How It's Made (2001–…): Season 1, Episode 6 - Nails and Staples/Safety Glasses/Fabrics/Bicycles - full transcript

Nails and staples, safety glasses, fabrics, bicycles; find out how each of these every day items are made and put together.


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

NAILS AND STAPLES --

A FASCINATING
MANUFACTURING PROCESS.

SAFETY GLASSES --

FOCUSED ON PROTECTING
YOUR EYESIGHT.

FABRICS --

WE'LL WEAVE OUR WAY
THROUGH A TEXTILE MILL.

AND BICYCLES --

WE GEAR UP
TO SEE HOW THEY'RE MADE.

IF YOU'VE EVER NEEDED
TO ATTACH TWO PIECES OF WOOD,

YOU KNOW THERE'S NO SHORTAGE
OF FASTENERS.

YOU CAN CHOOSE FROM
COMMON NAILS, SPIRAL NAILS,

FINISHING NAILS,
AND EVEN STAPLES.

AND IF YOU'VE EVER WONDERED

WHERE THESE
USEFUL LITTLE ITEMS COME FROM,

WELL, WE'VE GOT IT ALL
NAILED DOWN FOR YOU.

THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF VARIETIES
OF NAILS BEING MADE,

AND THEY'RE MADE
OF VERY DURABLE CARBON STEEL,

ALL STARTING FROM STEEL WIRE.

ROLLED UP ON A DRUM,

THIS STEEL WIRE WEIGHS IN
AT 5,500 POUNDS.

THE WIRE'S DIAMETER
IS A QUARTER OF AN INCH.

AND THAT'S TOO LARGE,

SO THEY'LL HAVE TO REDUCE
ITS SIZE.

USING MANY DRUMS,

THEY'RE GOING TO PULL THE WIRE
SUCCESSIVELY

TO GRADUALLY THIN IT.

THEN THEY'LL ROLL IT UP AGAIN.

WHEN FULL,
THIS ROLL WILL CONTAIN

ALMOST 80,000 FEET OF WIRE
WEIGHING 2,500 POUNDS.

THE WIRE NOW HAS A DIAMETER
OF 1/10 OF AN INCH,

SO IT WILL HAVE TO BE REDUCED
BY HALF.

NOW THEY'RE GOING TO CUT
THE WIRE INTO LITTLE RODS.

THE CUT RODS ARE GATHERED UP
WITH THIS ELECTROMAGNET

AND DUMPED INTO A MACHINE
THAT WILL PROCESS THEM.

HERE, THE RODS
ARE MADE INTO NAILS.

THE METAL RODS
MOVE ALONG SLOWLY,

AND A BLADE
FORMS THE NAIL POINTS.

THESE BLADES ARE CHANGED
EVERY 600 HOURS.

THIS MACHINE FORMS NAILHEADS

BY FLATTENING THEM WITH GREAT
PRESSURE ON THE ROD ENDS.

NAILHEADS ARE FORMED
AT A RATE OF 1,400 PER MINUTE.

THE MANUFACTURING OF NAILS
IS NOW FINISHED.

THEY FALL INTO A CHUTE,
THEN INTO THIS COLLECTING BIN.

NAILS ARE SOLD BY THE POUND

OR EMBEDDED IN PLASTIC ROLLS,
AS WE SEE HERE.

THIS MACHINE INSERTS 167 NAILS
INTO EACH ROLL.

THE PLASTIC STRIP HAS TEETH,
AND THE NAILS HOOK INTO THESE.

THEY HANDLE THE ROLLS
WITH GLOVES,

SINCE THE COATING APPLIED
TO THE NAILS IS NOT YET DRY.

THIS MACHINE PRODUCES
FIVE ROLLS A MINUTE

FOR A TOTAL OF 835 NAILS.

MAKING SPIRAL NAILS REQUIRES
AN EXTRA PROCESSING STEP.

THIS MACHINE PUTS THE SPIRALS
INTO THE NAILS

WITH THESE CYLINDERS
AND WELDS THEM.

IT MAKES 1,200 NAILS A MINUTE.

THEN THE NAILS
ARE PUT TOGETHER INTO STRIPS

FOR USE
IN PNEUMATIC NAILING GUNS.

EACH STRIP CONTAINS
30 SPIRAL NAILS.

TO HELP THEM IN PLACE,
THE NAILS ARE COATED

WITH A RESIN
THAT DRIES IN FOUR MINUTES.

THIS IS THE NAILING DEVICE
THAT USES NAILS ON A STRIP.

IT SETS THE NAILS IN ONE STRIKE
WITH THE USER'S TRIGGER FINGER.

NOW WE MOVE ON
TO THE FABRICATION OF STAPLES.

THE STAPLE PRESS BINDS
80 IRON WIRES,

WHICH HAVE BEEN WELL-LINED UP.

THE 80 SMALL WIRES
ARE PLACED SIDE BY SIDE.

THE WIRES ARE GLUED TOGETHER.

THEN THE WIRES COME OUT
WELL-ADHERED TO ONE ANOTHER.

THE STAPLE STRIPS
ARE FED INTO THIS MACHINE.

IT CUTS THE STAPLES
TO THE DESIRED LENGTH

AND FOLDS THEM
IN ONE STROKE OF THIS PRESS,

WHICH APPLIES 40 TONS
OF PRESSURE.

STAPLES ARE FORMED
ON THIS GAUGE,

AND THE STAPLE STRIPS
ARE THEN READY FOR PACKAGING.

EVERY DAY THEY PRODUCE A TOTAL
OF SOME 25 MILLION NAILS HERE,

WHICH REQUIRE THE PROCESSING

OF 11,000 TONS OF METAL
ANNUALLY.

Narrator:
AT WORK AND AT PLAY,

OUR PRECIOUS VISION
CAN BE AT RISK.

FOR INSTANCE,
WE NEED TO PROTECT OUR EYES

WHEN WE'RE USING POWER TOOLS
AND WHEN WE'RE PLAYING SQUASH.

THANKFULLY, ALL WE NEED TO DO
IS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES.

HOW DO THEY MAKE THEM
SO RESISTANT?

LET'S HAVE A LOOK.

MANY SPORTS AND TRADES REQUIRE
THE WEARING OF SAFETY GLASSES.

THESE GLASSES ARE MADE
WITH PLASTIC MOLDING.

HERE WE SEE THE INTERIOR
OF A MOLD.

THE OPTICAL PART OF THE LENS
IS MIRRORED

IN ORDER TO BE AS TRANSPARENT AS
POSSIBLE WITHOUT BEING DEFORMED.

THE GLASSES ARE MADE BY MELTING
THE PRIMARY MATERIAL,

A PLASTIC RESIN
CALLED POLYCARBONATE.

THE RESIN GRANULES
ARE POURED INTO THIS MACHINE.

IT BECOMES LIQUEFIED
AT A TEMPERATURE OF 450 DEGREES.

THE LIQUID PLASTIC IS INJECTED
INTO THE MOLD UNDER PRESSURE

OVER A 30- TO 60-SECOND PERIOD.

THE PLASTIC HARDENS RAPIDLY,

AND THE GLASSES ARE THEN
REMOVED FROM THE MOLD.

THEY MOLD SEVERAL GLASSES
AT A TIME.

THE GLASSES ARE SEPARATED
BY HAND

AND THEN ARE GIVEN
AN INITIAL VISUAL INSPECTION.

THE GLASSES ARE PLACED
ON THIS SUPPORT.

THEY'RE THEN TAKEN
TO THE LABORATORY,

WHERE THEY'LL BE GIVEN
A SURFACE TREATMENT.

BUT BEFORE BEGINNING
THE TREATMENT,

THEY'RE WASHED
TO ELIMINATE ANY IMPURITIES

AND TO ASSURE
THAT THE COATING TREATMENT

ADHERES WELL TO THE LENS.

WHEN THEY'VE BEEN WASHED,

THE GLASSES ARE THEN RINSED
IN CLEAR WATER.

THE GLASSES ARE NOW GENTLY
SOAKED IN A CHEMICAL SOLUTION,

WHICH PREVENTS MISTING
AND SCRATCHING OF THE LENS.

THIS COATING
NOW HAS TO BE COOKED.

THEY DIRECT THE GLASSES
TOWARD AN OVEN

HEATED TO 480 DEGREES.

THE SOAKING AND COOKING
PROCESSES

VARY BETWEEN 30 MINUTES
AND 2 HOURS.

EACH PAIR OF GLASSES
IS INSPECTED TO MAKE SURE

THERE ARE NO IMPERFECTIONS
OR DISTORTIONS IN THE LENSES.

THEN THE GLASSES ARE PLACED
ON THIS SUPPORT.

THIS MILLING MACHINE
AUTOMATICALLY REMOVES

THE LAST PIECE OF POLYCARBONATE.

THIS ONE WAS LEFT IN PLACE

SO THAT THEY WOULD BE ABLE
TO HANDLE THE GLASSES

WITHOUT HAVING TO TOUCH
THE LENSES.

AT THIS STAGE OF THE PRODUCTION
OF THE GLASSES,

THE NOSEPIECE IS GLUED ON.

CERTAIN PAIRS OF GLASSES
ARE SELECTED

FROM EACH PRODUCTION RUN.

HERE THEY EVALUATE
THE RESISTANCE OF GLASSES

TO A RACQUETBALL HURLED AT THEM
AT 90 MILES PER HOUR.

HERE A HOCKEY VISOR IS TESTED

AGAINST A PUCK TRAVELING
AT 60 MILES AN HOUR.

TO CONFORM TO SAFETY STANDARDS,

THE GLASSES MUST WITHSTAND
THESE TESTS.

IT CONFIRMS
THAT THEY'RE TRULY SAFE.

THEY NOW PROCEED
TO FINAL ASSEMBLY STEPS

IN MAKING THE GLASSES.

THE LAST FEW PIECES
OF THE GLASSES,

SUCH AS THE PLASTIC EAR STEMS,
ARE INSTALLED.

NOW COMPLETED,
THE GLASSES ARE PLACED IN CASES.

IT'S THE FINAL STEP
IN THEIR FABRICATION.

THEY MAKE SEVERAL TYPES
OF SAFETY GLASSES HERE --

INDUSTRIAL,
HOCKEY AND FOOTBALL VISORS,

SWIMMING GOGGLES,
AND RACQUETBALL GLASSES.

THIS FACILITY TURNS OUT

THOUSANDS OF SAFETY GLASSES
EVERY DAY,

AND THE POLYCARBONATE RESIN USED
TO MAKE THOSE SAFETY GLASSES

COULD VERY WELL SAVE YOUR EYES
ONE DAY.

Narrator:
EARLY MAN RELIED ON ANIMAL SKINS

TO PROTECT HIMSELF
AGAINST THE ELEMENTS.

EVENTUALLY,
FABRICS WERE INVENTED,

GIVING US A BIT MORE CHOICE
IN THE MATTER

AND ELIMINATING THE NEED TO HUNT
OR GO NAKED.

TODAY TEXTILE MILLS MAKE FABRICS

IN EVERY CONCEIVABLE PATTERN
AND COLOR.

FABRIC IS MADE FROM THOUSANDS
OF BRAIDED THREADS.

THIS MILL HAS 700 BOBBINS
OF POLYESTER.

EACH BOBBIN CONTAINS
155 MILES OF THREAD.

WE BEGIN BY SEPARATING
THE THREADS.

THIS WARP UNIT TAKES THE 700
STRANDS AND ASSEMBLES THEM.

THEN THIS COMB SEPARATES THEM.

OTHER STRANDS ARE ADDED,

AND IN TOTAL THERE WILL BE
7,000 OF THEM.

ONE FABRIC IS COMPOSED OF
THREADS BRAIDED AT 90 DEGREES.

THE WARP THREADS
ARE ASSEMBLED LENGTHWISE,

WHILE THE WEFT THREADS
ARE JOINED TRANSVERSELY.

TO PREVENT THE THREADS
FROM TEARING,

THEY PASS THROUGH A BIN OF GLUE.

THESE ROLLERS ELIMINATE
THE SURPLUS.

THE GLUE WILL BE REMOVED WITH
WATER BEFORE DYEING THE THREADS.

THE GLUED-TOGETHER THREADS
EXIT THIS MACHINE.

THESE LARGE GREEN CYLINDERS
ARE HEATED

AND DRY THE GLUE ON THE THREADS.

KNITTING WILL SOON BEGIN.

THE 700 STRANDS ARE NEWLY
SEPARATED ON THIS LOOM ROLLER.

EACH THREAD MUST PASS THROUGH
A BLADE

TO PRODUCE A SPECIFIC DESIGN.

THIS MACHINE TAKES THE 7,000
STRANDS OF THREAD, ONE BY ONE,

AND THEY PASS THROUGH THE BLADE.

IT'S A HIGHLY PRECISE OPERATION.

THE THREADS PASS THROUGH
A BLADE,

AND THE WEAVING FINALLY BEGINS.

ON THIS JACQUARD-TYPE
LOOM ROLLER,

THE WARPED THREAD IS INSERTED
BY A JET OF AIR.

THE WEAVING MACHINE
ASSEMBLES TWO LOOM ROLLERS

MADE OF 7,000 STRANDS.

THE FABRIC REACHES A WIDTH
OF 12 FEET.

THE DARK THREADS ARE INSERTED
INTO THE WEAVE.

THEY INSERT 600 WEFT STRANDS
PER MINUTE.

THE BLADES REMOVE
THE WEFT STRANDS

TO INSERT THE WARP ONES
BETWEEN THE TWO.

A COMB PUSHES THE WEFT.

THE PLATE OF THE BREAKAGE CHAIN
STOPS THE MACHINE

IF A THREAD SHOULD BREAK.

THIS BOBBIN CONTAINS
155 MILES OF THREAD.

THE WEFT THREAD
IS IN THE INSERTION NOZZLE.

WHEN A WEFT IS INSERTED,
AN AIR JET NUDGES IT IN.

THE LOOM ROLLER OPERATES
AT FULL TILT.

IT MAKES 600
THREAD INTERSECTIONS A MINUTE.

WEAVING IS NOW OVER.

WE MOVE ON TO THE FOLLOWING
STEPS -- WASHING AND DYEING.

WASHING IS DONE IN
A SOAPY SOLUTION AT 175 DEGREES

AND AT A SPEED OF 195 FEET
OF FABRIC A MINUTE.

THE FABRIC IS RINSED IN
CLEAR WATER OF ABOUT 85 DEGREES.

NOW IT'S ON TO DYEING.

THIS IS DONE WITH JETS.

UP TO 7 1/2 MILES OF FABRIC
IS PLACED IN CLEAN WATER

INTO WHICH COLORANTS
HAVE BEEN ADDED.

THE SOLUTION IS HEATED,

AND THE FABRIC SOAKS HERE
FOR ABOUT SIX HOURS.

THEN IT WILL BE RINSED
IN LUKEWARM WATER.

THE FABRIC IS PLACED IN A BIN.

THIS MACHINE IS CALLED
AN OPENER.

IT UNFOLDS AND STRETCHES
THE MATERIAL

BEFORE ROLLING IT UP
ON AN IMMENSE ROLLER.

AND NOW THE ROLL IS ALMOST FULL.

WE NOW MOVE TO THERMOSETTING
IN A HIGH-TEMPERATURE OVEN

THAT DRIES THE FABRIC.

THE TEMPERATURE
IS ALMOST 400 DEGREES

AT THE OVEN'S ENTRANCE.

THE FABRIC CIRCULATES HERE
FOR 45 SECONDS.

THE BOBBIN THAT WE SAW
AT THE BEGINNING

HAS PRODUCED 15 MILES OF FABRIC.

THIS FINISHED ROLL
WEIGHS 3,300 POUNDS.

Narrator:
BICYCLES HAVE COME A LONG WAY

FROM THE ORIGINAL BASIC DESIGN.

NOW THEY FEATURE MULTIPLE GEARS,

HIGH-TECH MATERIALS
LIKE CARBON-FIBER FRAMES

AND FEATHERLIGHT METAL ALLOYS.

AND THEY'RE MADE
TO TACKLE EVERYTHING

FROM QUIET BIKE PATHS TO
THE MOST RUGGED MOUNTAIN TRAILS.

A FRENCH INVENTION OF 1790,

THE FIRST BICYCLE RESEMBLED
A 2-WHEELED WOODEN HORSE

WITHOUT PEDALS OR HANDLEBARS.

IN 1817, A GERMAN GAVE IT
DIRECTION CONTROL.

THE ADDITION OF PEDALS
TO THE FRONT WHEELS

CAME FROM FRANCE IN 1861.

THE BRITISH CONTRIBUTED AS WELL,

ADDING THE LARGE FRONT WHEEL
IN 1870.

BY 1903,
ALL COUNTRIES PARTICIPATED

IN THE FIRST
BICYCLE TOUR DE FRANCE.

A BICYCLE IS A BEAUTIFUL PIECE
OF ENGINEERING.

THE FRAMES ARE MADE OF STEEL

OR A CHROMIUM-MOLYBDENUM ALLOY
KNOWN AS CHROMOLY.

FABRICATION BEGINS
WITH THESE HOLLOW TUBES.

THE TUBE CUTTER CUTS THE STEEL
BEFORE SENDING IT TO THE BENDER.

THE BENDER CURVES THE TUBES
COLD,

EXERTING STRONG PRESSURE
AGAINST THE BENDING JIG.

THE TUBES MUST NOW BE
MACHINED --

THAT IS, CUT INTO LENGTHS

SO THAT THEY CORRECTLY FIT
INTO ONE ANOTHER.

DURING THIS OPERATION,
CUTTING OIL COOLS THE TUBE.

THE TUBE IS CUT,
TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION

THE INSERTION ANGLE
OF THE OTHER PIECES.

TUBES TO BE WELDED TOGETHER
ARE PLACED IN THIS SUPPORT.

THEY INSERT A PIECE IN AN ALLOY
OF SILVER AND BRONZE,

WHICH INCREASES THE STRENGTH

AND PRODUCES A BETTER FINISH
AT THE WELDING POINT.

WELDING NOW TAKES PLACE.

WELDING OF THE FRAME
REQUIRES ABOUT TWO MINUTES

AT A TEMPERATURE
OF OVER 1,400 DEGREES.

ONCE WELDED, THE PART
TAKES FOUR MINUTES TO COOL.

THEY PROCEED IN THE SAME WAY
WITH ALL THE TUBES

THAT FORM THE FRAME
OF THE BICYCLE.

AT THIS STAGE, IT'S IMPORTANT
TO STRAIGHTEN THE FRAME,

WHICH COULD HAVE DEFORMED
DURING WELDING.

THEY VERIFY THE ALIGNMENT
OF THE TUBES

AND STRAIGHTEN IT OUT COLD

WITH A TOOL THAT SETS IT
TO THE RIGHT DIMENSIONS.

NOW THEY'RE GOING TO PAINT
THE FRAMES.

PAINT IS APPLIED
WITH A SPRAY GUN

AND ADHERES TO THE FRAME
BY STATIC CONTACT.

THEN THE PAINT WILL BE BAKED

IN A NATURAL-GAS OVEN
AT 425 DEGREES FOR 15 MINUTES.

THE FRAME IS NOW COOLED,
AND WE CAN BEGIN THE ASSEMBLY.

THE LABELS ARE NOW APPLIED.

IN ANOTHER DEPARTMENT,

AN EMPLOYEE ASSEMBLES
THE HANDLEBARS.

HE INSTALLS THE MECHANISM
FOR THE BRAKES AND THE GEARS.

NOW WE MOVE ON
TO THE WHEEL RIMS.

THE 36 STAINLESS-STEEL SPOKES
OF EACH ALUMINUM WHEEL

ARE INSTALLED MANUALLY.

THE DEXTERITY OF THESE WORKERS
ALLOWS THEM TO INSTALL SPOKES

ON 65 WHEEL RIMS IN AN HOUR.

THIS SPOKE TOOL ALLOWS THEM TO
SCREW THE SPOKES INTO THE RIM.

THIS MACHINE EXERTS A PRESSURE
ON THE SPOKES

SO THAT THEY'LL HAVE
THE DESIRED TENSION.

IF THERE'S TOO MUCH
OR NOT ENOUGH TENSION,

THE RIM WILL BE CROOKED.

THIS MACHINE ALIGNS THE RIMS,

ESSENTIAL FOR PROPER FUNCTIONING
OF THE BICYCLE.

IT AUTOMATICALLY ADJUSTS
THE SPOKES

SO THAT THE WHEEL
WILL BE TRULY STRAIGHT.

NEXT STEP --

PLACING OF THE TUBES
AND THE TIRES ON THE WHEEL RIMS.

SET UPSIDE DOWN,

THE BICYCLE CIRCULATES
FROM ONE WORKSHOP TO ANOTHER,

WHERE THEY WILL INSTALL
THE LAST MECHANICAL PARTS.

THESE ACCESSORIES
ARE NOT MADE HERE.

THE HANDLEBARS, THE PEDALS,
THE FORK, THE BRAKE,

AND CHAIN MECHANISMS
ARE ALL INSTALLED MANUALLY.

HERE THEY SCREW ON
THE REAR BRAKE PLATE.

FINALLY THEY INSPECT
EACH BICYCLE

TO MAKE SURE THAT THE BOLTS
ARE WELL-TIGHTENED

AND THAT EVERYTHING'S
WORKING PROPERLY.

THEN IT'S ON TO PACKAGING.

THIS FACTORY MAKES
2,500 BICYCLES EACH DAY.

ASSEMBLED FROM VARIOUS TUBES
OF CHROMOLY,

EACH ONE WEIGHS ABOUT 25 POUNDS

AND WILL RUN
FOR THOUSANDS OF MILES.

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