INSIDE
OF THE BELL CASTING

UNTIL HE COMPLETES
AN EXACT REPLICA

OF THE INSIDE
AND THE OUTSIDE SHAPE.

AND THIS MUST MATCH
A MASTER TEMPLATE.

A WORKER POLISHES THE BELL
USING FINE SANDPAPER.

HE ALSO PUTS A JEWELER'S FINISH
ON THE INSIDE.

THEN HE TESTS
THE BELL'S SOUND QUALITY

USING A STROBOSCOPIC TUNER
AND THE HUMAN EAR.

HE RE-SANDS THE BELL TO MAKE
A SLIGHT TONAL ADJUSTMENT.

THEN HE TESTS IT AGAIN

TO MAKE SURE IT STRIKES
THE PERFECT MUSICAL NOTE.

A WORKER GIVES THE BELL
THAT FINAL POLISH,

AND ANOTHER CRAFTSMAN ENGRAVES
THE BELL FOR THE CUSTOMER.

FINALLY, A WORKER PUTS
THE RINGER AND BELL TOGETHER.

SHE PUTS A WASHER,
A HAND DISC, AND A HANDLE

ONTO THE ASSEMBLY SCREW
AND SCREWS IT ALL INTO PLACE.

HAND BELLS MAKE WONDERFUL MUSIC
IN THE HANDS OF SKILLED RINGERS,

WHETHER THE MUSICAL COMPOSITIONS
ARE PERFORMED

BY AN INTIMATE GATHERING
OF FRIENDS

OR BY A CONCERT BELL CHOIR
OF 13 RINGERS OR MORE.

THE MUSIC MADE BY TRADITIONAL
HAND BELLS IS TIMELESS.

[ BEETHOVEN'S
"ODE TO JOY" PLAYS ]

Narrator:
FIREFIGHTING USED TO CONSIST

OF PASSING WATER BUCKETS
HAND TO HAND.

THE FIRST FIRE HOSES OF
THE 1600s WERE MADE OF LEATHER.

BUT THESE HOSES WERE HEAVY,
WOULD CRACK WHEN DRY,

AND OFTEN BREAK OPEN
UNDER PRESSURE.

MODERN FIREFIGHTING BEGAN

WITH THE LIGHTWEIGHT,
COTTON FIRE HOSE,

LINED WITH RUBBER TO KEEP
THE COTTON DRY AND FLEXIBLE.

FIRE HOSES
COME IN A RANGE OF SIZES

TO FULFILL A RANGE
OF FUNCTIONS --

FROM SMALL, LIGHTWEIGHT ONES
FOR FIGHTING FOREST FIRES

TO LARGE, HEAVY-DUTY HOSES
FOR INDUSTRIAL FIRES.

PRODUCTION BEGINS WITH HUNDREDS
OF BOBBINS OF POLYESTER YARN,

FEEDING AUTOMATED LOOMS
A FLOOR ABOVE.

A SERIES OF SPRING RODS KEEPS
THE YARNS UNDER UNIFORM TENSION.

THIS IS ESSENTIAL
TO CREATE A TIGHT WEAVE.

THE FACTORY PROGRAMS EACH LOOM
TO WEAVE SPECIFIC PATTERNS,

WHICH INCORPORATE
IDENTIFIER STRIPES.

THIS IS A VISUAL GUIDE
TO HELP WORKERS

ASSEMBLE THE FIRE HOSE LATER ON.

THIS WOVEN FABRIC WILL FORM
THE FIRE HOSE'S EXTERIOR

CALLED THE JACKET.

IT'S GOT TO WEATHER
SOME NASTY CONDITIONS,

SO THEY SOAK IT
IN A PLASTIC POLYMER SOLUTION

WITH DYE FOR COLOR.

THE LIQUID
ENCAPSULATES THE FIBERS,

MAKING THEM DURABLE
AND WATER-RESISTANT.

AT ANOTHER STATION, THEY MIX
GRANULES OF POLYURETHANE,

A FORM OF PLASTIC, WITH WHITE
COLORANT AND ADHESIVE PELLETS.

THIS MIXTURE IS FOR MAKING
THE WATERPROOF TUBING

THAT FORMS THE INSIDE
OF THE FIRE HOSE.

WHEN THEY ACTIVATE THE ADHESIVE
IN THE MIXTURE WITH HEAT,

THIS TUBING WILL BOND
TO THE HOSE-JACKET FABRIC.

THE MIXER FEES
THE INGREDIENTS TO AN EXTRUDER,

WHICH MELTS THE MIXTURE
AND FORMS IT INTO A HOLLOW TUBE.

THE TUBE THEN PASSES THROUGH
A BASIN OF COOL WATER

TO SET THE PLASTIC.

NEXT, THE TUBE GOES
TO THE INSPECTION TABLE

WHERE AN AUTOMATED PRINTER
PRINTS CODE NUMBERS ON IT

FOR TRACKING PURPOSES.

TO ASSEMBLE THE FIRE HOSE,

THEY FIRST PULL OUT
AN OUTER HOSE JACKET

OVER A 33-YARD-LONG CABLE.

THEN WITH ANOTHER CABLE,

THEY FEED A SECOND
UNTREATED HOSE JACKET

INSIDE THE FIRST ONE.

FINALLY, THEY ATTACH A CABLE TO
THE THIRD AND INNERMOST LAYER,

THE TUBE, AND PULL IT
ALONG THE ENTIRE LENGTH

OF THE DOUBLE JACKET.

ONCE IT'S ALL THE WAY THROUGH,
THEY TRIM BOTH ENDS.

THE THREE LAYERS --

OUTER JACKET, INNER JACKET,
AND TUBE --

ARE NOW READY TO BECOME ONE.

THEY BEGIN THE FUSING PROCESS

BY CLAMPING ONE END
OF THE ASSEMBLED HOSE

TO A STEAM NOZZLE.

AS THE CLAMP
HOLDS THE HOSE STEADY,

THE NOZZLE BLASTS
PRESSURIZED STEAM INTO THE TUBE.

AT THE SAME TIME, IT MOVES
BACKWARD, PULLING OUT ANY KINKS.

THE HOT STEAM MELTS THE ADHESIVE
IN THE TUBE MATERIAL,

AND IT PENETRATES
THE INNER JACKET AROUND IT.

ONCE EVERYTHING'S
PERFECTLY STRAIGHT,

THEY PUMP IN COLD AIR
TO SOLIDIFY THE ADHESIVE.

THIS PERMANENTLY BONDS
THE LAYERS.

THEY ROLL UP THE FINISHED HOSE
INTO A COIL,

CONTROLLING THE WINDER
WITH A FOOT PEDAL.

THEN THEY LAY THE COILED HOSE
ON A TABLE

TO INSTALL THE COUPLINGS.

THOSE ARE THE COMPONENTS
THAT ATTACH THE HOSE

TO THE WATER SUPPLY ON ONE END

AND TO THE SPRAY NOZZLE
ON THE OTHER.

THEY TRIM EACH END AND THEN
INSERT A BRASS EXPANSION RING

AND THEN AN ALUMINUM COUPLING
ON TOP.

AN EXPANSION MACHINE
DOES THE REST.

THEY ATTACK THE END SECURELY
TO THE MACHINE'S PROTRUDING BAR.

THEN THE BAR
RETRACTS AND EXPANDS,

PUSHING THE BRASS RING OUTWARD.

THE FORCE WEDGES THE BRASS

INTO THE ALUMINUM COUPLING
PERMANENTLY.

THIS COMPANY TESTS
EVERY FIRE HOUSE IT PRODUCES

UNDER HIGH PRESSURE
ON THIS TABLE.

AFTER MARKING THE TYPE OF HOSE
WITH A STENCIL

IN INDELIBLE INK,
THEY FILL THE HOSE WITH WATER.

THEY CHECK FOR HOLES AND KINKS

AND VERIFY THAT
THE COUPLINGS STAY IN PLACE.

AFTER THE TEST,
THEY DRAIN THE WATER.

THEY INSERT A GIANT SPONGE

TO GET RID OF ANY WATER
LEFT BEHIND.

AND NOW THESE NEW HOSES ARE
READY FOR THEIR BAPTISM BY FIRE.

CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS

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