How It's Made (2001–…): Season 11, Episode 10 - Giant Valves/Sardines/Barographs/Disposable Diapers - full transcript


Narrator: VALVES CONTROL
THE FLOW OF LIQUIDS AND GASES

THROUGH PIPES AND TUBES.

THEY'RE SO MUCH PART
OF OUR LIVES,

WE HARDLY THINK TWICE
ABOUT THEM.

BUT A FAULTY VALVE IN
AN AIRPLANE OR CHEMICAL PLANT

COULD BE CATASTROPHIC.

VALVES MUST BE PRECISION-MADE
AND TROUBLE-FREE,

WHETHER IT'S SMALL ENOUGH
TO FIT INSIDE THE HUMAN BODY

OR AS BIG AS A CAR.

MANY GATE VALVES USE HANDWHEELS
TO CONTROL THE FLOW.

TURNING THIS WHEEL

OPENS OR CLOSES A GATE OR WEDGE
INSIDE THE VALVE BODY.

THIS GIANT 11-TON GATE VALVE
WORKS THE SAME WAY.

IT WILL RECEIVE
AN INTERNAL GATE OR WEDGE

THAT STARTS AND STOPS THE FLOW
OF LIQUIDS OR GASES.

FIRST, AN AUTOMATED HORIZONTAL
BORING MILL

PREPARES THE VALVE BODY
FOR ASSEMBLY

AND FOR A CONTROLLING MECHANISM.

IT TAKES A CONTROLLING MECHANISM
OR MOTOR, NOT A HANDWHEEL,

TO OPEN AND CLOSE A WEDGE
THAT WEIGHS ABOUT 3,300 POUNDS.

AN AUTOMATED DRILL PILOT DRILLS
THE FLANGE OF THE VALVE BODY.

THIS CENTERS THE HOLES
USED FOR THE BOLTS

THAT WILL CONNECT
THE VALVE COVER.

A TECHNICIAN DOUBLE-CHECKS

TO MAKE SURE THE HOLES
ARE IN THE RIGHT PLACE.

THEN AN AUTOMATED SPADE DRILL
STARTS PENETRATING THE FLANGE.

COOLANT PREVENTS THE STEEL
FROM HEATING UP

AND REMOVES STEEL CHIPS

FROM INSIDE
THE PERFECTLY CENTERED HOLES.

MEANWHILE, THE WEDGE IS READY.

A PROPANE TORCH
PREHEATS THE WEDGE

FOR THE PLASMA-ARC
WELDING MACHINE.

THIS MACHINE HARD-FACES THE
SEALING SURFACE OF THE WEDGE,

A PROCESS
THAT ENSURES MINIMAL WEAR.

HARD-FACING CREATES
THREE ROWS OF WELD BEADS,

WHICH WILL BE MACHINED SMOOTH.

BEFORE INSTALLING THE WEDGE,

A TECHNICIAN INSERTS A SEAT RING
INTO THE VALVE BODY.

A SEAT RING HELPS ENSURE
PRECISION FIT WITH THE WEDGE.

THE RING FITS
INTO THE GROOVED BODY CAVITY.

THEN THE TECHNICIAN SETS ANOTHER
SEAT RING INTO PLACE.

BEFORE THE WEDGE GOES IN,

A SEMIAUTOMATIC WELDING MACHINE

WELDS THE TWO SEAT RINGS
INTO PLACE

USING A ROTATING POSITIONER.

THEN A LAPPING MACHINE
INSERTED INTO THE VALVE BODY

POLISHES EACH SEAT RING
TO GUARANTEE THEIR FINISH

IS FLAT AND SMOOTH.

NEXT, A CRANE
LOWERS THE MACHINED WEDGE

INTO THE BODY CAVITY.

USING A GAUGE, A TECHNICIAN
VERIFIES THE GAP.

HE REPEATEDLY CHECKS
TO SEE WHAT ADJUSTMENTS

THE WEDGE MAY NEED
TO ENSURE A TIGHT SHUTOFF.

ANOTHER TECHNICIAN
INSTALLS A SEALER GASKET

TO PREPARE THE VALVE BODY
FOR THE COVER OR BONNET.

NOW HE BEGINS FINAL ASSEMBLY.

A FULLY ADJUSTED WEDGE
WITH THE STEM ATTACHED

FITS PERFECTLY
IN BETWEEN THE TWO SEAT RINGS.

THIS STEM WILL CONNECT
TO THE CONTROLLING MECHANISM

THAT OPENS AND CLOSES THE VALVE.

A CRANE LOWERS THE BONNET

WITH ATTACHED YOKE ASSEMBLY
ONTO THE BODY.

ITS STUDS FIT EXACTLY
INTO THE HOLES

THAT WERE DRILLED INTO
THE VALVE'S FLANGE AT THE START.

A TECHNICIAN READIES ALL THE
BOLTS FOR MACHINE TIGHTENING.

THEN HE GREASES
THE TOP PART OF THE STEM.

HE LOWERS THE CONTROLLING
MECHANISM ONTO THE STEM,

AND HE SCREWS IT INTO PLACE

UNTIL IT'S FLUSH WITH THE YOKE,
THE TOP PART OF THE BONNET.

A TECHNICIAN THEN BOLTS

THE CONTROLLING MECHANISM
ONTO THE YOKE.

FINALLY, ANOTHER TECHNICIAN
SPRAY-PAINTS

THE FULLY ASSEMBLED GATE VALVE

WITH A PROTECTIVE COAT OF
CORROSION-RESISTANT PAINT.

PRECISION-MADE GATE VALVES
ARE EXPERTLY CRAFTED.

THEY COME IN ALL SHAPES
AND SIZES

AND ARE EQUIPPED

WITH CONTROLLING MECHANISMS
OR HANDWHEELS.

FROM REFINERIES
AND NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

TO SUBMARINES
AND AIRCRAFT CARRIERS,

GATE VALVES ARE HELPING
OUR WORLD RUN SAFELY.

Narrator: THE HEALTH BENEFITS
OF EATING FISH

ARE ALWAYS UNDER STUDY.

TODAY, IT'S SAID THAT MOST FISH,
LIKE SARDINES,

ARE A GOOD SOURCE
OF VITAMINS, MINERALS,

AND OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.

IF YOU WANT TO MAKE HEALTHY
EATING CHOICES,

YOU NEED TO STAY INFORMED,

SO SEEING HOW THESE LITTLE GUYS
END UP ON YOUR KITCHEN TABLE

IS A GOOD WAY TO START.

SARDINES FROM THE PACIFIC
COASTAL WATERS OFF OF COSTA RICA

ARE FRESHLY PACKAGED
IN A VARIETY OF TASTY FLAVORS.

IT STARTS WHEN SARDINES

ARE PUT INTO A VAT OF ICY WATER
TO KEEP THEM FRESH.

THE TEMPERATURE OF THE FISH
MUST BE KEPT

BELOW 41 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT
TO AVOID SPOILING.

THE FRESH SARDINES
THEN GO THROUGH A MACHINE

THAT DEPOSITS THE FISH
ONTO SORTING LANES.

EACH LANE
ALLOWS A CERTAIN SIZED FISH

TO FALL THROUGH THE GAP
ONTO A CHUTE BELOW.

SORTED AS SMALL,
MEDIUM, OR LARGE,

THE FISH DROP
INTO THE PROPER CONTAINER.

THEN WORKERS LOAD
A SPECIFIC SIZE OF SARDINE

INTO A MACHINE
THAT REMOVES THE SCALES.

REMOVING THE SCALES
TAKES 3 TO 11 MINUTES,

DEPENDING ON THE SIZE
OF THE FISH.

ONCE DONE, THERE IS
NO MISTAKING A SARDINE

WITH OR WITHOUT SCALES.

WORKERS THEN PLACE
DESCALED SARDINES ONTO TRAYS

THAT TAKE THEM
INTO A CUTTING MACHINE.

THEY ARRANGE THE SARDINES
ON THE TRAYS

IN SUCH A WAY THAT BLADES
INSIDE THE MACHINE

WILL CUT OFF THE HEADS
AND TAILS.

A LOOK INSIDE
THE CUTTING MACHINE

SHOWS HOW IT REMOVES
THE HEADS AND TAILS

AND SENDS THEM
ON THEIR SEPARATE WAYS.

IT ALSO CUTS OPEN AND CLEANS OUT
THE BODIES OF THE SARDINES

AND READIES THEM FOR PACKAGING.

THE PACKING CANS TRAVEL
BY CONVEYOR TO A WORK STATION,

WITH THEIR BOTTOM SIDE UP
AND OPEN.

THEY FILL THE CANS MANUALLY
TO DECREASE THE POSSIBILITY

OF INTRODUCING FOREIGN MATTER
INTO THEM.

THE WORKER
DRAWS ON HIS EXPERIENCE

TO ESTIMATE THE REQUIRED WEIGHT,

THEN STUFFS AND TRIMS THE FISH
TO FILL THE CANS ONE BY ONE.

TO BE SURE EACH CAN
IS EXACTLY THE RIGHT WEIGHT,

HE WEIGHS AND ADJUSTS
THE AMOUNT IN EACH TIN.

IN ONLY A MATTER OF MINUTES,
HE COMPLETES A SET OF CANS.

THEN ANOTHER WORKER
TURNS THE SET OVER

AND SENDS THE OPEN-BOTTOM CANS
INTO AN OVEN

THAT COOKS THE SARDINES AT ABOUT
212 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

AFTER COOKING
FOR ABOUT 25 MINUTES,

A WORKER TURNS THE SET OF CANS
OVER AGAIN

AND TRANSFERS THEM
ONTO A CONVEYOR SYSTEM.

ALL THE COOKED SARDINES

GRADUALLY FUNNEL
INTO A SINGLE FILE,

AND DEPENDING ON THE PRODUCT,

A FILLING MACHINE
TREATS THEM TO OIL

OR A SPECIFIC FLAVOR
OF TOMATO SAUCE.

THE FILLING MACHINE OVERFILLS
THE CANS WITH SAUCE,

BUT A FLUTE HIDDEN
INSIDE THE MACHINE

REMOVES JUST ENOUGH SAUCE
TO PUT THE LIDS ON PROPERLY.

THE MACHINE PRESSURE-SEALS
THE LIDS ONTO THE CANS

SO THAT WHEN THEY EXIT
THE MACHINE, THEY'RE AIRTIGHT.

THE TRAVELING CANS THEN ENTER
A MACHINE THAT WASHES THEM

IN ABOUT 194-DEGREE WATER
AND MAKES THEM SPOTLESS.

PALLETS OF CANS THEN GO
INTO A CHAMBER

THAT STERILIZES THE PRODUCT
TO KEEP IT FRESH.

THEN THE CANS
GO INTO A LABELING MACHINE

THAT APPLIES A THIN COATING
OF GLUE

AND PRECUT PAPER LABELS
ONTO EACH ONE.

THE FINISHED PRODUCT
COMES OUT OF THE MACHINE

WITH AN ATTRACTIVE
FULL-COLOR LABEL,

READY TO SHIP TO THE CUSTOMER.

SARDINES COME IN A VARIETY
OF FLAVORS

WITH EASY-TO-OPEN PACKAGES

THAT MAINTAIN THE FRESHNESS
OF THE FISH.

Narrator: ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
TRIED TO FORECAST THE WEATHER

BY OBSERVING CLOUD PATTERNS
OR EVEN USING ASTROLOGY.

TODAY, WE RELY ON INSTRUMENTS

LIKE THE BAROMETER
OR THE BAROGRAPH,

WHICH AUTOMATICALLY RECORDS
ON PAPER

THE VARIATIONS
IN ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.

HIGH PRESSURE
INDICATES GOOD WEATHER.

LOW PRESSURE
MEANS BAD WEATHER IS LIKELY.

THIS BAROGRAPH
HAS THREE MAIN PARTS --

THE RECORDING ARM,

THE CELLS THAT REACT
TO ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE,

AND A ROTATING DRUM.

TO MAKE THE DRUM'S LID,

A DIE-PRESS OPERATOR STAMPS OUT
A 3½-INCH DISK

FROM A LONG STRIP OF BRASS.

HE CLEANS OFF THE GREASE
FROM THE DIE PRESS

AND PLACES THE DISK ON ANOTHER
PRESS TO FORM AN EDGE.

TO MAKE THE DRUM,

HE CUTS A 4-INCH-LONG CYLINDER
FROM A BRASS TUBE.

NEXT, HE PLACES THE DRUM ON AN
ARM THAT ROTATES AT HIGH SPEED.

HE ETCHES FINE LINES
INTO THE BRASS USING STEEL WOOL.

THANKS TO
A HANDY ROTATING DEVICE,

ALL THE DRUMS GET AN EVEN
COATING OF PROTECTIVE LACQUER

SO THE BRASS DOESN'T CORRODE.

THE BAROGRAPH'S MECHANISM
RESTS ON A SOLID BRASS PLATE

THAT'S 8½ INCHES LONG
BY 5 INCHES WIDE.

A WORKER GREASES EACH ONE

AND THEN PLACES THEM ON A PRESS

THAT PUNCHES OUT THE HOLES
FOR THE FASTENING SCREWS.

NEXT, HE PLACES THE PLATE
IN A METAL HOLDER

AND BUFFS IT WITH A ROTATING
POLISHING BRUSH.

HE APPLIES WAX TO THE BRUSH

TO HELP ACHIEVE
A PERFECT MIRROR FINISH.

NOW WORKERS USE A FINE GRADE
OF SANDPAPER

TO POLISH THE SOLID BRASS ARMS

THAT WILL HOLD THE WORKING PARTS
IN PLACE.

THEN THEY LINE THEM UP
ON A BOARD

AND BUFF THEM
WITH A POLISHING BRUSH.

HOW DO THEY GET THOSE PARTS
SO SHINY?

BY WASHING OFF ANY MACHINE
GREASE BEFORE POLISHING THEM.

PUTTING THE BAROGRAPH TOGETHER
IS PRECISION WORK.

LAID OUT BEFORE THE ASSEMBLER

ARE ALL THE WORKING PARTS
SHE WILL NEED.

SHE BEGINS WITH AN ARM,
INSERTS A BRASS SCREW,

THEN SETS IN A SECOND ARM AND
ATTACHES THEM TO THE BASEPLATE.

THESE HOLLOW METAL CELLS
ARE THE KEY TO THE MECHANISM.

AIR PRESSURE MAKES THEM
EXPAND AND CONTRACT.

THE BAROGRAPH RECORDS
THIS MOVEMENT

TO MEASURE
HIGH AND LOW PRESSURE SYSTEMS.

THE CELL STACK IS PUT IN PLACE
ON THE BASEPLATE.

THEN THEY ADD THE LEVER SYSTEM

THAT CONNECTS THE RECORDING ARM
TO THE PAPER.

THIS LEVER SYSTEM
CONNECTS TO THE ARM,

RAISING AND LOWERING IT
SO THE FELT PEN AT THE TIP

CAN RECORD CHANGING
AIR-PRESSURE LEVELS

ON THE DRUM'S ROTATING CHART.

THE ASSEMBLER INSERTS TINY PINS
TO HOLD IT TOGETHER.

INSIDE THE DRUM'S BASE IS
A BATTERY-DRIVEN QUARTZ CLOCK,

WHICH MAINTAINS
A STEADY RATE OF ROTATION.

NOW SHE WRAPS THE CHART
AROUND THE DRUM

AND ATTACHES A BRASS CLIP
TO HOLD IT IN PLACE.

THE DRUM ROTATES ONCE
OVER A SEVEN-DAY PERIOD,

SO SLOWLY THAT THE MOVEMENT
IS INVISIBLE TO THE NAKED EYE.

THERE'S A GEAR SYSTEM
INSIDE THE DRUM,

WHICH ROTATES IT
ONCE IT'S SET ON THE AXLE.

A BRASS SCREW HOLDS IT IN PLACE.

NOW THE WORKER PUTS THE
MECHANISM ON A MAHOGANY BASE.

SHE SCREWS IT INTO PLACE,

THEN COVERS IT WITH A GLASS
AND MAHOGANY HOUSING.

BRASS HINGES
AND A CLOSING MECHANISM

HOLD THE HOUSING FIRMLY IN PLACE
AND PROVIDES EASY ACCESS.

A QUALITY CONTROLLER
PLACES THE BAROGRAPH

INTO A PRESSURE-SEALED CHAMBER
TO CHECK ITS ACCURACY.

HE COMPARES
THE BAROGRAPH'S RECORDINGS

TO GAUGES OUTSIDE THE CHAMBER

THAT MEASURE THE CHANGES
IN AIR PRESSURE

THAT HE APPLIES
INSIDE THE CHAMBER.

THIS WEEKLY CHART
SHOWS HOUR-BY-HOUR RECORDINGS

OF AIR-PRESSURE VARIATIONS
MEASURED IN HECTOPASCALS,

A UNIT OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.

BAROGRAPHS ARE AVAILABLE
IN A VARIETY OF DESIGNS,

FROM MODERN TO TRADITIONAL BRASS
AND MAHOGANY MODELS

THAT ANY SAILOR
WOULD BE PROUD TO OWN.

Narrator:
PARENTHOOD HAS MANY JOYS,

BUT A DIRTY DIAPER
ISN'T ONE OF THEM.

AND THAT'S WHY WE HAVE
DISPOSABLE DIAPERS.

THEY WERE FIRST INTRODUCED
IN THE 1940s FOR TRAVEL USE.

IT TOOK SEVERAL YEARS
FOR THE IDEA TO CATCH ON.

BUT WHEN IT DID,
DIAPER DUTY WAS NEVER THE SAME.

MANY WOULD SAY
DISPOSABLE DIAPERS

REPRESENT A CHANGE
FOR THE BETTER,

HELPING PARENTS MAKE THE BEST
OF A MESSY BUSINESS.

THEY START WITH SUPERABSORBENT
POLYMER PARTICLES,

WHICH DROP
INTO A FORMING CHAMBER.

PULP UNWINDS
INTO THE SAME CHAMBER.

A SPRAY OF WATER HELPS SUPPRESS
ANY STATIC ELECTRICITY

THAT COULD INTERFERE
WITH PROCESSING.

INSIDE, THE PULP MIXES
WITH THE POLYMER PARTICLES.

THE RESULT IS THIS FLUFFY
ABSORBENT MATERIAL

THAT WILL BE THE DIAPER CORE.

THIS ROTATING DRUM
HAS A VACUUM

THAT SHAPES THE FLUFFY MATERIAL
INTO PADDING.

ANOTHER VACUUM DRUM

THEN MERGES THE PADDING
TO A MOVING WEB OF FABRIC.

GUIDES FOLD THE FABRIC
AROUND THE PADDING,

AND A HOT ADHESIVE SEALS IT.

AT THIS DEBULKING STATION,
ROLLERS COMPRESS THE PADDING,

MAKING THE DIAPER CORE
SLIM ENOUGH

TO COMFORTABLY FIT A BABY.

A CYLINDRICAL CUTTER
SLICES THE DIAPER CORE TO SIZE.

AT ANOTHER STATION,

PLASTIC FILM WINDS AROUND GUIDES

AND MERGES WITH ANOTHER STREAM
OF FABRIC.

MACHINERY
GLUES THE LAYERS TOGETHER

TO FORM THE DIAPER'S BACK SIDE.

NEXT, EQUIPMENT PULLS
ELASTIC BANDS

INTO OTHER LAYERS OF FABRIC
TO MAKE LEG CUFFS

AND OUTER GATHERS ON THE TOP
PORTION OF THE DIAPER.

THE ELASTIC WILL ENSURE
THE DIAPER FITS SNUGGLY,

PREVENTING LEAKS.

EACH DIAPER WILL BE EQUIPPED
WITH A SET OF THESE FRONT TABS

PUNCHED OUT
BY THIS ROTATING DIE.

THIS CYLINDER APPLIES
STRETCH SIDE PANELS

TO THE TOP PART OF THE DIAPER,

WHICH HAS THE LEG CUFFS
AND GATHERS.

THE ABSORBENT CORE NOW MEETS UP

WITH THE BACK SIDE
OF THE DIAPER.

AND THEN THE OTHER LAYERS
COME TOGETHER AND ADHERE.

A COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM
MONITORS THE ASSEMBLY.

INCREDIBLY, IT TAKES LESS
THAN A QUARTER OF A SECOND

FOR ALL THE LAYERS
OF THE DISPOSABLE DIAPER

TO BE ASSEMBLED.

THE DIAPERS
NOW TRAVEL PAST GUIDES

THAT FOLD DOWN THE TABS
AND SIDE PANELS.

THE DIAPERS ARE THEN CUT
INTO INDIVIDUAL UNITS.

AGAIN, BELTED ROLLERS COMPRESS
THE COMPLETED DIAPERS.

PADDLES THEN FOLD THEM IN HALF.

CONVEYOR BELTS RELAY THE FOLDED
DIAPERS TO A CAROUSEL.

FINGER PADDLES SEPARATE THEM

AND POSITION THEM FOR PACKAGING.

SENSORS COUNT THE DIAPERS

AS THEY MOVE TOWARD
COMPRESSION ARMS

THAT SQUEEZE
THE REQUIRED NUMBER TOGETHER.

A PUSHER SWOOPS IN
TO SLIDE THE DIAPERS INTO A BAG.

VACUUM ARMS
OPEN THE BAGS RIGHT ON CUE.

HOT BARS SEAL THE PACKAGE
FULL OF DIAPERS.

IT THEN MOVES DOWN THE LINE

TO BE PACKED INTO BOXES
FOR SHIPPING.

EACH DISPOSABLE DIAPER
HAS A PHENOMENAL CAPACITY

TO ABSORB LIQUID,

AND THE KEY
IS THOSE POLYMER PARTICLES.

THEY ACT AS TINY GEL SPONGES,

EXPANDING TO HOLD MANY TIMES
THEIR WEIGHT IN FLUID.

CUT OPEN A WET DIAPER,
AND YOU'LL DISCOVER THE LIQUID

HAS TURNED THE SOLID PARTICLES
INTO GEL.

THE PROOF IS IN THE WEIGHING.

FOR EXAMPLE,

THIS DRY DIAPER COMES IN
AT ABOUT AN OUNCE AND A HALF.

WHEN WET,
IT WEIGHS OVER 18 OUNCES.

AND THAT'S THE BOTTOM LINE.

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