How It's Made (2001–…): Season 1, Episode 3 - Toothpicks/Acrylic Bathtubs/Helicopters/Beer - full transcript

Everyday objects often have fascinating roots. Find out how toothpicks, acrylic bathtubs, helicopters and beer are made.


Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

TOOTHPICKS...

...ACRYLIC BATHTUBS...

...HELICOPTERS...

AND BEER.

SOME PEOPLE USE THEM TO HOLD
HORS D'OEUVRES TOGETHER.

KIDS MAKE SCALE MODELS

OF FAMOUS BUILDINGS
AND BRIDGES OUT OF THEM.

AND SOME PEOPLE
ACTUALLY USE THEM

FOR THEIR PRIMARY PURPOSE --

TO REMOVE FOOD
CAUGHT BETWEEN THEIR TEETH.

WHAT ARE WE TALKING ABOUT?

WHY, THE HUMBLE TOOTHPICK,
OF COURSE.

LOGS -- LOTS OF BIRCH LOGS
ARE DELIVERED TO THIS FACTORY.

THEY'RE THE RAW MATERIAL FROM
WHICH TOOTHPICKS WILL BE MADE.

THE HEAVY LOGS
ARE LIFTED BY GRIPPERS

AND PLACED INTO A DEBARKER.

BARK ISN'T PART OF THE
TOOTHPICK-FABRICATION PROCESS

AND IS RECOVERED
BY THIS MACHINE.

BUT THE BARK ISN'T THROWN AWAY.

IT'S SOLD
TO A NEIGHBORING FACTORY

WHERE IT WILL BE USED AS FUEL.

THE DEBARKER WORKS IN TWO STEPS.

WITH TWO PASSES,
IT PRODUCES A LOG ROLL

THAT'S PERFECTLY CYLINDRICAL
AND EASIER TO MILL.

THIS LOG IS BEING TRANSPORTED
TO THE NEXT PROCESSING STAGE.

THIS UNRAVELING MACHINE
UNRAVELS THE LOG

AS IF IT WERE A ROLL OF PAPER,

CUTTING IT WITH 12 FINE BLADES

EACH .04 OF AN INCH THICK
AND 2 1/2 INCHES WIDE.

THESE SAME BLADES WILL BE
USED LATER TO CUT TOOTHPICKS.

THEN THESE 12 BLADES,

POSITIONED SIDE BY SIDE
ON THE UNRAVELING MACHINE,

WILL FORM ROLLS OF STRIPS
CALLED "BILLETS."

THESE TINY CUTTERS ARE USED TO
TRIM THE ENDS OF THE TOOTHPICKS.

KNIVES PLACED HERE AND THERE
ON THE MACHINE

THIN THE ENDS OF THE TOOTHPICKS.

THE ROLLER ROLLS UP THE CUT
STRIPS, FORMING A BILLET.

COMPLETED STRIPS, OR BILLETS,
ARE TAKEN OUT MANUALLY.

EACH BILLET WEIGHS 4 POUNDS.

THE BILLETS ARE CARRIED
TO THE PUNCHER,

THE FLAT-TOOTHPICK PUNCHER

CUTS THE BILLET STRIPS
INTO SMALL, EQUAL-SIZED PIECES.

THE CUT PIECES COME OUT
AT THIS END OF THE MACHINE.

THE PUNCH WORKS VERY RAPIDLY.

KNIVES COME DOWN
2,000 TIMES PER MINUTE

TO CUT A TOTAL OF 8,000
TOOTHPICKS IN JUST 60 SECONDS.

CUT TOOTHPICKS FALL INTO THIS
CHUTE, THEN INTO A CONTAINER.

AT THIS STAGE, THEY'RE SOFT.

THEY HAVE TO BE HARDENED
IN A DRYER FOR FOUR HOURS

AT 250 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THEN THE TOOTHPICKS ARE
TRANSFERRED TO THE POLISHER.

TALCUM POWDER AND FRICTION

HELP MAKE THE TOOTHPICKS
PERFECTLY SMOOTH.

THIS OPERATION TAKES FOUR HOURS.

TOOTHPICKS EXIT THE POLISHER
AND PASS THROUGH THIS SIFTER,

WHICH FILTERS OUT BROKEN ONES.

THOSE IN GOOD CONDITION CONTINUE
ON TO AN AIR-BLOWER SYSTEM.

DAMAGED ONES ARE REJECTED.

PERFECT TOOTHPICKS ARE PLACED
ONTO TWO CONVEYERS

BY AN AIR-BLOWING SYSTEM.

DRUMS AT THE END
OF THE CONVEYORS

ASSURE QUANTITY DISTRIBUTION,

THEN THEY'RE CARRIED TO
THE AUTOMATIC PACKAGERS.

THIS MACHINE COUNTS
THE TOOTHPICKS.

BOXES ARE MADE UP,
READY FOR FILLING.

THE NUMBER OF TOOTHPICKS
INCLUDED IN EACH BOX MATTERS.

THE PACKAGER IS CALIBRATED

TO PLACE 650 TOOTHPICKS
IN EACH CONTAINER,

AND IT PRODUCES
ABOUT 1,150 BOXES AN HOUR.

IT HANDLES
747,500 TOOTHPICKS AN HOUR.

SOME TOOTHPICKS
ARE INDIVIDUALLY WRAPPED

FOR DISTRIBUTION
TO RESTAURANTS AND AIRLINES.

THIS MACHINE WRAPS 1,200
TOOTHPICKS PER MINUTE.

IT AUTOMATICALLY WRAPS, GLUES,
AND CUTS THE PAPER.

THIS FACILITY CAN MANUFACTURE

MORE THAN 20 MILLION TOOTHPICKS
EVERY DAY.

AND IT ALL STARTED
FROM SEVERAL BIRCH LOGS.

Narrator: BATHING DAILY IS
A RELATIVELY NEW PHENOMENON,

HISTORICALLY SPEAKING.

PEOPLE USED TO TAKE BATHS
ONLY WHEN NECESSARY.

TODAY WHILING AWAY THE AFTERNOON
IN THE TUB

IS MORE THAN A WAY
TO WASH OUR BODIES.

WITH BUBBLES AND BATH OILS, IT
CAN BE AN EXPERIENCE IN LUXURY.

MODERN BATHTUBS LOOK NOTHING
LIKE TUBS OF THE MIDDLE AGES

OR THOSE WOODEN TUBS
WE SEE IN WESTERN FILMS.

TO ACHIEVE SUPREME COMFORT,
THE DESIGNER EXPLORES NEW SHAPES

VIA COMPUTER
AND DESIGN SOFTWARE,

TOOLS WHICH MAKE FOR A SPEEDY
REVIEW OF VARIOUS SHAPES.

THEN A MODEL IS PRODUCED.

THIS ONE, PRODUCED ON A
1/6 SCALE, IS MADE OF CARDBOARD.

BUT OTHER MODELS CAN BE
MADE OF CLAY, POLYSTYRENE,

OR BY STEREOLITHOGRAPHY.

MANUFACTURING BEGINS
WITH AN ACRYLIC SHEET.

IT IS HEATED TO
ABOUT 390 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT

WITH CERAMIC ELEMENTS.

THE SHEET BECOMES SOFT
AND MALLEABLE.

SO THAT IT TAKES
THE FORM OF THE MOLD,

THOUSANDS OF TINY HOLES
IN THE SHELL

SUCTION THE SHEET BY VACUUM.

THE MOLD MUST COOL
BEFORE IT CAN BE OPENED.

POWERFUL VENTILATORS BLOW AIR
DIRECTLY ONTO THE MOLD,

LOWERING THE TEMPERATURE TO
170 DEGREES IN 4 TO 6 MINUTES.

THE VENTILATORS
ARE THEN WITHDRAWN.

THEN THE SHELL
IS EASILY REMOVED FROM THE MOLD.

IT WEIGHS A MERE 35 POUNDS.

TO MAKE A TUB IN ANOTHER SHAPE,
THEY CHANGE THE MOLD.

THEY PUT IN
ANOTHER ACRYLIC SHEET.

THE SHEET IS HEATED ON
THE CERAMIC AND FIBERGLASS MOLD,

THE LITTLE HOLES VACUUM OUT AIR,
AND THE JOB IS DONE.

THE MOLDED ACRYLIC SHEET

IS NOT STURDY ENOUGH
TO BE FILLED WITH WATER,

SO IT MUST BE REINFORCED
WITH FIBERGLASS.

THIS IS THE FIBERGLASS.

MIXED WITH RESIN, IT IS BLOWN
ONTO THE MOLD BY A ROBOTIC UNIT.

STORED IN RESERVOIRS,

THE RESIN IS CARRIED
TO THE ROBOT BY PUMPS.

HERE IT PRODUCES
A CHEMICAL REACTION

BETWEEN THE FIBERGLASS
AND THE RESIN,

WHICH PRODUCES
A REINFORCED SHELL.

LAMINATING IS ONE OF
THE MOST IMPORTANT STEPS.

WITH BRUSH AND ROLLER,

THEY ELIMINATE ALL AIR BUBBLES
THAT COULD WEAKEN THE TUB.

THIS MAKES THE FIBERGLASS RESIN
ADHERE PERFECTLY

TO THE ACRYLIC SHELL.

THE PROCESS TAKES 75 MINUTES.

THE SHELL IS THEN TRANSPORTED
TO THE MILLING DEPARTMENT.

THE SHELL IS DRY AND HARD.

THEY CAN EXTRACT IT MANUALLY,

BUT HERE THEY USE
DIGITALLY CONTROLLED MACHINES.

THE OPERATION BEGINS

WITH THE TRIMMING OF THE EDGES
OF THE BATHTUB.

DURING THIS PROCESS,

THE ROBOT WILL PIERCE OPENINGS
FOR THE DRAINS,

THE WHIRLPOOL JETS,

AND THE AIR JETS
FOR THE OVERFLOW

AND FOR AMBIENT LIGHT.

THE BATHTUB, ALMOST COMPLETED,
IS NOW SENT TO ANOTHER WORKSHOP.

THEY CAN NOW INSTALL THE PUMP,
THE PIPING, AND THE BLOWER.

THESE LAST OPERATIONS
ARE DONE MANUALLY.

THE PUMP IS INSTALLED
FOR THE WHIRLPOOL SYSTEM,

AS WELL AS THE PVC PIPES,

WHOSE JOINTS HAVE BEEN
HERMETICALLY SEALED

TO PREVENT ANY LEAKS.

FINALLY, TO MAKE SURE THAT
EVERYTHING IS FUNCTIONING WELL,

EACH BATHTUB
UNDERGOES A WATER TEST.

THE TUB IS FINALLY READY.

AFTER 13 STEPS AND ANYWHERE FROM
THREE TO FIVE HOURS OF WORK,

DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF TUB.

IT ALMOST INVITES YOU
TO CLIMB IN.

Narrator:
IN THE WORLD OF AERONAUTICS,

THE HELICOPTER IS
THE IDEAL GO-ANYWHERE MACHINE.

UNLIKE AIRPLANES,

CHOPPERS CAN MOVE
IN ALMOST ANY DIRECTION

AND TAKE OFF AND LAND
STRAIGHT UP AND DOWN.

NOW THAT WE'VE "COPTERED"
YOUR ATTENTION,

LET'S SEE WHAT GOES INTO
BUILDING THESE WHIRLYBIRDS.

MAN HAS ALWAYS WANTED TO FLY.

AND THE VERSATILITY OF
THE HELICOPTER HAS ALLOWED HIM

TO REACH UNEXPECTED HEIGHTS.

PLANS FOR A HELICOPTER
ARE CREATED

WITH CATIA 3-D DESIGN-ASSISTING
COMPUTER SOFTWARE.

IT TAKES 700 HOURS OF WORK

BETWEEN THE DRAWING STAGE
AND THE ASSEMBLY OF THE PATTERN.

THE HELICOPTER IS MADE
OF CARBON FIBER,

A COMPOSITE MATERIAL LIGHTER
AND STRONGER THAN STEEL,

PROTECTED BY TWO LAYERS
OF GREEN PLASTIC.

THE FIBER IS CUT WITH A BLADE
CONTROLLED BY ULTRASOUND.

THEY LAY ON
SEVERAL THICKNESSES OF FIBER

TO MAKE THE REAR FUSELAGE.

THE GREEN LIGHT OF A LASER
HELPS POSITION THE PARTS.

THEN WITH A HEAT GUN,
THEY APPLY A BEEHIVE WEB

WHICH INCREASES
THE SOLIDITY OF THE STRUCTURE.

BUT THE CARBON FIBER
IS STILL SOFT.

TO HARDEN, IT MUST BE BAKED
UNDER PRESSURE

FOR 10 HOURS IN THIS AUTOCLAVE
OVEN AT 350 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THE PIECES EXIT THE OVEN
AND HEAD FOR MACHINING.

THE DOOR OF THE MOTOR HOUSING
IS KEPT IN A CUTTING JIG

AND IS SHAPED
WITH A MANUAL SHAPER.

BEFORE INSTALLING THE PARTS,

THEY STRIKE THE CARBON FIBER
WITH A RESONANCE HAMMER

TO DETECT ANY FAULTS.

THE ELECTRICAL HARNESS
IS MOUNTED ON A PATTERN

BEFORE BEING INSTALLED
IN THE AIRCRAFT.

THIS PARTICULAR HELICOPTER
HAS 2,570 YARDS OF WIRING,

BUT OTHERS CAN HAVE
ALMOST 6 MILES.

THE WIRING WILL BE CONNECTED
TO THE FLIGHT-INSTRUMENTS PANEL,

THE BRAIN OF THE HELICOPTER.

THIS AIRCRAFT HAS 9,964 RIVETS
FASTENED WITH A GUN AND A RAM.

THEY ALSO APPLY A SEALANT

TO PREVENT
CORROSION-CREATING HUMIDITY.

THEY NOW ASSEMBLE
THE HELICOPTER'S REAR FUSELAGE.

PIECE BY PIECE,
THE AIRCRAFT TAKES SHAPE.

THEY WILL INSTALL
MECHANICAL COMPONENTS LATER.

THE MOTOR ARRIVES.

THIS ONE WEIGHS 260 POUNDS
AND HAS TO BE CAREFULLY HANDLED.

AMONG THE OTHER PARTS
TO BE INSTALLED

IS THE CIRCULAR PLATE ON WHICH
THE BLADES WILL BE ATTACHED.

SAFETY IS PRIMARY.

THE SCREW-NUT HOLES
ARE PERFORATED,

ALLOWING FOR THE INSERTION
OF THE BRAKE CABLE.

THIS TIGHTLY BRAIDED METAL WIRE
PREVENTS THE NUT FROM LOOSENING,

DUE TO STRONG VIBRATIONS.

NOW THEY BOLT ON
THE FOUR BLADES,

WHICH MAKES THE HELICOPTER FLY.

WEIGHING 90 POUNDS EACH,

THEY'RE MADE OF COMPOSITE
MATERIALS AND AN ALUMINUM ALLOY.

THEY'RE ATTACHED
TO THE MAIN ROTOR.

THE DASHBOARD IS INSTALLED
IN THE COCKPIT,

AND ALL THE WIRES ARE HOOKED UP.

CONTACT IS ESTABLISHED,
AND ALL IS FUNCTIONING PROPERLY.

THE LAST STEP -- FINISHING
THE INTERIOR OF THE CRAFT.

THEY INSTALL SEATS,
SAFETY BELTS, THE CONSOLES,

BULKHEADS, WINDOWS AND DOORS,
AS WELL AS THE TRIMMINGS.

THE HELICOPTER
IS ALMOST COMPLETED,

BUT IT STILL HAS TO BE PAINTED.

WHEN DONE,
THE HELICOPTER IS TOWED

OUTSIDE THE ASSEMBLY HANGAR.

FLIGHT TESTS ARE PERFORMED

TO MAKE SURE THAT MECHANICAL
AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS

ARE FUNCTIONING PROPERLY.

IT REQUIRES
AN AVERAGE OF 110 DAYS

TO ASSEMBLE
THE MORE THAN 3,000 PARTS

OF A HELICOPTER LIKE THIS ONE,

AND THEY TURN OUT
ALMOST 185 UNITS EACH YEAR.

THESE 3-TON ENGINES ARE CAPABLE
OF REACHING SPEEDS OF 140 KNOTS

AND FLYING AT A MAXIMUM ALTITUDE
OF 20,000 FEET.

Narrator: BEER HAS BEEN AROUND

FOR AS LONG
AS CIVILIZATION ITSELF.

HISTORICAL RECORDS SHOW
THAT ANCIENT PEOPLES MADE BEER

WITH BARLEY, HOPS, WATER,
AND YEAST.

WE STILL USE
THE SAME INGREDIENTS,

BUT AS YOU'LL SEE,

TODAY'S PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
IS FAR MORE COMPLEX.

BEER HAS BEEN DRUNK
SINCE 4,000 B.C. IN MESOPOTAMIA.

THE SIKARU MADE IT
AS A SACRED BEVERAGE

FROM GRAINS BUT WITHOUT HOPS.

THE GAULS AND THE CELTS

DRANK A BEVERAGE MADE
WITH BARLEY, WHEAT, AND RYE.

DURING THE CRUSADES,
EUROPEANS DISCOVERED SPICES

AND FLAVORED THE BEVERAGE
WITH CINNAMON AND LAUREL.

IN THE 15th CENTURY, NORDIC
PEOPLES USED HOPS AS A SPICE,

GIVING RISE TO THE BEER
WE KNOW TODAY.

BEER IS A FERMENTED BEVERAGE
MADE WITH CEREALS AND WATER.

THE COMPANY HAS ITS OWN
WATER-FILTRATION PLANT.

IT WILL BE REFILTERED
BEFORE BEING USED

TO ELIMINATE CHLORINE.

THIS MATERIALS TANKS CAN HOLD
21,000 GALLONS OF WATER.

BETWEEN 11 AND 16 TONS OF MALT
AND ANOTHER GRAIN ARE ADDED.

THEY USE DARK MALT,

WHICH HAS BEEN HEAT-TREATED
TO A HIGH TEMPERATURE.

THE MIXTURE
WILL SPEND TWO HOURS HERE.

AN AGITATOR PREVENTS MALT HUSKS

FROM SETTLING
TO THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK.

TURBULENCE FROM THE PUMPS
DURING THE TRANSFER

CAUSES THE FORMATION
OF THIS PROTEIN FOAM.

THE WORT IS IN THE PROCESS
OF BEING EXTRACTED

AND WILL BE BOILED.

ABOUT FIVE HOURS HAVE PASSED
SINCE THE BREWING PROCESS BEGAN.

HERE THEY DRAW OFF A SAMPLE.

THEY WILL MAKE
OTHER CONTROL TESTS

AT VARIOUS STAGES OF BREWING.

THIS IS THE DRAFF, A SOLID
RESIDUE EXTRACTED FROM THE WORT.

IT WILL BE USED AS CATTLE FEED.

HERE IS A CLOSE-UP VIEW
OF THE DRAFF.

THEN THE LIQUID IS FILTERED.

HERE'S THE FILTRATION TANK

WHERE THE WORT IS SEPARATED
FROM THE MALT HUSKS.

A SAMPLE IS WITHDRAWN
FROM THE WORT HEATER

TO VERIFY THE DENSITY OF SUGARS
AND THE QUALITY OF THE WORT.

NOW ANOTHER INGREDIENT --
THE HOPS --

IS ADDED INTO THE WORT HEATER.

THE HOPS IMPART THE BITTERNESS
AND AROMA PARTICULAR TO BEER.

THE HOPS LOOKS LIKE THIS.

THEY CAN NOW START THE BREWING.

IN THE CONTROL ROOM,
AN OPERATOR HANDLES

THE DATA-CONTROL SYSTEM
OF THE BREWING PROCESS.

THEY ADD IN THE YEAST, WHICH
STARTS OFF THE FERMENTATION.

THIS PROCESS LASTS
BETWEEN 7 AND 10 DAYS.

THIS FOAM INDICATES
THAT FERMENTATION HAS BEGUN,

AND SUGARS WILL NOW
TRANSFORM INTO ALCOHOL.

EACH FERMENTATION TANK
IS COMPUTER-CONTROLLED

TO MAINTAIN
A SPECIFIC TEMPERATURE.

DURING FERMENTATION,

CHEMICAL REACTIONS CREATE
THE SCUM THAT WE SEE.

NOW AGED FOR THREE WEEKS,
THE BEER IS ALMOST FINISHED.

WE SEE HERE THE BOTTLING TANKS.

THE BEER HAS TO BE FILTERED
ONCE MORE.

EXITING THESE FILTERS,
THE WORT IS CLARIFIED,

THEN RID OF THE COMPONENTS

RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CLOUDINESS
OF THE BEER.

HERE'S THE BEER
FILTERED A SECOND TIME...

AND FINALLY FINISHED,
AS A CLEAR PRODUCT.

USED BOTTLES ARE NOW WASHED.

AFTER THEIR WASH CYCLE, THE
BOTTLES HAVE BECOME STERILIZED.

EMPTY BOTTLES ARRIVE ON
THIS PLATE, READY TO BE FILLED.

ABOUT 1,000 BOTTLES A MINUTE
ARE FILLED WHILE ON THE MOVE.

THEN THEY PASS TO THE CAPPER

BEFORE BEING SENT
TO THE PASTEURIZER.

ONLY TWO STEPS REMAIN.

LABELS ARE GLUED
ONTO THE BOTTLES,

THEN THEY'RE SENT BY CONVEYOR
TO BE PUT IN CASES.

MADE FROM WATER
AND CEREAL GRAINS,

THE BEER IS NOW READY
TO BE CONSUMED AND ENJOYED.

CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

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