How It's Made (2001–…): Season 1, Episode 2 - Compact Discs/Mozzarella Cheese/Pantyhose/Fluorescent Tubes - full transcript

In this episode find out how compact discs, mozzarella cheese, pantyhose, and fluorescent tubes are made.


CAPTIONS PAID FOR BY
DISCOVERY COMMUNICATIONS, INC.

Narrator:
TODAY ON "HOW IT'S MADE"...

COMPACT DISCS...

...MOZZARELLA CHEESE...

...PANTYHOSE...

...AND FLUORESCENT TUBES.

TODAY THERE'S VIRTUALLY NO LIMIT

TO THE INFORMATION
WE CAN STORE ON COMPACT DISCS.

MILLIONS OF BITS OF DATA
REPRESENTING WORDS, NUMBERS,

MUSIC, GRAPHICS, OR EVEN VIDEO
CAN BE STORED ON THE DISCS.

LET'S TAKE A "SPIN"
THROUGH A CD FACTORY.

COMPACT DISCS ARE COPIES MADE

FROM AN ORIGINAL
GLASS MASTER DISC.

A THIN PLATE OF GLASS
IS FIRST PLACED IN THIS UNIT,

WHICH BRUSHES THE SURFACE CLEAN.

CLEANING IS DONE
WITH DE-IONIZED WATER

AND A SMALL GOAT-HAIR BRUSH.

THE EXCESS WATER IS ELIMINATED

BY THE RAPID ROTATION
OF THE DISC.

THE DISC THEN GOES INTO
THIS SURFACE ANALYZER,

WHERE A LASER BEAM INSPECTS
THE CLEANLINESS OF THE SURFACE.

AT THIS STAGE,
TWO CHEMICALS ARE APPLIED --

A PRIMER
AND A PHOTORESISTANT COATING.

THIS OPERATION IS DONE

AT A TEMPERATURE
OF 70 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT

AND LASTS THREE MINUTES.

THE DISC IS CAREFULLY RETRIEVED
FROM THE APPARATUS.

THEN THE PHOTORESISTANT COATING
DRIES IN AN OVEN FOR 30 MINUTES.

THIS DEVELOPER HAS TWO SPOUTS.

ONE APPLIES A DE-IONIZED WATER,
AND THE OTHER SPRAYS A SOLUTION

TO DEVELOP THE DATA
ETCHED ON THE GLASS.

THE INFORMATION
IS NOW ENGRAVED ON THE DISC.

THEN THE DISC IS PLACED
IN THIS METAL-COATING EQUIPMENT.

THE NEXT STEP CONSISTS
OF APPLYING A THIN COATING

OF NICKEL AND VANADIUM.

THIS ELECTROFORMING PROCESS
RESULTS IN THE MASTER

FROM WHICH DISCS WILL BE MADE.

THE ETCHED GLASS IS IMMERSED
IN A CHEMICAL SOLUTION

FOR 70 MINUTES.

THEN THE PLATED PIECE IS
REMOVED, THUS OBTAINING A DIE.

THE DIE IS SENT OFF
FOR FINISHING.

IT IS STAMPED OUT
INTO THE DESIRED SHAPE.

THE EXCESS MATERIAL IS RECYCLED.

NEXT, THE COMPACT DISCS
WILL BE FABRICATED

FROM THIS MASTER UNIT.

HERE WE CLEARLY SEE
THE STAMPING-OUT TECHNIQUE.

THE MASTER IS TAKEN OUT.

A TECHNICIAN PEELS OFF THE FILM

WHICH PROTECTED THE DATA
ETCHED ONTO THE DIE.

AFTER A VISUAL INSPECTION,

THE DIE IS SENT
TO THE PRESSING DEPARTMENT.

THE DIE IS DELICATELY INSTALLED
IN THE MOLD,

WHICH WILL FORM COMPACT DISCS.

DISCS ARE MADE
FROM A VERY SPECIAL PLASTIC

CALLED "POLYCARBONATE."

THE MOLD IS CLOSED,

AND LIQUID POLYCARBONATE
IS INJECTED INTO THE DIE.

IT COMES OUT AS A SMALL,
HARD, TRANSLUCENT DISC.

IT IS NOW READY
TO BE METAL-COATED

SO IT CAN BE READ
BY A COMPACT-DISC READER.

A ROBOTIC ARM LIFTS THE DISC
FROM THE MOLD

AND PLACES IT ON THESE SUPPORTS.

THIS METALLIZING PROCESS IS
EXTREMELY SHORT AND VERY SIMPLE,

TAKING BUT A SECOND.

IT CONSISTS OF COVERING
THE PLASTIC DISC

WITH A VERY THIN COATING
OF ALUMINUM.

HERE WE SEE THE INSIDE
OF THE MOLD,

WHERE THE ALUMINUM COATING
IS APPLIED.

IN THIS FACILITY,
ALMOST EVERYTHING IS AUTOMATED,

HELPING THEM PRODUCE OVER
100,000 COMPACT DISCS PER DAY.

PROTECTING THE SURFACE
OF THE DISC IS ESSENTIAL,

SO A COAT OF VARNISH IS APPLIED.

THIS ALSO HELPS SILK SCREENING
STICK TO THE SURFACE.

ULTRAVIOLET LAMPS
QUICKLY DRY THE VARNISH.

AND HERE IN THE PRESSING ROOM,
THEY APPLY THE LABEL.

THIS STEP IS ALSO VERY FAST

SINCE THE MACHINE PRINTS
70 DISCS IN 60 SECONDS.

ONCE THE SILK-SCREENING
IS COMPLETED,

THE FINISHED DISCS LEAVE
FOR PACKAGING.

Narrator: IN A SANDWICH,
AS A TOPPING, OR ALL BY ITSELF,

CHEESE HAS ALWAYS BEEN
A POPULAR FOOD.

THIS DAIRY PRODUCT GOES BACK
THOUSANDS OF YEARS,

AND IT'S ALWAYS STARTED
WITH THREE BASIC INGREDIENTS --

MILK, CURDS, AND WHEY.

JUST ASK LITTLE MISS MUFFET.

LIKE ALL CHEESES,
MOZZARELLA STARTS FROM MILK.

TO ASSURE GOOD MILK QUALITY,

THE INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR
OF MILK-TRANSPORT TRUCKS

MUST BE WASHED
AFTER BEING EMPTIED.

A TANK SUCH AS THIS ONE

CAN CARRY AN AVERAGE
OF 8,000 GALLONS OF RAW MILK

AT TEMPERATURES BETWEEN
37 AND 39 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

RAW MILK DESTINED
FOR CHEESEMAKING

CONTAINS 3.8% FATS
AND 3.3% PROTEINS.

THEY STORE THE MILK AND WHEY,
A MILK BY-PRODUCT,

IN THESE IMMENSE SILOS,

EACH WITH A CAPACITY
OF 59,000 GALLONS.

THIS MILK SEPARATOR
EXTRACTS SURPLUS CREAM

TO ADJUST THE PERCENTAGE OF FAT

ACCORDING TO
THE TYPE OF CHEESE TO BE MADE.

FABRICATION BEGINS
WITH THIS TANK,

WHICH FEEDS THE PASTEURIZER.

PASTEURIZATION
STERILIZES BEVERAGES

WHICH CAN EASILY FERMENT.

MILK SAMPLES ARE DRAWN OFF

TO ACCURATELY DETERMINE THEIR
MILK-FAT AND PROTEIN CONTENT.

TESTS ARE CARRIED OUT
IN THIS LABORATORY,

WHERE THEY IMPOSE CONTROLS.

THESE TEST TUBES
CONTAIN MILK SAMPLES

WHICH WILL UNDERGO
MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS.

MILK QUALITY MUST BE IMPECCABLE.

THIS IS A CURDLER WITH
A CAPACITY OF 6,600 GALLONS.

HERE MILK AND OTHER ESSENTIAL
INGREDIENTS ARE INTRODUCED,

SUCH AS THE ENZYME, RENNET,
THAT CURDLES THE MILK.

THIS MIX MUST BE WELL-STIRRED
AND COOKED.

THE AGITATORS ARE USED TO
CUT THE WHEY INTO LITTLE LUMPS.

THIS STEP TAKES
ABOUT 30 MINUTES.

THE TEMPERATURE OF THE TANKS

DEPENDS ON THE TYPE OF CHEESE
THEY'RE MAKING.

AGITATORS
CONTINUE STIRRING THE MILK.

ONCE COOKING IS DONE,

THE WHEY IS PUMPED
ONTO TABLES TO BE DRAINED.

IT STAYS THERE
FOR ABOUT 25 MINUTES.

THE SOLID AND THE LIQUID
ARE NOW WELL-SEPARATED.

THE LIQUID WE SEE DRAINING
IS CALLED THE "LACTOSERUM."

THE LACTOSERUM
WILL BE CONCENTRATED

AND TRANSFORMED
INTO MILK BY-PRODUCTS.

THE WATER HAS BEEN
ALMOST ENTIRELY EXTRACTED,

AND THE CHEESE PARTICLES
ARE NOW SUFFICIENTLY DRY.

THIS LARGE AUTOMATED BLADE

THEN MOVES CHEESE PARTICLES
TOWARDS THE NEXT STEP --

THE MOLDER.

IN THE MOLDER,
THE CHEESE IS CUT UP

BEFORE BEING CARRIED
TO THE COOKER --

THE FINAL PROCESSING STEP.

IT APPEARS THAT THIS MOZZARELLA
HAS JUST THE RIGHT TEXTURE.

THE CHEESE FINALLY ARRIVES
AT THE MOLDER,

WHICH WILL GIVE IT
THE PROPER SHAPE.

EACH MOLD HAS A 5 1/2-POUND
CAPACITY AND IS RECTANGULAR.

BRINE, A SALT SOLUTION, COOLS
AND SALTS THE CHEESE BLOCKS.

THE BLOCKS ARE UNMOLDED
AND FALL INTO A BRINE TANK.

THE CHEESE BLOCKS WILL REMAIN
IN ANOTHER BRINE SOLUTION

FOR A WHILE.

THEN THEY'RE CARRIED BY
A CONVEYOR TOWARDS ANOTHER TANK,

WHERE THEY WILL BE IMMERSED
FOR 4 TO 10 HOURS

AT A TEMPERATURE
OF 36 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

SPRAYS OF BRINE REMOVE THE FOAM

WHICH FORMS
AT THE SURFACE OF THE TANK.

THE 8,000 GALLONS OF MILK

WE SAW COMING IN BY TRUCK
AT THE BEGINNING

HAVE ENABLED THE FACTORY TO
PRODUCE 1,400 BLOCKS OF CHEESE

IN 8 TO 12 HOURS.

FINALLY, THE CHEESE BLOCKS
ARE VACUUM-PACKED

AND READY FOR SHIPMENT.

Narrator: THERE WAS A TIME
WHEN WOMEN WORE SILK STOCKINGS.

THEN CAME THE INVENTION
OF PANTYHOSE,

A CHEAPER,
MORE CONVENIENT ALTERNATIVE.

PANTYHOSE ARE KNITTED
FROM STRANDS OF RAW NYLON.

IT'S NO "STRETCH"
OF THE IMAGINATION TO SAY

THAT WHEN THEY GO ON SALE,
THERE'S USUALLY A "RUN" ON THEM.

MAKING A NYLON STOCKING
TAKES ONLY A FEW MINUTES.

HOWEVER,
IT'S A COMPLEX OPERATION

THAT INVOLVES THE KNITTING
OF FIVE TO EIGHT THREADS

AS FINE AS A HAIR.

THE THREADS,
USUALLY NYLON AND SPANDEX,

ARE USED ALONG WITH ELASTIC.

SOMETIMES POLYESTER OR COTTON
ARE ADDED.

THE KNITTING MACHINE
GOES INTO ACTION.

THIS ONE FASHIONS A TUBE FOR
SHEER STOCKINGS IN 90 SECONDS.

IN THREE MINUTES,
IT MAKES A TUBE FOR TIGHTS.

ITS SPEED IS ADJUSTED ACCORDING
TO THE PRODUCT BEING MADE,

VARYING BETWEEN 750 AND 1,200
REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE.

ONCE THE TUBE IS KNITTED, IT IS
SUCKED UP AND LANDS IN A BAG,

WHERE IT WILL BE INSPECTED.

MORE THAN 500 MACHINES
SHARE THE WORK,

EACH MAKING A SPECIFIC MODEL.

THE TWO ENDS MUST NOW BE JOINED.

THIS AUTOMATED MACHINE ASSEMBLES
THE TWO TUBES TOGETHER

TO FORM THE PANTYHOSE.

THEN SCISSORS
CUT THE PANTYHOSE,

A NECESSARY STEP
IN PRODUCTION OF A PAIR.

THIS OPENING IS ENLARGED
TO ALLOW FOR SEWING,

WHICH WILL JOIN THE TWO TUBES
AT THE TOP OF THE LEG.

THE LABEL WITH THE SIZE
OR BRAND NAME

IS SEWN IN PLACE IN 10 SECONDS
BY THIS ROBOTIC MACHINE.

AT THIS PACE, IT SEWS ON
4,800 LABELS IN 8 HOURS.

INSTALLING A GUSSET
REQUIRES SOME PREPARATION.

SCISSORS MAKES A HOLE
AT THE JOINING POINT.

THEN THE STOCKING
IS TURNED INSIDE OUT BY SUCTION

SO CERTAIN STITCHING
CAN BE DONE ON THE INSIDE.

THUS, THESE STITCHES
WILL BE LESS VISIBLE.

NOW THE FOOT MUST BE SEWN.

THIS ROBOTIC MACHINE
PLACES THE FOOT IN POSITION.

THEN A SEWING MACHINE
MAKES STITCHES

AT THE SAME TIME IT CUTS AWAY
EXCESS MATERIAL.

THIS STEP TAKES ONLY 10 SECONDS.

THEN THE PANTYHOSE
IS TURNED RIGHT SIDE OUT,

AGAIN USING SUCTION.

EVERYTHING IS READY
FOR INSTALLATION OF THE GUSSET.

THE PANTYHOSE IS PLACED IN A TUB
AND TAKEN TO THIS DEPARTMENT.

THE STOCKING IS AGAIN SUCTIONED

AND PLACED ON A GUSSET MACHINE
BY THE OPERATOR.

THIS METHOD ASSURES THAT
THE GUSSET WILL BE WELL-CENTERED

WITHOUT A PLEAT.

PUTTING IN THE GUSSET IS THE
FINAL OPERATION IN THE PROCESS.

A PRECUT PIECE OF COTTON

IS SLID INTO THE SPACE
RESERVED FOR THE GUSSET

AND AUTOMATICALLY SEWN IN.

ONLY AESTHETIC TOUCHES REMAIN,

SUCH AS ADDING A LITTLE COLOR
TO THE PANTYHOSE.

THEY'RE PLACED IN THIS MACHINE,

WHICH HAS A LARGE DRUM
WITH FOUR COMPARTMENTS

AND A 99-POUND CAPACITY.

THE PANTYHOSE ARE WASHED
IN SOAPY WATER,

THEN IMMERSED IN DYE.

TEMPERATURE CLIMBS GRADUALLY
TO 200 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

AFTER A 5-MINUTE RINSING CYCLE,
A SOFTENER IS ADDED.

THIS PROCESS TAKES 2 1/2 HOURS.

ONCE DRIED,
THEY PROCEED TO INSPECTION.

THE PANTYHOSE
IS PLACED ONTO A FORM

WHICH STRETCHES IT
TO ALLOW INSPECTION

FOR ANY IMPERFECTIONS.

IF ALL IS WELL,

THE PANTYHOSE IS TRANSFERRED
ONTO ANOTHER METAL FORM,

WHERE IT WILL BE PRESSED.

THE PANTYHOSE'S POSITION
IS GUIDED BY A MAGIC EYE.

THE PANTYHOSE IS THEN
CARRIED TOWARD A STEAM ROOM,

WHERE IT WILL STAY
FOR 2 1/2 SECONDS

BEFORE BEING DRIED IN
7 1/2 SECONDS AT 280 DEGREES.

THEY FOLD AND PACK
420 PANTYHOSE PER HOUR

AND MAKE 180,000 PAIRS PER DAY.

Narrator: THROUGHOUT THE AGES,
ARTIFICIAL LIGHT

HAS LET PEOPLE EXTEND
THE CONVENIENCE OF DAYLIGHT

LONG AFTER THE SUN GOES DOWN.

FLUORESCENT TUBES
ARE MORE ENERGY-EFFICIENT

THAN LIGHT BULBS.

THAT'S PROBABLY WHY THEY'VE
BECOME A "FIXTURE," SO TO SPEAK,

IN STORES, FACTORIES,
AND OFFICES.

ONCE, THE ONLY SOURCE OF LIGHT
WAS THE FLAME OF FIRE

IN THE FORMS OF TORCH,
CANDLE, AND OIL LAMPS.

IT REMAINED SO
RIGHT UP UNTIL THE 19th CENTURY,

WHEN GASLIGHT MADE ITS FIRST
APPEARANCE AROUND 1840.

ALMOST 40 YEARS LATER,

THOMAS EDISON INVENTED HIS
FAMOUS INCANDESCENT LIGHT BULB.

IN 1909,

THE FRENCHMAN GEORGES CLAUDE
DEVELOPED THE FLUORESCENT TUBE,

A LIGHT THAT REMAINS UNALTERED
TO THIS VERY DAY.

DID YOU KNOW THAT MERCURY
ALLOWS US TO SEE IN THE DARK?

THE PRODUCTION OF FLUORESCENT
LAMPS IS HIGHLY COMPLEX.

THE FABRICATION PROCESS
STARTS WITH GLASS TUBES

THAT HAVE BEEN METICULOUSLY
CLEANED WITH WARM WATER

TO REMOVE DIRT AND IMPURITIES.

THEN THE TUBES HAVE TO BE
SPECIFICALLY SHAPED

WITH A FOLDER-SHAPER.

THEY'RE HEATED FOR 30 SECONDS,

THEN QUICKLY CURVED
USING A TEMPLATE.

THIS AUTOMATED MACHINE
CAN BEND 14 TUBES A MINUTE.

THE BENT TUBES GO INTO
THE COATING CHAMBER,

WHERE A THIN COAT OF PHOSPHORUS

IS APPLIED
TO THEIR INNER SURFACES.

PHOSPHORUS PRODUCES LIGHT BY
TRANSFORMING ULTRAVIOLET PHOTONS

GENERATED BY THE IONIZATION
OF MERCURY.

THE SURPLUS PHOSPHORUS
IS REMOVED

FROM THE ENDS OF THE TUBE
TO FACILITATE SEALING.

THEY NOW MOVE
TO THE ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS.

THE CATHODE MOUNT IS MADE
IN THIS AUTO MOUNT.

HERE, THEY MAKE THE WIRE

THAT WILL CARRY THE CURRENT
FROM THE MOUNT.

THE WIRE CARRYING THE CURRENT
IS SHAPED.

AND HERE, THE WIRE IS HEATED.

THIS PREPARES IT
FOR THE NEXT STEP.

IT'S ESSENTIAL TO PREVENT
THE CATHODE COATING

FROM SPREADING TO THE PRONGS.

THE FILAMENTS ARE INSERTED
INTO THEIR MOUNTS.

THE EMISSIVE SUBSTANCE PLAYS
A CRUCIAL ROLE.

WHEN HEATED, IT EMITS ELECTRONS,

WHICH PARTICIPATE
IN PRODUCING LIGHT.

THE EMISSIVE SUBSTANCE
IS ACTUALLY THIS LIQUID.

THE WIRING MOUNT IS TRANSFERRED
FROM THE AUTO MOUNT

TO THE SEALING MACHINE.

AT THIS STAGE,

THE WIRING MOUNT
AND THE GLASS TUBE ARE JOINED.

SEALING IS DONE
AT A VERY HIGH TEMPERATURE.

ONE IMPORTANT STEP REMAINS.

THIS IS WHERE THE GLASS TUBE
IS EMPTIED OF AIR

AND FILLED WITH GAS.

THIS MACHINE ALSO
DECARBONIZES THE TUBE

AND INTRODUCES
THE DROP OF MERCURY

ESSENTIAL FOR PRODUCING LIGHT.

ONCE THE VERY TINY DROP
OF MERCURY

IS INJECTED INTO THE TUBE,

THE FLUORESCENT LAMP
IS ALMOST COMPLETED.

BUT ONE STEP REMAINS.

THIS THREADER POSITIONS
THE WIRES

FOR INSERTION OF THE TUBE CAP,

WHICH ESTABLISHES
ELECTRICAL CONTACT.

THE TUBE CAP IS PLACED
INTO POSITION

IN PREPARATION FOR SEALING.

THE CAP MUST BE
SECURELY ATTACHED

AND INSTALLED
IN A WATERTIGHT MANNER

TO ELIMINATE
ANY RISK OF LEAKING.

THE CAPPER PERMANENTLY SEALS
THE CAP ONTO THE TUBE,

AND IT'S ALL FINISHED.

EACH LAMP IS TESTED
ON A LARGE TESTING WHEEL

TO VERIFY ITS QUALITY
AND PERFORMANCE.

ONCE THE METICULOUS INSPECTION
IS OVER,

THE FLUORESCENT LAMPS
ARE CARRIED

TO THE PACKAGING DEPARTMENT.

A ROBOTIC MACHINE HANDLES
THE LAMPS

AND PLACES THEM
INTO THE PACKAGES.

THE GLASS TUBES HAVE NOW
BECOME FLUORESCENT LAMPS.

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