Flashforward (2009–2010): Season 1, Episode 3 - 137 Sekunden - full transcript

The FBI follow-up when a Nazi war criminal imprisoned in Munich claims to know the cause of the blackout. He also knows Agent Mark Benford by name. Benford and Agent Janis Hawk travel to Munich to interview the man and while he is prepared to share what he knows, he has only one requirement: that he be set free and allowed to return to the United States where he once lived. His information does lead the Agents to realize something very important about the blackout. Having seen his daughter alive in his future vision, Mark's friend Aaron Stark tries to get his ex-wife's agreement to exhume her remains and have further DNA testing to confirm if it's really their daughter. Agent Demetri Noh's fiancée manages to return from Seattle now that flights have been re-instated but he doesn't tell her about his lack of a future vision.

In my flash-forward,
I was investigating

what caused all this.

I seemed to have an idea why
all of this was happening.

Finding out what caused this.

Priority number two
is figuring out whether or not

it'll happen again.

What if I didn't see anything
because six months from now,

- I'm gonna be dead?
- D. Gibbons is a bad man.

Tracy was killed in Afghanistan,
but in my flash-forward,

she's alive.

You're worried your future's
gonna come true.

I'm worried mine won't.

This is Demetri.

Mr. Noh?
I'm sorry to disturb you,

but I'm calling in response
to your mosaic board posting.

Who is this?
How did you get this number?

I can't divulge that,

but I can tell you
my vision involved you.

- Go on.
- In my flash-forward,

I was reading
an intelligence briefing,

and I am sorry.

There is no delicate way
to say this,

but on March 15th, 2010,

you are going
to be murdered.

What? What the hell
are you talking about?

I understand
why you're upset,

but my hope is
by telling you what I know,

you will be able to prevent
your murder from happening.

Your briefing-
Did it say who killed me?

I'm afraid not.

Well, what did it say then?

That you were an agent
from the American FBI,

and that you were shot
three times in the chest.

You gotta give me
more to go on here.

What-what kind
of briefing was this?

I'm sorry, Mr. Noh.
I have to end this call now.

No. Wait. Wait!
Hello? Hello!

Hello? Hello?

I'm sorry. Your call

- cannot be completed as dialed.
- Come on!

"137 Sekunden"

We're trapped in here.

We have to get out.
I'm f-freezing!

At least you have fur.

Hey, Nicole,
it's Olivia again.

Look, babe,
we're not mad, okay?

We're just worried about you.
So can you please call

and let us know
you're all right?

Okay, we'll speak
to you soon. Bye.

Man. We gotta cover
for Nicole again.

I can pick Charlie up
after school,

- take her back to work with me.
- Are you sure?

Yeah. We're sifting
through blackout intel

from Interpol and such.

I'll welcome the distraction.


- That's Aaron.
- Aaron's coming here?

Phone's broke.
Said he'd take a look.

I just called Nicole.

Yeah, the problem's
with my work line.

You called me from your work
phone, said it was urgent.

And now
you're lying to Olivia?

If you want to prevent the future
and save your marriage,

first step isn't keeping secrets
from your wife.

Take that from a guy who's
already been divorced, huh?

This is different.
It's about Charlie.

What happened?

You know she's been freaking out
about what she saw, right?

There's a guy
we've been investigating.

We've been calling him
D. Gibbons.

Charlie's vision
had to do with him.

She knew who he was.

She said,
"D. Gibbons is a bad man. "

- How is that even possible?
- In my flash-forward,

masked gunmen
were comin into the office.

Maybe D. Gibbons
is connected to 'em.

You think whoever's
supposed to be after you

will come after Charlie?

What if this whole investigation
circles back on me?

Well, isn't that always the risk
with your line of work?

And shouldn't you
be talking

to somebody down
at your office?

Blackout's changed

I'll tell you what I'd do-
father to father.

If someone's gonna
hurt your family,

the best thing to do is
catch 'em before they can.

The world's changed.

Maybe the rules need
to change a little, too.

If it were up to me,
I'd do whatever I had to do.

Ladies and gentlemen,
this is your captain speaking.

Welcome aboard Flight 82
for Los Angeles.

We've gotten the okay
from the tower to push back

as soon as all carry-ons
and personal items

are safely stored.

Flight attendants...

So are you flying
to home or from?

To. Back to my fianc?.

I've been stuck here
since the blackout.

But now that the airlines
are up and running again...

I hopped on the first flight
they were offering.

What were you doing
in Seattle?

I'm a lawyer-
criminal defense.

What about you?
Why are you flying?

I have to.

I'm the C. E. O.
of the airline.

All the executives are
taking flights today...

to prove to our customers
that the skies are safe again.

How's that working out
for you?


Another scotch.

- Al.
- Yo.

- Can I ask you a favor?
- Sure. What do you need?

I got a call last night
from an unknown number.

Can you have the tech guys
back-trace it

through the carrier
and see if they can identify

the cell sites
it was routed through?

What's the priority
on this?


How's it going?

Let me put it this way-
I miss the good, old days

when law enforcement
didn't share their leads

with each other.

We're gonna be cashing in
our pensions before we finish

sifting through
all of this intel.

Kingdom of Tonga?

Now who knew they even had
an intelligence agency?

They're blaming
the flash-forwards

on phytoplankton blooms.

Well, I'll see your boring
and raise you an insane.

"The flash-forwards were
caused by a toxic gas

"that was released from deep
within the earth

as a result
of crustal rifting. "

So the earth farted,
and we blacked out.

That makes sense to me.

At least this one's vetted
by our legates in Germany.

Apparently there's
a- a prisoner, a former Nazi-

A Rudolf Geyer-who's claiming
to know why the blackouts

lasted exactly
137 sekunden.

That's german for "seconds. "

Wait a minute.
The guy who sent this in-

Do you have
a picture of him?

That's him.
He was on my board.

We gotta
follow up on this.

Based on what, Mark-
your spidey sense?

Something spookier.

The Nazi's report...

mentions Mark by name.

Let me see
if I got this right.

We got agents working 24/7
to identify the two guys

who were awake
during the blackout.

This week alone
I've gotta figure out

how to eulogize
eight dead agents,

and you want to fly to Germany
to talk to a Nazi?

Well, a former Nazi.

Well, that just makes me feel
so much better.

Geyer requested a meeting
with me specifically.

How does he even
know you?

I have no idea,
but he says he can explain

why the blackout
lasted 137 seconds,

and he won't talk unless
I see him face-to-face.

And in the meantime,
you're getting nowhere

with tracking down
Suspect Zero or D. Gibbons.

N. S. A.'s still working
on the Suspect Zero video.

And we're running down
digital forensics

from D. Gibbons' cell phone.
For all we know,

it's Geyer's information
that will lead us to them.

Book the flights.

I thought I was never
gonna see you again.

Me, too.

So can I tell you now?

Tell me what?

What I saw
in my flash-forward.


What's the big deal, babe?

It's not like we didn't see
the same thing.

We could talk, or...

- Or?
- Or we could go to a motel...

Oh! I like your thinking,

What can I get you?

Just a soda water, Kate.

What the hell
are you doing here?

Our daughter's alive, Kate.

I saw her
during the blackout.

In my vision,
I was with her.

She was wounded.

I th-I think it might have
been somewhere in Afghanistan.

Are you sure
you weren't dead?

Maybe you were
in heaven with her.

Hey, you might want to check
on that with your higher power.

I'm serious, Kate. You know
what people have been saying.

This thing is real-
glimpses of what's to come.

What's to come?

You want to know
what I saw?


I was doing the same thing
I'm doing now,

same thing I've been doing
the past five years.

And those sorry-ass regulars
there? They were here, too.

What you saw was
wishful thinking.

Let her go, Aaron.

I can't.
Not when I know she needs me.

- She's out there. I'm positive.
- She's dead! She's buried!

This isn't
about some vision.

This is about you coming up
with a fantasy

because you feel guilty,
'cause you're the reason

she went into the military
in the first place.

- That's not true.
- No, of course it is.

She's daddy's little girl,
following in your footsteps.

Why are you doing this,

- What do you want from me, anyway?
- Hey.

Stop, stop.
It's all right.

I just want your signature.

I need you to sign
an affidavit

so I can exhume
her remains.

Well, you're not
gonna get it, Aaron.

Why don't you
just take this and go?

I'm gonna find her, Kate,
whether you help me or not.

And when I do,
I'll let you know.

That's the second time
I've blacked out this week.

Now can I tell you
about what I saw?


It was our wedding.

It was on a beach-

Hamoa beach in Hawaii, I think,
where we went last spring.

It was so peaceful.
The wind and-

and the waves...

Everything was perfect.

- And you saw me there?
- Yeah.

Did you see me?


Of course
I saw you...

In that white dress...


you were so beautiful.

It's just like
you described.

You realize that's gonna be
our wedding day, don't you?

April 29th? D-Day?

All that's happened, baby,
I'm not sure we should...

- commit to a date.
- We already have.


Can't you just...

fall back...

Let the future happen
like it's supposed to?

Welcome to Munich.

Agent Benford, Agent Hawk.

- Stefan Krieger.
- Hello.

I'll be your B. N. D. liaison
during your stay.

Thanks for arranging this
meeting on such short notice.

You're here as guests
of the German government.

As such, you have
no actual authority

and will proceed with
appropriate decorum. Agreed?


There are a lot
of ghosts here.

Isn't this
where Sophie Scholl

and the rest of the White Rose
NazI resistance group

were executed?

If I'm not mistaken,
your country eradicated

it's indigenous
Indian population

and practiced institutionalized
slavery for over 250 years.

We also gave the world
Britney Spears.

Rudolf Geyer
may present himself

as a frail,
forgetful old man,

but I should remind you that
he managed to elude capture

for more
than half a century.

Spending at least
20 of those years

within your own U. S. borders.
He's an unrepentant murderer.

His entire existence

has been based on dissemblance
and falsehood.

Never forget that.

Herr Geyer.


and lady.

I've looked forward to
meeting you, Herr Benford.

For quite some time.

- How did you know my name?
- I saw it in my vision.

You said you had information
about the flash-forward,

about how long
they lasted.

It's not quite
that simple, I'm afraid.

You see, before
my unfortunate incarceration,

I lived in America,

and I learned how you can't
get something for nothing.

We've anticipated this,
Herr Geyer.

Upon verification
of your information,

you will be transferred
to a minimum security facility.

But I had more
than a gesture in mind.

I want to return to America,

and all charges
against me...

are dropped.

You're dreaming.

I'm not permitting
my client

to breathe a word
of what he knows

without getting
his pardon first.

I believe we have
what's called

a game of chicken.

Who do you think
will blink first?

Before you answer,
consider the fact

I have nothing to lose.

He's playing us.

Think about it.
This is win-win for him.

At best,
he's just jerking us around

for a few days' entertainment,
and at worst he goes free,

- and we have no-
- We'll figure out a way

to cover ourselves
if he's lying.

No, you heard
his lawyer.

They're not gonna let us
cover ourselves.

Mark, this is full pardon
or nothing,

and that's exactly
what Geyer's gonna give us.

We don't know that.

The only thing we know is

Geyer's important to our case
six months from now,

- which means, Janis-
- Yeah, listen to yourself.

- I am listening.
- Mark, six months from now?

Come on.

The only thing we know at this point
is how much we don't know.

Mark, you're talking about
letting a mass murderer go free

in exchange for
potentially nothing.

Janis, there are
several billion people-

several billion-
who need answers.

That's not nothing.

They need to know
why it happened,

whether it'll happen again.

The guy makes me sick.

But he's 86 years old.
He's on his way out.

And as much as I'd like to
personally help him on his way,

I have to ask myself if the ends
don't justify the means here.

They never do, Mark.

And you know,
Geyer's age is irrelevant.

There's no statute
of limitations on evil.

Geyer deserves
his punishment,

and his victims deserve him
getting that punishment,

and you can't take that,
away from them on a hope.

So how's Mark
handling all of this?

The usual way-
throwing himself into work.

- How about Stan?
- The same.

Since becoming
bureau assistant director,

he's convinced he has
to work twice as hard

as everybody else
in the bureau.


He's pulled
two all-nighters in a row,

working on this eulogy
for the-the memorial service.

Like if he found
just the right words,

he could bring these agents
back to life.

Well, Mark's convinced that
what he saw in his flash-forward

is somehow going
to save us all.

So Mark saw himself
saving the world,

and what did you see?

Hey, honey.

Nothing important.

How about you?

I was home.

I was in Jason's room,
but all of his stuff was gone.

That makes sense.
He's in college, right?

He still comes home
for holidays.

But in my vision,
everything was gone

and replaced by
a young boy's things.

He was about 8 or 9 years old,
and I was putting him to bed.

Good night, Mom.

Good night, Attaf.

And you've never
seen this kid before?

No. No, never.

Look, people are saying
these visions are real.

So I don't know how,
but in the next six months,

this little boy's gonna
come into my life,

and I'm gonna be
his mom.

I refuse to believe
these visions are random.

There is a purpose.
I just-I know it.

We have
a compromise to suggest-

One piece of
information now...

and one later.

An offer of proof.

You verify certain aspects
of my client's flash-forward,

pardon him.

Then he will give you
the remainder of what he knows.


The 137 seconds-

In my time at Treblinka,

I, uh, obviously came
into contact with many Jews.

I also came to learn
about certain aspects

- of their beliefs, their culture-
- Is this going somewhere?


Tell me, Miss Hawk, why do you
wear a ring on your left thumb?

What's it matter?

In some Eastern European

uh, where homosexuality
is illegal,

a ring on a woman's left thumb
is considered an indication

of her... proclivities.

What does this have
to do with anything?

Everything and nothing.

I am merely referencing
a certain kind of code.

I will now make a reference
to another kind of code.

Have you heard
of Kabbalah?

It's a set
of esoteric teachings-

Jewish mysticism.

In Kabbalah,

everything has
a hidden meaning.

This is the word
spelled in Hebrew...

Qof, beit,

Lamed, hei.

And each letter
in the Hebrew alphabet

is ascribed a number.

And if you add up
these numbers,

you arrive at 137-

Exactly the number of seconds
that the blackout lasted.

Listen to me...

The only reason I'm sharing
the same air as you is because

you said you've got
relevant information.

And you've got exactly
one minute to prove that to me,

or I'm gone.

You won't leave.
Not yet.

I have information that'll prove
crucial to your investigation.

And I know it,
because in my flash-forward...

I was being repatriated

to the United States.

And I had bought
my freedom

with the second piece
of information...

Which I am prepared
to share with you.

What did you see?

I was in an American airport.

I don't know
which one.

I was clearing
through immigration.

There was a young man who
was processing my documents.

I remember he had a nametag
that read "Jerome Murphy. "

Disappointing, Agent Benford's
not here to welcome me home.

Coming back
from Germany, ja?

Returning home, actually,

and I have one murder
to thank for it.

A murder?
Whose murder?

This is just
our offer of proof.

Locate this customs agent,
this J. Murphy.

Compare his flash-forward
to my client's.

Confirm he's telling
the truth.

Are you enjoying watching us

jump through your hoops?
I hope you are.

Because you're never leaving
this prison, Geyer.

I will leave...

on April 29th, 2010.

It is a future that
has already happened.

I can't believe
you're running with this.

Let's just see if
his flash-forward proves out.

If it does, it means Geyer's
free in six months' time

which means
he's telling us the truth.

Or a lie we believed.

Are you okay with this?

- Benford.
- Hey, it's me.

You got a minute?

Aaron, what's up?

I need a favor-
a big favor.

It's for Tracy.

I want to get
her remains exhumed,

test 'em
against the D. N. A.

The military's got
on file for her.


Tell you what-I'll listen

to any "this isn't a good idea"
speeches you gotta give

if you can swear you wouldn't
do the exact same thing

if it were Charlie.

Okay. You fax over
the paperwork.

- I'll push it through.
- There's no paperwork,

'cause it's not signed,
and it's not signed

'cause it needs
Kate's signature.

I need you to push through
more than paperwork here.

Aaron, that's-

- I said it was a big favor.
- Leaving aside the illegality,

have you thought about
what'll happen

if the results
come back positive,

and the person in that grave
is Tracy?

I saw her, Mark.
I saw her alive.

What you saw was impossible.

That's what makes it
a leap of faith, Mark.

You've never taken
a leap of faith?

Mark, I'm a little busy
right now, all right?

Yeah, I'm sorry.
I'm-I'm just...

Everything's fine
with Zoey.

Listen, I'll take care of it.

You tell him I'll call when
I've got the warrant. Okay.

A warrant?
For a customs officer?

No, that's...
something else.

Listen, Marcie ran through
the T. S. A. employee database,

and there aren't any
J. Murphys working customs

at any of the airports in
the continental United States.

Did you check applicants?

No. Geyer said he spoke
to an actual officer.

Six months from now.

Our guy might not
be working customs yet.

Have Marcie check. If she
finds something, run it down.

There a problem?

My head's just not in
the game today, boss.

- Demetri?
- Yeah.

Get it in the game.





Hey! Jerome Murphy?

FBI. Have a minute?

you're saying I make it?

I'm gonna be
a customs official?

Man, I saw it, but I didn't
really believe it, you know?

This rocks, dude. I totally
thought I blew the physical.

- Do I get a gun and stuff?
- Jerome,

I need you
to focus here, okay?

I'm trying to corroborate
a suspect's flash-forward,

and he claims
that you were in it.

Do you understand?

Yeah, sure.
No problem.

What's "corroborate" mean?

I need you to tell me whether
you saw the same thing

in your flash-forward as
this guy claims he saw in his.

I know that dude.

I was working in an airport.
It felt good, you know?

Badge... Uniform...

It gave me purpose,
you know?

Coming back
from Germany, ja?

I woke up after the blackout,
applied the next day.

Do you remember anything else,
anything odd?

You know, come to think of it,
he did.

He said something
about a murder.

I have a murder
to thank for it.

I figured
I just misheard him.

All right.

I might be in touch.

I can explain that.

That's okay.
I know what a bong is.

That's not mine.

It's... my roommate's.

Look, um, home slice,

if I get tagged for this,
that's it for me.

They won't hire me with
a drug bust on my record.

It does seem
unlikely, yeah.

I was doing it.
I saw myself doing the job.

I saw myself
wearing the uniform,

and it wouldn't have happened
if you bust me.

I mean, it won't happen
if you bust me.

I mean,
what I'm saying here is...

it's up to you whether or not
my future happens.

Thank you.

Buy you a drink?

No, thanks.

To moral relativism.

I'm sorry this is
bothering you so much.

Oh, I'm sorry this isn't
bothering you at all.

Oh, don't make
this personal.

You know what?
Don't hide behind the badge.

You're the one driving
this thing, Mark.

You are.

Just own it...

at least.

I've been driving this.

It's what we do, Janis.

We cut the dealer a pass
to get the distributor.

We let the foot soldier walk
to bust the kingpin.

But there have to be
some limits, Mark.

There have to be people

that we won't deal
or flip.

And I'm sorry,

but if we can't even
draw that line at a Nazi...

I just don't even know
what we're doing anymore.

Have you ever taken
a leap of faith?

What's that got to do
with anything?

I'm pushing this
because I have faith

that seeing Geyer's picture
in my flash-forward

means his information
will be important to us.

Well, there you go.
There's our problem,

because in
my flash-forward,

all I saw was a baby
that I don't even know I want.

So how can I have faith

in something
I'm not even sure is real?

Then you've got
a problem,

that's what faith is.


Dem found
your NazI's customs agent.

Same flash-forward.

- So he's telling the truth.
- I'll put a call into state,

have them start the arm-twisting
of the German government.

You sure?

Hell, no,
but something tells me

I better get used
to that particular feeling.

We all better.

World's changed.

Some of us, all of us,
are making decisions

now based on what
will happen,

not what could.

It makes us do things
we wouldn't ordinarily do.

You'd think
knowing the future

would make us
less concerned about it.

But just the opposite
has happened.

The future's what all of us
are living for now.

It's what we're living by.

Hey, D. We got nothing
on your unknown caller.

Tech traced it to somewhere
off the New York Coast,

but from there,
they read the signal

as coming from
two different sites at once.

Whoever it was, they know how
to cover their tracks.

Thanks for trying.


Can you pull the L. U. D. S
off those two repeater sites?

There's probably
a million or so calls

routed through
those towers.

At least.

You can't do this!

You need my government's consent
to free Geyer,

- and my superior-
- Signed off five minutes ago.

You're a free man.

Just like that?

Start talking.

I blacked out,
as we all did.

The flash-forward happened
as I described it.

And then I woke up.

I went to my window,

and I saw the city burning
in the distance.

And on the ground,

at the courtyard outside...

I saw crows.

They were dead.

Dead crows?

The ground
was littered with them.

"A murder of crows... "

In proper parlance,
a grouping of crows.

What the hell
does this have to do

with the Kabbalah
and 137 seconds?

Nothing, fraulein.

I have no idea why the blackout
lasted as long as it did.

So what, it was all crap-

The Kabbalah, the birds?

The crows are real. They were
dying outside my window.

- That must mean something.
- Tell us!

I can't tell you
what I don't know.

Please take this.
I have no further use for it.

But I believe you will,
Herr Benford.

In my vision,
I knew that I'd be freed

because of what I told you
about the crows dying.

It could be helpful
in your investigation.

How helpful it will be...
uh, we'll just have to see.

Then you'll rot in here
until we do.

Ah, my attorney is here
to prevent that, Herr Krieger.

You played us.

The future will tell
whether it's true.

But in the meantime,
I am, as you said, however...

A free man.


You look horrendous.

Glad I accomplished at least
something with this trip.

That badly?

As bad as it could've gone
without getting shot at, yeah.

My mom-she always says,
"Live in the now. "

How the hell is anyone
supposed to do that anymore?

Come here.

What you doing?

- What am I doing?
- Mm-hmm. What you doing?

- Living in the now.
- Oh.

- Uh-huh.
- Living in the now.


I guess my mom's advice

- wasn't so bad after all.
- Not so bad, huh?

- Hi, Jack.
- Hey.

He's been here
for a while.

Hasn't asked me
to pour a drop.

But you can tell
he's thinking about it hard.

I can't be too sure
since I had a few yesterday,

but I thought I was
pretty particular

about not wanting
to see you again.



I figured you'd make
an exception for-for good news.

You were right.

The body-

The remains.

Tracy's grave.

You were right.

I'm sorry
I went behind your back.

I'm sorry
I didn't listen to you.

- I'm-
- It's okay.

It's all gonna be okay.

There are no words
for this...

None that mean
half a damn anyway.

The people we love are gone,
and they're not coming back.

And we'll miss them.

But things are going
to get better.

The sun's gonna rise
on a new day.

I know it doesn't feel
like it will,

but that dawn is coming.

There's hope.

One of the agents here
repeated to me

something that a friend
had mentioned to him.

And he said,
"We're all prophets now. "

And you know, I can't think
of a prophet worth a damn...

that didn't suffer.

And I also can't think
of a prophet...

that God didn't love.

Good night, Mom.

This little boy's
gonna come into my life,

And I'm gonna
be his mom.

Absent friends.

Absent friends.

How many of these speeches

do you think have been given
since the blackout?

You gotta figure something like
this is happening every day,

all over the world.

All over the world.

All over the world.
All over the world.

I need your help
with something.

- What?
- Excuse me. Just come on.

I'm a raindrop,

and I'm falling for you.


That's how you tried to
pick me up. Remember?

- I would never use that line.
- Mm-hmm.

I said, um,
you owed me a drink

for, uh, shredding my ass
on the witness stand.

I did shred your ass,
but I left all the good parts.

You all right?

Yeah. Yeah.


- Let's do it.
- Huh?

The "D-Day" wedding.
Let's do it.

Are you sure?
'Cause the other day-

The other day
was the other day.

I, um... today...

I want us
to make our future happen.



Okay, just go with me on this
for a second.

It says here

that the Audobon Society
tracks bird population trends.

Okay, I need you to look up
the worldwide crow population

for, say, the last year.

There. See that dip?

The day of the blackout.

Geyer said that crows died
outside his cell,

but it wasn't just
in Germany.

Crows died all over the world
during the blackout.


And I say this
with love,

who gives a damn?

Look and see if there were
any other instances

of crow populations
plummeting like this.

In the Ganwar region
of Somalia.

In 1991, all the crows died
on the same day.

Mark, who cares?

Why did we set up Mosaic?

To look for patterns.

Thanks to Geyer,
we now know

crows died all over the world
during the blackout.

Search on Ganwar
and the date those crows died.

Just one hit.

A C. D. C. request for
additional funding from D. H. S.

You know, Mark,
this is just anecdotal.

Look, they don't even have
any corroboration.

No, no, no, no.
Wait, wait, wait, wait.

"C. D. C. doctors
travel to the Ganwar region

"in response to claims

that the inhabitants suffered
a mass loss of consciousness. "

Janis, we've been
so worried

the blackout
might happen again.

We haven't stopped
to ask ourselves,

what if it happened before?