How to Change the World (2015) - full transcript
In 1971, a group of friends sail into a nuclear test zone, and their protest captures the world's imagination. Using never before seen archive that brings their extraordinary world to life, How To Change The World is the story of the pioneers who founded Greenpeace and defined the modern green movement.
MAN: Mr. Schlesinger has an announcement.
We'll hand out copies momentarily,
so you won't have to write down
what he says.
He'll take questions afterwards.
The Atomic Energy Commission
is now planning to proceed
with the Cannikin test.
We have now received
the requisite authority to go ahead,
REPORTER: On the wind-swept
island of Amchitka,
final preparations for the test go on,
filling the 6,000-foot deep hole
The five-megaton nuclear bomb
rests at the bottom.
BOB HUNTER: Since childhood,
when I started making
science fiction comics
in my school scribblers,
I loved to draw.
But by the time
I got a place at art school,
Uncle Sam and Comrade Ivan
were pointing 56,000 nuclear warheads
at each other
and boys my age were coming back
in body bags from Vietnam.
The American Dream
was turning into a planetary nightmare.
REPORTER: AEC scientists
say they are not worried
the blast will set off a large
earthquake or a tidal wave.
HUNTER: Drawing comics
didn't seem to be enough.
So I burned my college acceptance letter
on the steps of my high school
and set off to change the world.
REPORTER: Young people demonstrated
their opposition to the nuclear blasts
by closing the main highway crossings
at the US-Canadian border
between Seattle and Vancouver.
CROWD: (CHANTING) No more Amchitkas!
No more Amchitkas! No more Amchitkas!
HUNTER: I don't think this particular
demonstration can necessarily stop it,
but, um, it reflects a level of awareness
that wasn't here, say, five years ago.
HUNTER: By the fall of 1971,
I'm a columnist for the Vancouver Sun
and I've volunteered to chronicle
a voyage into a bomb.
REPORTER: The protest ship
the Greenpeace is heading for Amchitka,
hoping to anchor offshore
and stop the test.
HUNTER: The boat is one more factor
for Richard Nixon to have to consider,
the possibility of some international
incident involving Canadians.
HUNTER: Until that fateful journey,
nothing has seemed
so absolutely essential to write about.
But heading into the bomb,
there is only this antique wooden tub
between us and the icy seas.
Suddenly, I'm very frightened.
MAN: (OVER RADIO) Ten, nine, eight, seven,
six, five, four, three,
two, one, zero.
HUNTER: 90% of history is being
in the right place at the right time.
In Vancouver in 1971,
we have the biggest concentration
of tree huggers, draft dodgers,
garbage dump stoppers, freeway fighters,
pot smokers, vegetarians, nudists,
Buddhists, fish preservationists
and back-to-the-landers on the planet.
And we are all haunted
by the specter of a dead world.
These are the people who will shape
the next 10 years of my life.
(ROCK MUSIC PLAYING)
The idea was simple, send a boat
to bear witness in the Quaker tradition
of going to the scene of the crime.
HUNTER: Patrick Moore has just finished
his PhD in ecology.
He's a bit psychedelic-looking
for a scientist,
but when he speaks it sounds like
he knows what he's talking about.
The committee's position
is that it's opposed to all testing
of all nuclear weapons
anywhere in the world by any country.
HUNTER: Paul Watson is a 19-year-old
sailor who gets bored easily.
Take a picture of you guys taking
HUNTER: He has North Vietnamese flags
stitched to his army jacket,
wears Red Power buttons,
Black Power buttons
and just about any kind
of anti-establishment button
that can be imagined.
No, that's Bob's, uh,
interpretation of it.
I don't recall wearing all these patches.
The thing is, everybody has
their own view of what went down
and I was considered probably a little
more radical than the others.
REX WEYLER: Change happens
where things are mixed up,
and things were mixed up in Vancouver.
There was this expatriate American
community, there was a Buddhist community,
there were fishermen,
and there was this talk about ecology.
HUNTER: Rex Weyler is a Texan photographer
who fled the Vietnam draft and has been
chased by the FBI up to Vancouver.
WEYLER: Bob Hunter was writing
in the Vancouver Sun.
He was talking about ecology and peace,
and social change
and the consciousness revolution,
and it really was
the best journalism in Vancouver.
PAUL WATSON: But he was
more than just being a writer.
Bob saw himself as helping to bring about
a cultural revolution.
It's just such madness that, um,
that it's almost a logical area to attack,
because two different kinds of madness
have come together there.
There's the Cold War madness
and there's the,
"Let's pollute, it doesn't matter,
"the main thing is to make a buck."
are making a last-ditch attempt
to stop the Amchitka nuclear test.
Donations have been received
and are continuing to come in
from all over British Columbia
and from many parts
of the northwestern United States.
WEYLER: Bob just realized
that if you wanna do a protest,
you have to make a story
that's going to travel well,
an event that would impact millions
of people in every corner of the world.
HUNTER: The plan is a good one.
Ours is a Canadian vessel,
so the Americans cannot seize
it in international waters
without committing an act of piracy.
I think we ought to really
mind-fuck each other on this trip.
HUNTER: The fathers of this adventure
are Jim Bohlen,
Irving Stowe and Ben Metcalfe,
veterans of the peace movement
who've recruited a younger generation
of eco-freaks, myself included.
The youngest of us all, Bill Darnell,
given the boat its new name.
BILL DARNELL: At the end of the meetings,
Irving would always say "Peace"
and flash the peace sign,
and I said,
"We should make that a green peace."
MOORE: By putting those two things
together, Bill symbolized the union
of the peace movement
with the environmental movement,
and that was a new idea.
That is, in a way, what gave Greenpeace
its power from the start.
HUNTER: It has been no easy task
to find someone willing to sail out
to the Bering Sea as winter approaches
and park their vessel, uninsured,
next to a nuclear explosion.
But chance has led us to John Cormack.
-You go do it. Don't work too hard.
-Yeah, okay. We'll get into action.
'Cause I know this guy's ready to go.
Should I take my hat off
and my glasses off and smile for you?
MOORE: John did it for money,
and he had that sense of adventure.
Yeah, we're going to check into that.
MOORE: He had the nickname
"Hard Luck" Cormack
and his boat was in some disrepair.
I just looked at it and said,
"Bob, we are all gonna die."
JOHN CORMACK: It is really rolling.
Some of the boys are still pretty sick.
HUNTER: Apart from Captain Cormack,
between us we have almost
no practical experience of the sea.
Gravity drags our stomachs
into pulpy collision with our lungs,
the cold, gray boil of the waves
wagging over our heads.
This trip is going to be at least
100 times as heavy as I thought.
MAN: (OVER RADIO)
This little 99-ton halibut boat
has stayed on her keel so far,
but the fall and winter storms
up here are fantastic.
Winds of 120 miles an hour
are not unusual.
ROD MARINING: We realized that we can send
a 20-second voice clip from the ship
over the telephone system
and it'll appear on the radio
in Australia, New Zealand
and other places.
that this was a real global story.
HUNTER: Back on land, Rod Marining,
the self-styled non-leader
of the Northern Lunatic Fringe of Yippie,
stokes the fires of public opinion.
Hey, you know what it's all about?
It's putting on a good show.
REPORTER: People in Alaska,
down the Pacific Coast,
Canada and Japan have protested.
The people fear earthquakes,
damage to wildlife...
MOORE: The theory
of electronic communication
was just being developed at that time.
You know, the fax
hadn't been invented yet.
Bob coined the term "mind bomb"
for what today
we would call "going viral,"
where an idea
gets into the electronic media
and just spreads like ripples
on the water instantly.
HUNTER: Image is everything.
The boat is an icon,
a mind bomb sailing across
an electronic sea
into the front rooms of the masses.
CROWD: (CHANTING) Trash Nixon,
not Amchitka! Trash Nixon, not Amchitka!
DARNELL: Ten thousand students
showed up in downtown Vancouver
in front of the American consulate.
You know, for us on the boat,
that was really a huge lift.
That gave us
a real sense of accomplishment.
CROWD: (CHANTING) Power to the people!
Power to the people!
REPORTER: The Nixon administration
that the five-megaton nuclear explosion
planned for Amchitka Island
in the Aleutians
will not be set off before October 27th.
It wouldn't say
just when it will take place
and the President is still
making up his mind on that.
HUNTER: Like a see-saw,
the battle swings back and forth.
But it is possible that the test
has been delayed just to shake us off.
We knew we shouldn't just take off
and go to Amchitka
and be there a month early
in what could be
terrible hurricane weather.
So John decided
that we would go into Akutan Harbor.
HUNTER: Reaching Akutan is a relief,
an Alaskan fishing village
with a small Aleut community
and an abandoned whaling station.
MOORE: John told us
we weren't supposed to go ashore,
but we went ashore.
HUNTER: In the remains
of the whaling station,
huge bones thrust out of the moss
We are intent on trying to prevent
a nuclear holocaust,
but for this other race
of giant creatures,
the holocaust has already come.
As though we've been given a glimpse
of our own future.
MOORE: We walk up into the hills
where it's kind of rocky and otherworldly.
I think a few people
were a bit on the psychedelic side.
We all sort of lay face down in this moss
and immersed ourself in nature,
and we started to talk.
HUNTER: As Dr. Patrick gives us
the ultimate lecture in ecology,
in a leaping flash we all connect with
the idea that all life is interwoven.
The whales, the moss, us.
We are all one.
A flower is your brother.
DARNELL: And we just
sort of felt our power,
or that we were doing this
as a team of men, warriors.
MOORE: There on Akutan Island,
we bonded in a way that
I'd never really experienced before.
The next day, though,
there in the distance
was a US Coast Guard ship
steaming straight for us.
DARNELL: The US Navy
was monitoring our voyage.
This commander gets out and says,
"Where's your captain?"
And he goes up and talks to John Cormack.
MAN: District Director of Customs
asked Coast Guard
to notify the master of Phyllis Cormack
that he has incurred penalty
with US Customs
for failure to report
on the Tariff Act of 1930.
DARNELL: We were all subject to fines
because we hadn't cleared customs.
We entered the US illegally.
MOORE: As the captain
was up reading the riot act to John,
the three crew members in the boat
handed up to us
this crumpled-up piece of paper.
-Listen, you guys.
-From the crew.
"Due to the situation we are in,
"we, the crew of the Confidence,
feel that what you are doing
"is for the good of all mankind.
"If our hands weren't tied
by these military bonds,
"we would be in the same position
you are in, if it were at all possible.
"Good luck. We are behind you 100%."
-Hey, that's really great, you guys.
We've not even started out
and they've heard about it, man.
It's far out. I dig it, man. (CHUCKLES)
MOORE: It just completely blew our minds.
MOORE: Signed by 16 members of the crew,
I think everybody except the captain.
MAN: "If vessel does not
make formal entry to customs
"before he departs Akutan
he will be in violation..."
DARNELL: Up in the wheelhouse,
the commander told us
that we had to go back to US customs,
which wasn't any further out
the Aleutian chain towards Amchitka,
it was the opposite direction.
And, uh, they had us.
The Coast Guard says it has disciplined
an officer and 17 enlisted men
for supporting a protest
against the planned nuclear test
on Amchitka Island in the Aleutians.
The men were all on the cutter Confidence
when its skipper boarded
the Canadian yacht, the Greenpeace,
which was sailing in the Aleutians
to protest the big test.
HUNTER: We retreat to clear customs
at Sand Point.
The battle isn't lost,
but Amchitka is now 1,000 miles away
and slipping out of reach.
And in the Bering Sea,
ice packs are congealing
and winter is on the wind.
MAN: I wouldn't sail across
the Gulf of Georgia in that boat.
You guys are crazy.
Don't let 'em bullshit you, now.
MOORE: We could have gone back out
into international waters
and headed straight for Amchitka.
We're liable to die if we do that.
Even huge steel boats get broken in half
up there in the winter in the Bering Sea.
IRVING STOWE: You are, Ben...
BEN METCALFE: I'm just trying to clarify.
DARNELL: Ben Metcalfe was arguing
we'd accomplished our purpose.
We'd got it into the mainstream media.
Trudeau was calling Nixon.
But Bob really wanted to go on,
and I was in that same camp.
MAN: Here's another case in point
that's coming up right now.
I am sick and goddamn-well tired
of this fight that's going on
between you and you.
I think Bob would have
gone off the boat, got on the island,
run directly for ground zero
and gone down the hole
to where the bomb was if he could have.
He wasn't afraid at all of anything, Bob.
He was fearless.
MAN: This has gone on just too far.
There's too many snide remarks
and backhand statements
in the whole business
and I just don't like it one goddamn bit.
DARNELL: Bob lived his ideas.
If we're gonna change the world,
are we gonna risk something?
If it's at all possible, let's do it.
After seven days of arguing
and not being able
to come to any kind of a consensus,
Bob just pinned this piece of paper
on his undershirt one day
that just said,
"Fuck off," you know, like,
"Don't talk to me," you know,
"I've had it. I'm done."
We all were, and I think that's kind of
when Jim Bohlen stepped in and said,
"Look, we're going back."
MOORE: Bob felt abject failure.
He was angry, he was sad,
he was beside himself
that we weren't continuing.
It broke his heart.
HUNTER: It's sickening for me to realize
that a revolution
can go no faster or further
than people themselves.
We're supposedly saving the world
through our moral example,
but in reality we've spent most
of our time at each other's throats,
turning resistance into psychodrama.
DARNELL: When we were almost
back to Vancouver,
they announced November 4th
was the day for the bomb.
REPORTER: This afternoon, on hearing
that the Atomic Energy Commission
will proceed with the Amchitka test,
crew members said that President Nixon
has clearly circumvented all legal
procedure in sanctioning the blast.
HUNTER: On Amchitka, the last workers
are hustled away from the test site
into a concrete bunker 20 miles away.
And the chair of the Atomic Energy
Commission plans a family picnic.
I will be on the island during the test.
I did bring along
two of the girls and my wife,
and I think that that should indicate
the high degree of confidence
that we have in the safety of that test.
REPORTER: As a neighbor to a person
who is doing something
I might call the cops.
Uh, yes, but there are no cops to call.
MAN: Ten, nine, eight, seven,
six, five, four, three,
two, one, zero.
(HUMMING AND BEEPING)
REPORTER: And that was it.
Seven minutes and three seconds
after Cannikin was detonated on Amchitka,
the first readout in Vancouver.
The seismic readings
translated into an earthquake
registering 7.0 on the Richter scale.
DARNELL: We all came home
feeling like we'd failed.
But we sort of were treated like heroes,
which was a little bit disconcerting,
like, "No, no, we didn't actually...
You got the wrong guys," you know?
Many of the Coast Guard people
we talked to,
apart from the officers, uh,
were completely on our side.
HUNTER: As it turns out, my post-trip
despair is utterly mistaken.
The political pressure
generated by our voyage
succeeds beyond anybody's wildest dreams.
Five months later,
the nuclear testing program at Amchitka
is quietly canceled.
In the next year and a half,
they'll clean up most of this debris.
After that, Amchitka will become
what it once was, a wildlife refuge,
and deep down beneath it,
a cavern full of trapped radiation
that will endure for perhaps 20,000 years.
WEYLER: There was definitely
an unfinished feeling after Amchitka.
It was gnawing away
at the back of our minds
that humanity could do tremendous harm
to this world even without war.
HUNTER: The name on the sail
of our little boat
has earned some media capital.
And I suggest we reinvent ourselves
as the Greenpeace Foundation.
Bob felt that there needed to be
an ecology movement on the same scale
as the civil rights movement,
the women's movement, the peace movement.
MYRON MACDONALD: How do you take hold
of the global mind, as it were?
Because the globe in the '70s
was not thinking globally at all.
It was a question of where do you start
with such a huge number of problems?
Where do you start?
I think it only slowly dawned on Hunter
that he probably
should be giving direction here.
WEYLER: He was struggling
with the question
of whether he was still a journalist
writing about this movement
or whether he was an activist
leading this movement.
And then, of course,
Paul Spong came along.
HUNTER: Paul Spong is a young psychologist
who landed a job studying a whale
named Skana at the Vancouver Aquarium.
He's just been fired for stating publicly
that the whale wants to be free,
which has made him
a bit of a legend among eco-freaks.
Are you sure about that?
REPORTER: This is a kind of a surprise
to the people of Vancouver and district.
We didn't know that we were going to get
a whale and all of a sudden we have one.
PAUL SPONG: I devised an experiment to try
to understand what her vision was like.
Once she got it,
she was very, very consistent.
She would perform at 90% or above
day after day after day.
And then, on one day,
from one trial to the next,
she reversed her behavior.
She kept on doing it,
but she always got the answer wrong.
Kind of ruined my experiment.
MOORE: Paul knew
the whale was playing with him,
that now he was the subject
and the whale
was doing its research on him.
SPONG: It was really the first time
that I started to think about,
"Who is this whale?"
Dr. Spong, you are at the moment
protesting the, uh, captivity
of Skana the whale
in its present environment.
It's very dark and grimy.
Plain concrete walls.
Nothing from the ocean in it.
Not a seashell in it. Not a seashell.
REPORTER: During the last 50 years,
it has been estimated that two million
whales have been slaughtered.
An 80-foot whale weighing 100 tons
can be converted
into easily replaceable ingredients
for industrial lubricants, margarine,
cat food and cosmetics.
MOORE: Paul learned about what was
going on in the whale world outside.
He wanted to do something about it,
so he came to us.
SPONG: I was actually aware of Bob,
listening to the stories
about the Amchitka voyage.
This method of direct,
was a method that actually
could succeed in making change.
I invited Bob
to come down and visit Skana.
At one point, she opened her jaws wide
with a clear invitation
to him to put his head inside.
And he did that.
HUNTER: She takes
my whole head in her jaws
and holds me
like a crystal goblet in a vice.
I can feel her teeth
making the slightest indentation
at the back of my neck.
Terror explodes in my chest.
She could snap my head like an eggshell,
but chooses not to.
Suddenly I get it.
She's shown me exactly where
my courage ends and my fear begins.
Then, as though satisfied,
she lets go and sinks away.
WEYLER: I think everything that
he was struggling with coalesced
and he realized at that moment
what he had to do.
HUNTER: This is my farewell column.
I've quit the Vancouver Sun.
-Not in anger. Not under pressure.
Not for any good reason
except that to me it seems clear
that the time has come
to commit myself fully
to what has loosely been called
"the environmental movement."
I've cut my hair, trimmed my beard,
and somewhere along the line,
I lost my headband.
There used to be four-and-a-half
million whales on this planet.
What we've done is we've removed
90% of the whales already,
but there are already about five species
they're not allowed to hunt any longer
because they have reached a point
called commercial extinction.
If there is intelligent life
on this planet, it ain't necessarily us.
DARNELL: I remember being at a meeting
and supporting the efforts to stop
the French testing in the atmosphere.
MACDONALD: Everybody's very earnest
and intense, and then Hunter said,
"Well, here's what we're gonna do."
"We're gonna save the whales." (CHUCKLES)
I thought he was just nuts.
I was not in favor.
What has that got to do with anything?
It horrified the rest of the group.
DARNELL: I didn't see it.
I didn't think I wanted to go
in that direction with it.
And that's kind of a regret for me.
It's one of the things about Bob Hunter
was he was, uh, spontaneous enough
to recognize the power
and the integrity of a new idea
and go with it.
Bob always recognized that you can
change the world through a camera
much easier than with a gun
and much more effectively.
MACDONALD: The concept was complete
from the outset.
We have to get between the whales
and the harpooner.
That's the image we have to get.
It was completely premeditated.
I thought it was a great idea
and that we could probably
intercept them using Zodiacs,
which I was familiar with
because I was in the Coast Guard.
Everybody else worried about the risk,
but I figured, you know,
that was the whole point of it.
Harpooning a whale is not really a story,
but people risking their lives
to protect the lives of a whale,
that's a story.
HUNTER: The announcement that Greenpeace
intends to rescue
the last of the great whales
has released a frightening energy.
Some kind of psychic tom-tom
is at work in the jungles
of the collective unconscious
and it's brought people in droves.
You wanna grab hold of the line
and take it up the mast?
Sure, yeah, where is it?
HUNTER: My newfound love, Bobbi,
becomes the driving energy
that fuses the parts
of this kaleidoscope together.
BOBBI HUNTER: It was a magic time.
We needed money
and the money would happen.
We needed people,
the right person would come along.
I took over the treasury,
and the treasury, at that time,
consisted of a little tiny lockbox
with about $50 in it and a couple
of receipts. (CHUCKLES)
And we moved from there.
HUNTER: We have a fine, if unconventional,
blend of human talents.
For every mystic,
we have at least one mechanic.
BOBBI: It wasn't really a lot of people,
but, boy, did we do a lot of things.
Day and night, we would be making lists
of hundreds of things that we had to do.
We really had fun with each other.
We laughed, and joked,
and pushed and pulled
to the point that we had a whole other
language going on amongst ourselves.
Why don't I let you just talk to Walrus?
Here he is. Just hold down that button.
HUNTER: Walrus is an archaeology graduate
who looks like a frontier cowboy.
Hi, Walrus. I mean, hello, Rod. (CHUCKLES)
WALRUS: Paul Watson called me and said,
"Hey, Walrus, come on out here.
"We're gonna set this whale thing up."
I thought, "Well, you need a cook?
I'll just take that on."
HUNTER: No one ever has found out
why he's changed his name
from David Garrick
to Walrus Oakenbough.
WALRUS: As I was exploring
the topic of magic mushrooms
and different psychedelic plants,
I didn't wanna use my real name,
uh, just for logistical purposes.
-MAN: Ron Precious, take three.
HUNTER: When we hoped for a film crew,
cameraman Ron Precious arrived
with 20,000 feet of Kodachrome.
RON PRECIOUS: The crew welcomed me
as the cameraman,
and, um, Fred Easton was my soundman
as well as the second camera.
We were all there for the same reason,
to get powerful iconic images
that would, uh, you know,
resonate with everyone.
HUNTER: And when we wanted
another Zodiac inflatable,
Carlie Trueman turned up
with one of her own.
Twenty-three years old
and an experienced scuba diver.
Definitely more a mechanic than a mystic.
Absolutely true. (CHUCKLES)
I mean, this was a motley group
of people if there ever was one.
I looked at them all and I thought,
"What the hell
am I getting involved with?"
-PRECIOUS: Can you turn a little bit?
-Turn a little bit?
Yeah, like that, like it's a fashion.
HUNTER: A mad costume designer
has wrought a uniform for me
out of green and navy blue corduroy,
with huge pirate-style cuffs
featuring enough officer's stripes
to rank me as the commander
of some psychedelic NATO.
Hang on a sec, hang on a sec. (CHUCKLES)
But the idea of leading anything
I've always hated leaders.
My father deserted my mother
when I was still young
and it's close to nauseating to realize
I've become group father myself.
WEYLER: He wasn't an organizational man,
but Bob embodied what I think of
as real, true leadership.
He was visionary.
He could look into the future
and imagine things that didn't yet exist
and he could inspire
and empower people to contribute.
Groovy, man. (CHUCKLES)
WEYLER: This was a glorious revolution.
This just wasn't about us
going out and saving whales.
We were talking about
a new way of being in the world.
One of the languages
we're learning to speak here is whale.
That's whale language.
HUNTER: Creatures of light,
monsters of the deep, aquatic acrobats.
The biggest brains on the planet.
Is there any way
we can bridge this species gap
and actually communicate with the whale?
We believed that music
was the way to communicate with them.
WILL JACKSON: I was at work one day
in San Francisco,
having lunch, reading about Watergate.
My co-worker turned on the radio
and it was a talk show,
but the voices were not human,
they were whales.
So I fired off a letter.
All of a sudden
I got this letter from Bob Hunter.
"Your letter arrived just in time.
It's a miracle.
"We needed a synthesizer player
and there you were."
WEYLER: Now, everybody's got
a synthesizer these days,
but in those days, in 1975,
I'd never seen anything like this,
and Will could make
these unworldly sounds.
JACKSON: John aggressively wanted
to get rid of me as soon as he could.
I'd never been on a boat.
I wasn't a sailor.
I didn't know how to do lines or anything.
You know, boat lines. (LAUGHS)
MAN: Is there anybody there
who's into getting that Greenpeace flag?
HUNTER: We grope towards mastery
of the skills we need for the voyage.
Yeah, we should have mics on it.
-This is theater.
-Pardon me, this is reality.
HUNTER: Learning to handle the Zodiacs,
we are transformed from flower children
into a sea-going gang
of ecological bikers.
We have psyched ourselves into a sense
of simmering, sparkling power.
HUNTER: The plan is to put these
in the water
and run along with the chaser boat
when it's actually hunting a whale
so they can't get a shot at it.
INTERVIEWER: Expecting any violence
on the part of the whalers?
Um, we've been wondering
about that all winter.
REPORTER: On April 27th, the 80-foot
ocean-going trawler Phyllis Cormack
set sail from Vancouver,
British Columbia, on a twofold mission.
Number one, search out and document
Russian whaling operations
in the North Pacific...
WEYLER: By the time we got on the boat,
we were stunned, ourselves.
MACDONALD: There were thousands
of people there. Thousands.
WEYLER: That great feeling when
everything has finally come to fruition
and the show is on.
But then, here we are taking off
into the middle of the Pacific Ocean
and we have no idea
how to find the whalers.
We have no idea
how long it's gonna take us
or where we're actually even going.
So, then there was that.
One, two, three, four.
Makes it about 2,500 miles
to the Hawaiian Islands from here.
Does that sound about right?
Anybody know how far Hawaii is?
SPONG: We had some vague ideas
about where the whaling fleet was,
but we didn't know.
We did know
that there was a lot of information
about where whales were killed
in the Bureau of International
in Norway in a town called Sandefjord.
MOORE: Paul managed to talk his way
in there as a scientist.
He was a scientist, but he didn't
mention the part about Greenpeace.
SPONG: I had told the director
I'd wanted to find out
where we might do research
with sperm whales.
I spent several hours there
looking through stacks of logbooks
piled row after row after row.
And in the end, um,
he got his secretary to help.
MOORE: Paul's espionage
gave us the positions
of the Soviet factory whaling fleets
going back 10 or 15 years,
and there they were every year
at the same place off California.
It's this area here,
which had the most whales in it.
That's in June, July and August.
HUNTER: The timing of the Russian hunt
happens to coincide
with the annual meeting
of the International Whaling Commission,
which determines how many whales
can be killed worldwide.
MOORE: It has as many whales
in that one little area taken
as there is in a combination of the whole
works around the island, you know.
HUNTER: If we confront the whalers in that
five-day window at the end of June,
our mind bomb
will have the maximum effect.
So we just should be out
somewhere around in there
as much as possible in June.
WEYLER: The problem was
that it was early April
and we had all of May and half of June
to keep the story alive.
It's not an old kind of battle.
It's a new kind of battle.
You know, by going out there
and concentrating people's attention
through the media
and communications systems,
in a way, what you do is
you bring everybody onto the boat.
You know, in a rough calculation,
I'd say there's probably about 14 million
people on this boat at the moment.
JACKSON: Bob looked at our little world
as kind of making a movie.
We were creating the storyline.
He had an arc.
He knew where it needed to go.
We were like characters.
What do we need to do
and who can best fill the role?
Great movie, yeah. (LAUGHS)
There was the front,
the screen of the movie, what you saw,
and then there was the back,
what was behind it all.
The hidden reality
of what was actually going on.
You're not taking anything now, are you?
-No. Don't waste your film.
PRECIOUS: I wouldn't say
Bob was directing us,
but he was certainly aware
of what things were cinematic
Truth, 24 frames per second.
JACKSON: He liked
to exaggerate the extreme
to make us appear as the unwitting fools,
so that the people with real power
would not take us seriously.
We were like the Trojan horse.
Really it was all a design
to achieve the ending he was after.
But heroes often fail.
WEYLER: May had come and gone.
It's now June.
We headed to the Mendocino Ridge
to look for them.
HUNTER: There's just
a big gray ocean around here
and some gray clouds and a lot of birds,
but we haven't seen any whales yet.
WEYLER: The days were ticking off,
but the Mendocino Ridge
is a long stretch of ocean.
HUNTER: Well, what do you think?
I think we chased 'em
off the whaling grounds.
Well, I'd like to know what we've done.
I don't know. Have we got
a positive identification on it? No.
Except that we know
that they're in this area, so...
I don't know. Why don't we go back
to where we were last night...
-...and try again?
HUNTER: Hello. Can you hear me? Over.
MAN: (OVER RADIO)
Am I getting through to you, Bob?
Just talk to us. Over.
Why doesn't he just tell me the goddamn...
MARINING: The ship was floundering at sea,
we had no money,
some of the rice was full of diesel and
people, uh, were hungry onboard the boat.
I don't understand, Rod.
It was like finding a needle
in a haystack.
There's some Russians caught talking here.
Can you eavesdrop?
HUNTER: The radio crackles
with ghostly Russian voices,
which seem to come
from everywhere at once.
(RUSSIAN VOICES OVER RADIO)
HUNTER: Our Czechoslovakian engineer,
tries to get a fix on their position.
Well, they must be down there
at least 150, 200 miles.
(INDISTINCT RADIO CHATTER)
GEORGE KOROTVA: We sat on that radio
for hours and hours and hours,
and so you get the idea...
They are there somewhere.
Cormack said to Hunter,
"We have two days of fuel left."
CARLIE TRUEMAN: The question was,
were we gonna run for San Francisco
without an encounter with the whalers,
or were we gonna stay out
and try and find them?
And, of course, that has
huge consequences for Cormack.
If he has to have a tow, I mean, this is
big bucks that we're talking for John.
Hunter, Pat Moore
and David Garrick come by
and they have got The I Ching,
and they have got the coins,
the three coins.
I have no idea what The I Ching is.
I've never heard of this book.
I've never seen it.
But, of course,
it's a book of divination, right?
The Chinese word which means "approach"
has a range of meanings.
TRUEMAN: I thought,
"I have joined a ship of fools."
The ancient explanations
in the Book of Changes
give as its first meaning
TRUEMAN: Hunter throws one that says,
"Success. It furthers one
to cross the great waters."
There are four hexagrams
out of the 64 that have that,
and it just means good fortune,
supreme good fortune.
He thinks that we should go
and keep chasing whales, right?
Pat Moore threw it and he gets
a second one of the four hexagrams.
David throws it and he gets a third one.
"What the hell are you guys doing?
"What, you're... You're gonna consult
some kind of oracle for this decision?"
And they said, "You throw them."
And I went, "Oh, yeah, right.
"You guys, this is BS."
And I threw them and I got the fourth one.
And we went out and the next day,
we found the Russians.
Vostok is just over five miles
ahead of us.
-(HUNTER SPEAKING ON RADIO)
-MAN 2: Rex, count those boats again.
One, two, three, four, five over there.
There's one by the Vostok
and there's three over here.
There's nine chasers altogether.
MAN: Yeah, well, Bob, what's the plan?
a boat that size can do about 20 knots.
We can only do 10,
so they're starting to pull away.
So we'll put the Zodiacs out and run
over and have a damn good look at it,
see whether they're our boys or not.
And if they are, we'll try to hang in
with them as long as we can.
MAN: I think we'd better hurry.
They're way up on the horizon.
She does 15, the Zodiac does 20,
and he's five miles ahead already,
and the crew aren't out on deck
and the Zodiacs...
-MAN: They are ready now.
HUNTER: John has just, uh,
spotted two flags in the water.
They're dead ahead of us.
I can see it, too.
MAN: It's a sperm!
HUNTER: It's definitely a sperm.
MAN: Yeah, let's get closer to it.
HUNTER: Yeah, here,
it's definitely a dead whale.
Just bleeding all over the place.
MAN: That sure doesn't look
the right size.
-MAN 2: It's too small, Bob.
-It's a baby.
WEYLER: That's a goddamn baby whale,
for Christ's sake.
It's only about... How long is that?
TRUEMAN: Is that its tail there for sure?
MAN: Twenty! It's 20 feet at the most.
WEYLER: Twenty feet at the most.
MAN: I think we should even
measure that one, Bob.
MOORE: We thought they were out there
killing adult whales.
We find out they're basically wiping out
the whole pod, kids and all.
WEYLER: George, this is a film thing,
so let's get a Zodiac
and circle around this whale
and get some shots.
-Yeah, he's getting a...
WALRUS: I think
we hadn't quite thought through
the mechanistic side of whaling.
The fact you could bloat a carcass
and stick a radio
directional finder onto it
and just leave it and come back later.
And it was just heart-wrenching.
(STAMMERS) It brings tears right now.
That little whale.
WALRUS: Okay, that's good. Get in there
before some sharks show up or something.
CORMACK: Watch for sharks!
WEYLER: Stand up, Paul!
WATSON: I was very much, uh,
appalled by what I saw.
Here we are out here,
these beautifully intelligent,
socially complex, sentient beings,
uh, and for what?
I actually got onto the whale
to measure it.
And I found it was illegally taken.
It was an undersized whale.
WEYLER: What do you say, Paul?
How long do you think it is?
About 18 feet.
WATSON: That was certainly
a turning point in my life.
Just how warm the body was,
how hot the blood was
that was coming out of the wound.
The whale's eye was open
and it just struck me in a flash
that we're insane, ecologically insane.
From that moment on,
I never looked upon myself anymore
as working for people
but more working for whales
and other creatures
that live in the oceans.
HUNTER: June 27th,
one mile from the Vostok, closing in.
The Russian boats are all in motion,
I think with the Vostok at the center.
And everybody is in their wetsuits.
We've worked out
who's gonna be in what Zodiacs.
Uh, we're just, uh,
heading alongside it now.
We're gonna circle around behind
on the other side.
That chaser boat
is tucking in right behind it.
Blood pouring out.
Hell of a mess.
Just a hell of a mess.
There's a whole crowd
on the stern of the Vostok.
MAN: Fucking pigs!
HUNTER: Hey, listen, now, no... Let's not
get into overt aggression with them.
-MAN: I just said...
-Look at that fucking thing move.
MOORE: The guys up on top
are all in uniforms with Russian hats.
What do you call those hats, George?
TRUEMAN: The Dalniy Vostok is literally
a slaughterhouse on water.
It was highly mechanized killing.
This was a factory.
And that was when it got
very, very, very real.
-FRED EASTON: Okay, Zodiac launching crew.
-Zodiac launching crew!
GEORGE: Anybody got a hand on that rope?
-Come on. Quick, quick, quick, quick.
TRUEMAN: And there they go, folks!
MAN: They're off!
TRUEMAN: Whoop, whoop!
WEYLER: The idea had been that Fred Easton
would film with his Bolex 16mm
and I would take photographs
from a distance from the side,
so we could get the whaling ship
and the protestors in the shot.
TRUEMAN: I climb to the crosstrees
and I sit with a pair of binoculars
on the spreader bars
and I keep track
of where all the boats are.
JACKSON: When Hunter got on the Zodiac,
I saw his cassette player
sitting there on the hatch cover.
I just grabbed the thing
and I went up the mast
and I started reporting the confrontation.
JACKSON: There's a large herd
of sperm whales off our starboard bow.
We're all going that way.
The other two backup Zodiacs
have been on the bow of the chaser boat
and it's been unable to fire on any sperms
there's plenty of them around here.
Sperm whales are blowing hard and fast.
Seems they're tired
and they can't dive very much at all.
WATSON: Every time that the whale moved,
we tried to steer the boat
in order to block it,
and that worked
for about 20 minutes or so.
JACKSON: The harpoon man appears
very frustrated through the binoculars.
He doesn't even seem to be at his post.
TRUEMAN: The skipper of the kill boat
comes down the walkway to the gun deck.
These two men argue.
He puts up his hands like this
and bends to his gun
and we know that he's gonna shoot.
JACKSON: George Korotva and Bob Hunter
are in the Zodiac
in front of the chase boat bow
by only a distance of about 50 feet,
and the film crew Zodiacs
are on each side.
PRECIOUS: Fred Easton had a problem
with his camera.
All the bouncing and jostling
in the Zodiac
had frayed the battery connection,
intermittent, going on and off,
on and off.
Here's the big moment and
I didn't even know if this camera
was gonna function.
GEORGE KOROTVA: We start going
Occasionally, I'd glance back and I'd
see he was following back and forth.
WATSON: The harpooner then looked at us,
and then the captain looked
at us and he smiled,
then went like this across his throat
and I always joked that, you know,
the reason we were in that position
is because we had read
a lot of Gandhi at the time,
and it suddenly occurred to us that Gandhi
wasn't going to work for us anymore.
JACKSON: They just shot the harpoon.
I don't know if they hit.
I don't see any blood.
They're coming around to port slowly.
They've cut their engines.
Sound of that harpoon was frightening.
It was like a giant cannon.
He had a clear shot right over
the Zodiac to the whale,
and it went over Hunter's head,
maybe 15 feet.
I turned around and then I saw...
Psst! The cable snapped.
I peel off and get the hell out of there.
JACKSON: George is calling in
the other Zodiacs.
There's steam rising from the blood.
There's still blow.
The whale's not dead yet.
It's still blowing,
but it's not going anywhere.
WEYLER: They'll shoot a female whale
and then when the bull whale
comes to help the female,
they'll shoot the bull whale.
JACKSON: Hunter's yelling at all
the Zodiacs to come in immediately.
There's a bull over there
that's mad as hell, freaking out.
MAN: There's the other one, over there.
(SHIP HORN BLOWING)
MOORE: Did you get that, Ron?
HUNTER: Thoroughly shaken,
we haul ourselves back on deck
on a wave of revulsion,
rage and exultation.
We count eight surviving whales in the pod
fleeing steadily to the horizon.
A few hours later, the last Russian
vessel disappears from our radar,
heading in the opposite direction.
CORMACK: You got it on tape?
HUNTER: No, unfortunately,
I didn't bring my tape recorder.
CORMACK: Are you stupid?
How dumb can you be?
JACKSON: We're back on board
going over what had just happened.
Hunter was asking,
"Did you get it? Did you get the shot?"
PRECIOUS: Do we have that big moment
when the harpoon shot fired?
With film, that's the problem,
you don't know
until you've developed the film
whether, in fact, you've caught...
You've captured the image.
HUNTER: New paragraph.
"Riding upward on a wave,
"we found the harpoon gun
aimed directly at us."
-MAN: (OVER RADIO) Okay.
"As we fell with the wave," comma,
"we heard a deafening bang."
WEYLER: Bob's talking to our friends
in San Francisco saying,
"Make sure you tell the media
that we're coming in."
And our friend in San Francisco
He says, "Don't worry about that.
Everybody knows about it.
"Everybody's talking about it.
Everybody will be there."
REPORTER: The 80-foot ecology ship
steamed into San Francisco Bay today
after its weekend encounter
with nine Russian whaling vessels.
-The ship is...
REPORTER: Could you explain the incident
when the Russians
fired the harpoon over your head?
MOORE: Chaser came up behind us,
they were 500 feet behind us,
right dead on our stern
going much faster than we were.
MOORE: We were mobbed by the media.
REPORTER: What have American authorities
said about your chasing
these Russian whalers?
JACKSON: We've had no response
from the authorities.
Suddenly we became celebrities.
It could become an international incident.
I think it has become
an international incident already.
PRECIOUS: Both Fred and I are immediately
escorted to CBS station's headquarters
to have the footage developed.
We start hand-winding the film
through a Moviscop.
It's about a four-inch screen.
Fred pans the camera to the right,
he comes upon a Zodiac,
pans a little further to the right
and there are the whales.
And as he panned back,
the harpoon entered the frame.
WEYLER: We got the shot.
Fred got the shot.
And that was the moment that launched
the modern environmental movement.
A Canadian ecology organization
claims a boat it operates
chased a nine-ship Russian whaling fleet
for 250 miles off the California coast
this weekend in order to save the whale.
REPORTER: A lot of ecologists
are worried about whales,
and one group has gone to war
with the Russians.
Thirteen people in an 80-foot boat
have taken on a whole Russian
whaling fleet in the Pacific Ocean.
"And God created great whales."
From that rolling passage
in the Book of Genesis
right down to the present day,
the world's largest mammal
has created awe, terror and reverence.
REPORTER: Members of the Cormack's
crew sailed a small rubber boat
into the path of a Russian whaler.
REPORTER 2: The Greenpeace managed
to save eight whales by using this tactic,
but finally, the Russian harpooner,
whale in his sights, fired,
the harpoon flashing only 15 feet above
the heads of the Greenpeace crew,
and moments later
a dying whale thrashes in the water.
We had really expected
that they would not shoot
if there were human beings in the way,
and they did.
MACDONALD: He'd actualized a dream.
If you don't think of these things,
nothing's gonna happen.
To think of it, go out and do it,
REPORTER: In the meantime,
during this last mission will be submitted
to the International Whaling Commission
and the United Nations
with a plea that something be done
to curb the wholesale slaughter
of the world's largest mammal.
WALRUS: What Bob said we could do, we did,
and now we're looking at it and he's all,
"Ooh, boy. (CHUCKLES) This is something."
WEYLER: That footage proved out
the mind bomb theory,
that you could do a dramatic action
and actually connect viscerally
with people in their own minds.
WALRUS: That galvanized the United States.
It really did.
Suddenly, the whole place
just became whale-conscious.
And pretty soon we had volunteers.
They wanted to set up Greenpeace offices
all the way down the coast.
It really was on a trajectory skyward.
REPORTER: No. No.
No, it has to be on record.
HUNTER: You can get fucked up pretty fast
if you start thinking
the money's the deal.
REPORTER: All right, but...
REPORTER: We're running? Okay. Uh...
Bob, it seems like just a few days ago,
for me at least,
that I was talking with you at Jericho
and you were headed out to sea.
What does it seem... Seem like to you?
Well, it was either two hours ago
or 10,000 years. (CHUCKLES)
WEYLER: I think not only did the moment
of confronting the whalers
change the world
in the sense that it helped launch,
uh, an environmental movement,
it changed all of us individually
and it changed the organization.
Fear success because success can poison
the essence of what it was
you were trying to do.
(CHEERING AND APPLAUDING)
HUNTER: By the time
we get back to Vancouver,
our lives have irrevocably changed
without us realizing.
The North Pacific odyssey
cost over $120,000,
three times the original estimates,
but as one crewman told me,
"As long as they're butchering whales,
Greenpeace won't rest."
Everything worked out well,
um, almost as though we were charmed.
WEYLER: The weakest link
was always going to be ourselves,
the threat of our own egos getting
in the way of what we were trying to do,
our personal relationships
with each other.
And I think if you look at the history
of social change movements,
that's always the weakest link.
♪ Why can't we live in harmony
♪ We make love... ♪
HUNTER: Despite global fame,
our little group is now $40,000 in debt.
Our bank tells us that we have to learn
the arcane arts
of cash flow and bookkeeping,
which we know nothing about.
I really don't have much to say,
um, thank goodness. (CHUCKLES)
HUNTER: The chief advocate
of fiscal responsibility
is one of the worst
flipped-out mystics of all,
And we're gonna try and save them all
by next year.
-There's no reason why we can't.
JACKSON: Hunter would refer often
to a question he asked
of Allen Ginsberg once,
"How do you deal with power?"
And Ginsberg advised him, "Let go of it
before it freezes in your hands."
HUNTER: We've got offices being set up
in about 20 different places,
ranging from France,
through the United States.
Uh, there's one being set up in Japan.
So that it's a... It's a growth situation.
-Well, still coming in?
-Oh, yes, Bob, very well.
WEYLER: Bob said, "Let 1,000
Greenpeace offices blossom. Why not?"
BOBBI: It was just like Johnny Appleseed.
There'd be a little bit of Greenpeace here
and a little bit of Greenpeace there.
"Do it. Just set up and we'll stay
in touch and we'll make a movement."
HUNTER: When there are visions involved
and dreams, and ideals,
and ethics and changed values,
that all basically implies a revolution,
and when you get down to it,
that's what we're talking about.
MOORE: Bob thought it was fine
for Greenpeace groups
to just start up all over the world
without any control
and basically to take our name,
and our deeds and exploits,
and raise money themselves
and not have to give any to us.
WEYLER: We didn't own
the environmental movement.
Our goal was not to start an organization
and make the organization famous.
Our goal was to make ecology famous,
make nature famous,
make whales and seals famous.
That's what we wanted to do.
REPORTER: Money is raised
by any means possible.
Sales of T-shirts, bumper stickers,
buttons and lottery tickets,
and Greenpeace memberships,
$10 for an individual.
TRUEMAN: As soon as you had
different cities saying,
"We're leaping on this bandwagon
and we're calling ourselves Greenpeace,"
at that point there is a necessity
for some kind of organizational structure.
And the people
that organize structures like that
are not the same kind of people
that say, "Oh, I don't know.
"Let's just put a little boat in front
of a whaler and take a picture of it."
They think completely differently.
HUNTER: The winter is full of ambition.
We're already planning
the next whale voyage
when Walrus and Paul have an idea
to interfere with the annual
Newfoundland seal hunt.
REPORTER: Paul Watson,
freelance writer, ex-sailor,
a long-time dedicated member
of the Greenpeace Foundation.
He and his companions
are in bizarre rehearsal
for their next grand adventure.
It's the blackest mark
on the whole Canadian national identity.
I mean, people all over the world
know about Canada's seal slaughter.
We just didn't have the resources
and people and energy
to do two major campaigns.
WATSON: Bob and everybody said, "Well,
we haven't got the funding for that."
I said, "Well, that's okay, I've raised
some money independently, so..."
Then they sort of reluctantly
let me go ahead with it.
WATSON: We'll be applying some dye
to the coats of the seals.
They kill the baby seals
because they want the white fur.
They won't be getting white fur.
They'll be getting green and white fur.
One of the problems was
that this was Paul's idea
and he was happy
to create a confrontation.
(ROCK MUSIC PLAYING)
WALRUS: Paul wanted Hunter to come along.
But he didn't want Patrick to come along.
Bob brought Patrick.
WEYLER: Pat Moore and Paul Watson clashed
and they clashed continuously.
Well, I didn't take to Pat Moore at all.
I thought he was a bit of a pompous ass,
really, you know.
He had his private school education
and looked down on everybody else
who didn't have that background.
Paul is a bit of a know-it-all.
That's... To me, that's a problem.
WALRUS: It was not good for everybody.
(STAMMERING) It just began a downward
spiral in relations between those two.
REPORTER: The battle lines are
drawn again between conservationists
and Canadian government officials.
MOORE: Up till then
we'd been perceived as the little David
going out against
the vast Russian whaling fleet
or against nuclear tests,
but now we were coming after
the little Newfoundland seal hunters.
MARINING: This was a new situation
for us and for Canada
because we're attacking our own culture.
The more coverage we got,
the more political it became.
(STAMMERING) It was gonna be a battle
like we'd never experienced before.
REPORTER: Local fishermen,
many of them out of work,
angry that anyone would consider
the welfare of seals above their own.
HUNTER: Blocking the entrance
to Saint Anthony
is as mean-looking a gang
as any of us has ever seen.
WALRUS: They surrounded us
and tried to roll us over
and all that kind of stuff,
They had a noose in this pickup truck
and they're just pointing at it and us
"We're gonna string you guys up."
Nice way to enter
a Canadian town, eh? (LAUGHS)
MAN: The people in New York
or the people down...
And little old ladies in running shoes
will just have their compassionate
concern for the seal
and not realize
that in this part of the world
there's a whole way of life
that's threatened by...
Bob being Bob, he found out
who the leaders were
and went and tried
to make a deal with them.
WATSON: The reception we got
in Saint Anthony didn't surprise me.
I was raised in the Maritimes,
so I knew they were gonna be angry.
What surprised me was
Bob and Pat and others backing down.
HUNTER: There are 900 species
on the endangered list
is concerned with all of them.
But one of the species that's on the
is the Newfoundland fisherman
and we're concerned with him, too.
PRECIOUS: He's such a convincing speaker,
he managed to convince them
to allow us to enter the town
and then meet that evening in the
high school and plead our case, basically.
MAN: I'd like to place a resolution
before this meeting tonight
that these people
be given until tomorrow morning
to place themselves back on their bus,
remove themselves from Saint Anthony
and the problems of Newfoundland.
I'm 67 years of age
and we have suffered our life.
It's high time to stop this right now.
HUNTER: To rescue our campaign,
we must persuade this room
to allow us onto the ice floes.
There's nothing to be gained
from pitting ourselves
against the local landsmen
when most of the cull is done
by commercial Norwegian fleets.
As any general knows, if you drive
a wedge between your opponents,
you are that much closer
to winning the battle.
SPEAKER: I would like to call upon
Mr. Hunter, if he'll respond. Thank you.
The reason we're here
is not to harass Newfoundlanders
and not to try and tell you
to change your life
and not to take food out of your mouths.
We're here primarily because
there's a Norwegian fleet operating
and they're out there doing something
that they did off the coast of Russia
over a decade ago,
so that finally the Russian landsmen
had nothing to hunt any longer.
They chased... The Russians chased
the Norwegians out at that point,
but by that point it was too damn late.
MARINING: I think he had
a strong sense of empathy
and he would flow with the situation.
We had a common saying
back in those days that, you know,
"Let the guru be the situation
or the situation is the guru."
I have stated that we did not realize
that it would interfere
with your livelihood.
Now that we understand that,
we are prepared not to do it.
The deal that he made
was that they would hand over the dye.
MAN: We take that to be a firm commitment
that you definitely will not use the paint
or that you are gonna
look further into it.
No, you can take that as firm commitment
that we will not use it
and we'll bring the dye
down to Roy tomorrow.
(CHEERING AND APPLAUDING)
WALRUS: Bob unilaterally decided
to give it up,
and Paul and I weren't gonna give it up.
But he announced it to everybody
that we would give it up,
That was not a good thing to do.
The campaign to save the seals
and the rescuers decide
not to spray them green.
and there are new developments
in the campaign by animal lovers in Canada
to save thousands of young seals
from the hunters.
are coming across lots of problems.
Um... Here's the... Here's the dye. Um...
We spent months
digging that stuff up together,
so maybe keep it as a souvenir. (CHUCKLES)
HUNTER: To Paul, I've sold out
to the sealers and am basically a traitor,
but this is the only way I can see
to reverse the tide
that's moving against us
and continue our protest out on the ice.
MOORE: You know, in retrospect,
I think it was fair to say
that Bob was just trying to be strategic.
You know, if you're going to take a stand,
you have to take a stand.
And you can't, uh, you can't retreat,
you can't back down
and you can't compromise.
HUNTER: (ON RADIO)
The Greenpeace Foundation
announced it has every intention
of carrying on
with its opposition to the hunt.
MARINING: Paul, and myself and Walrus
were starting to critically look
at Bob and say, "Look, you know,
"he's not the omnipotent god
that we thought he was.
"He's... He's got his frailties
and we have to counter that."
BOBBI: It's so easy
for people to be critical,
but what that allowed them to do
was be out on the seal floes
and the campaign was able to carry on.
WALRUS: The Canadian government
made it illegal for us
to keep the helicopters
within three nautical miles
of any seal on the ice.
We had to go at least three miles
across ice to get to a seal.
On foot, a very dangerous thing to do.
WALRUS: It's a brutal thing to witness.
To go after a baby seal and club it
and then drag it by the hakapik
dug into its brain area,
MAN: Take that off. Take that one off.
It's not respectful of the natural world.
Sadly, we kept our word.
And we didn't have any spare dye
to use out there.
MOORE: I think we succeeded
in getting our message out
just as well as we would have
if we'd sprayed them with green dye.
Bearing witness is a powerful concept.
Making it clear that you are...
You are watching it happen.
WATSON: Oh, bearing witness, I mean...
You know, you don't walk down the street
and see a woman being raped
and stand there and take pictures.
Bearing witness, to me, is cowardice.
I never understood it.
We should not be submissive to these
people who are destroying the planet.
We should be aggressive. We should stand
up and stand tall and get in their face.
HUNTER: It's a goddamn disgusting mess.
And when you're out of jobs, you know,
the guys that are making
all the money out of this,
they'll just go and invest it
in real estate and you'll be out of jobs.
We're trying to help you too, you know?
MAN: It's our living, buddy,
they're still taking care of us.
HUNTER: Yeah, but you're gonna be
out of a living in five years.
HUNTER: It's my bright idea
to stand in front of the ship
that collects the sealskins.
MAN: Look out! The boat's moving!
HUNTER: I'm in the grip
of this insane fantasy
that I can hold it back
by sheer force of will.
I'm blocking the boat.
The moment I do, Paul Watson joins me.
WATSON: The ice was cracking under
our feet and I turned to Bob and I said,
"Okay, uh, when the ice breaks,
I'll jump this way, you jump that way."
And he said, "I ain't moving."
And I thought, "Shit, Bob,
if you don't move, I can't move."
They ran at us a couple of times
and they stopped.
WALRUS: When you're under fire,
you don't have time for debating,
you just have to act,
and people put aside differences quickly.
WATSON: You know, I felt so incapable
of doing anything to stop it.
We could only do what we did.
And, um, you know, we did...
We did our best.
WATSON: That was a dramatic image.
It certainly got a lot of coverage.
But Bob had taken away my major tactic
and, uh, I just wanted to be free
to, uh, handle my campaigns
without being interfered with.
MARINING: It got bigger
and bigger and bigger,
and the bigger it got, the harder it was
to keep cohesion together.
WEYLER: By 1976, we were feeling
a tremendous amount
of strain and pressure,
and in the meantime, we wanted
to pull off another whale campaign.
Now, with a bigger boat,
it was a lot more expensive
and we went through a lot more fuel.
HUNTER: The Greenpeace 7,
a 153-foot minesweeper
capable of going all the way to Tokyo,
is going to leave from out here.
And then when we go out on that boat,
everybody goes out on that boat with us,
and this is something
that they can't stop now
'cause we're not just a bunch of hippies
paddling around in a rowboat
in English Bay any longer.
WEYLER: Suddenly, we found ourselves
struggling with competing opinions
about how the organization
was gonna be pulled together.
Okay, we can put it up
a little more if you want.
WEYLER: People wanting credit,
people wanting to be a big shot,
or people wanting to be in charge.
-Are you holding the end of the rope?
WOMAN: We don't need that rope.
WEYLER: Pat Moore sort of saw himself
as somebody who was
second-in-command, so to speak.
And Paul Watson also saw himself
as sort of second-in-command.
This is ironic because the last thing
Bob wanted to be was first-in-command.
Those boats are gonna stay in a position?
TRUEMAN: I mean, we could have hired
a psychologist to come in and say,
"Guess what? You're gonna
be fighting each other for a while.
You're gonna have hurt feelings."
This isn't an individual game
and it isn't an ego game. It's a...
We do, in fact, represent a powerful force
that is trying
to hold this planet together.
WEYLER: Bob was trying
to preserve the tribe,
the family spirit of what we had,
and he was slowly watching it
turn into this
kind of Shakespearean tragedy.
And so he took to wearing this brush
that we used to clean the latrine.
And he had assigned himself
the role of latrine officer.
BOBBI: He would keep it in grand order
and he'd proudly walk around,
and people were going,
"What is with Hunter?"
You can still see the Zodiac
in front of you, can you? Over.
WOMAN: (ON RADIO)
I can still see the Zodiac...
WEYLER: I mean, it was sort
of an internal mind bomb.
Bob, in his own way, modeling modesty
in the face
of this sort of unrelenting ego.
I felt like he's given this
everything he has.
But I think he felt a little bit alone.
BOBBI: Because he was so stressed,
he was prescribed Valium to calm him down.
Kind of a daily combination,
Valiums, and nicotine,
and alcohol and pot,
and so he was making bad decisions.
We've got to make some decisions here
that I do not want to communicate
back to Vancouver.
SPONG: I think, at that point, we became
a little sidelined to the Cold War,
a toy for the CIA.
WEYLER: Suddenly, we had somebody
inside the United States government
feeding us information regarding
the position of the Russian whaling fleet
and accepting fuel from somebody
who has a close association
with the US Central Intelligence Agency.
Now, of course, they were doing that
because they loved the fact
that we were harassing the Russians.
So suddenly we're seeing
all these strange bedfellows.
We got a coordinate that had
gone all the way to Washington,
come back to Vancouver to here.
And it is an old Greenpeace slogan
that used to appear on the walls,
and I know you've heard this 100 times,
Bobbi, wherever you are,
but, uh, it used to be, "With enemies
like this, who needs friends?"
WATSON: We couldn't get the coordinates
for the Japanese fleet,
but we could get the coordinates
on the Russian fleet
because that was in the interest
of the United States government
to embarrass the Russians.
HUNTER: The whole fleet
is apparently now moving west.
WEYLER: When that got out, that caused
a huge dissension on the crew.
WALRUS: You know,
I really didn't wanna become
a strong-arm for psychological war
on behalf of the American government.
WEYLER: Paul Watson blamed
Pat Moore and Bob Hunter
for not being more aggressive
in going after the Japanese.
So that's... We're adopting
a fine, ancient, uh, strategy
of hanging loose
to the last possible second.
WALRUS: We just barely made it to Hawaii
and things started breaking apart.
Paul left. Paul Watson left the boat.
Uh, if you're on standby,
that makes things a lot easier...
MARINING: Many times
I was on his right shoulder
and Bobbi was on his left shoulder,
because Bob was completely wrecked.
He was moody and he was causing problems.
HUNTER: Come on, let's go, guys. Let's go.
WEYLER: The new members of the crew
kind of rebelled
against Bob's authority on the boat.
PRECIOUS: I would call
it a full-on mutiny.
The crew was just saying,
"You guys have...
"You've lost us completely.
"Bob's become a babbling idiot.
"We don't have any confidence
that you guys are,
"are making the right decisions."
HUNTER: I brood darkly
over my failings as a leader.
The greater our influence,
the messier and more obstinately human
being flawed human beings after all.
Thank God for the Valium.
HUNTER: (OVER LOUDSPEAKER)
We speak for the 70 countries
that have begged you to stop whaling.
There are not many whales left.
These whales belong
to all the people of the Earth,
not just those proud and mighty
and successful nations like yours
which have the machinery
to be able to kill them.
They also belong to me,
they belong to my children,
they belong to the children of Africa,
South America, of North America
and of Europe...
HUNTER: Our confrontations
with the Russians succeed
because they too have become aware
of the power of images.
Whenever we appear,
they shut their whole operation down.
We stayed in front a couple of times
they started up
and each time they start up,
we get back in front of them and they
stop and right now they've stopped.
HUNTER: But to what end?
Eventually, we'll have to go home.
I've borne witness to the point of nausea,
yet nothing in the world
has really changed.
Maybe we should buy some explosives
and sink the bastards.
(ROCK MUSIC PLAYING)
WATSON: On the second seal hunt, I didn't
invite Bob or Pat on the campaign.
Since Bob had interfered the year before,
I didn't want him interfering again.
BOBBI: I think Bob felt just frustrated
that he couldn't be there
because it became
a kind of a media circus.
I have to talk about what happened today
with, uh, Paul Watson,
was the name of your friend,
and is the name
of your friend and colleague,
who was injured on the floes.
HUNTER: He handcuffed himself
to one of the cables
that is attached
to the pile of seal pelts.
And they dragged him across the ice,
into the water,
smashed him against the side of the boat.
With him sort of hanging by one arm,
they dunked him four times,
which is, of course, Arctic temperature
water in the North Atlantic.
MAN 1: Take him
to the hospital immediately.
MAN 2: And get our helicopters
permission to land here right away.
I have no contact with your helicopter.
Look, assholes, do something!
Those guys tried to kill me!
-I have no authority.
-WATSON: I don't care
-if you have no authority! Do something!
-Okay, let's put him in the...
HUNTER: Four of our other people
had to go in to rescue him.
Uh, he's now onboard one
of the icebreakers with a broken arm,
back damage and suffering from exposure.
WATSON: I was flown back.
I remember getting out of the helicopter
and this woman came
and started hugging and kissing me
and I didn't know who that was,
and, uh, then I left and I said to
Bob Cummings, "Who the hell's that?"
And he said, "Oh, that's Brigitte Bardot."
This must finish. It has to stop!
and the sake of the whole world
(REPORTER SPEAKING IN FRENCH)
The publicity accompanying
the arrival of Brigitte Bardot
has seized world opinion.
WATSON: Brigitte Bardot turned the pages
in our favor so dramatically
that it was never turned back.
You know, the Canadian government
hated her for it,
but, uh, she's sort of like me,
she doesn't give a damn.
Are you willing to die for a seal?
If I die for a seal, I die for a seal,
but I don't think
I'm going to have to die for a seal.
I don't think it will come to that.
That was when you discovered
just how male-dominated Greenpeace was,
because guys were absolutely smitten
with Brigitte Bardot.
MOORE: Bob wanted to take a break,
and so he designated me to go as
the representative of the organization
while Paul Watson
was the leader of the campaign.
WATSON: Patrick was there
as vice president of Greenpeace
to watchdog me. (CHUCKLES)
At one point, Pat Moore said
he was going out to the ice
with Brigitte Bardot
and I said, "No you're not."
I said, "I don't have room for you
because I need every seat
"for somebody with a camera
and what am I gonna do with you?"
MOORE: Paul had invited
80 European journalists
and only had two helicopters.
WATSON: And he said,
"Let me just put it this way.
"If we're not in that helicopter,
you're out the door."
I said, "Well, let me put it this way.
You're not getting in the helicopter."
BOBBI: They think had Bob been there,
he was always the glue, the mediator,
he was always the person
who could bring calm and sanity
to the group,
and he wasn't there to do that.
REPORTER: Officials from
the Department of Fisheries
have been closely monitoring the
activities of the Greenpeace Foundation.
The officials also have exhibits
against the Foundation,
which could be used for possible charges.
The exhibits include
the handcuffs used by one member
to attach himself to a ship.
MOORE: And he did it without telling
anybody he was going to do it.
He was part of a team
and all of a sudden,
he's gone off like a loose cannon.
It wasn't part of the plan,
and that was like the fourth
or fifth or sixth time
that he had behaved in that way
towards the rest of us.
Pat saw this as an opportunity
to kick Paul out of the organization.
WALRUS: He was condemned by others
in Greenpeace for destroying property.
Well, give me a break. (LAUGHS)
I was never one to condemn
some material rearrangement
of molecules of something,
even though it might be called
HUNTER: No one doubts Paul's courage
for a moment,
but he seems possessed
by too powerful a drive.
We all feel we've got trapped in a web
no one wants to see develop.
There is nothing to do
but bring down the axe,
even if it means bringing it down
on the neck of our brother.
And by an 11-to-1 vote, him being the one,
that was decided.
I think everybody understood that
that would be better for everybody.
BOBBI: Bob felt excruciatingly torn
over letting Paul go.
That's the last thing
he really wanted to do,
but it was only as a result
of putting those two young lions
together on one hill.
MAN: And I say
to the Greenpeace Foundation
that when they undertook saving the seals
that they did not
do their homework properly.
REPORTER: Do the members
of Greenpeace get paid anything?
How many contributors do you have?
How much money did you take in
in dues last year?
Do you think, that at 34, you could be
doing better things with your life?
BOBBI: He needed a break,
really needed a break.
MAN: All right,
here's Bob Hunter from Greenpeace.
as far as I can see, it's all over.
It's just a 200-year mop-up operation now.
HUNTER: Is there a point simply in life
where everything you believe
turns inside out?
You begin to doubt it all.
What is leadership but tricking other
people into your own hallucinations?
-Can I start again?
-MAN: Yeah, sure.
BOBBI: He lost heart.
He looked at me and said, "It's time."
And that was it
and then he put his resignation in.
MOORE: In the middle of the spring of '77,
Bob handed the reins over to me.
Within a year,
the conflicts that arose because of that
had virtually torn the organization apart.
MOORE: The challenge that we faced
was the proliferation
of Greenpeace offices
that had no cohesive management.
(DOOR BELL RINGS)
By the time I took over from Bob
in early '77,
the horses were well out of the barn.
You could never have 50 Greenpeace groups
all operating simultaneously
and wanting to be
independent and anarchistic.
Pat always thought
that he knew exactly what was right
and what was the best way to do things,
and he was somewhat dictatorial.
All the organizations
outside of Vancouver revolted.
We were $150,000 or more in debt,
and San Francisco office,
which we had created,
was now making 10 times as much money
as we were able to raise,
yet they didn't wanna pay our debt.
It has to be eventually resolved.
Who is the ultimate authority
over the name Greenpeace?
WALRUS: "It started in Vancouver.
We're in charge.
"All these outfits out here,
"they're supposed to send money to us
and we'll call the shots."
Well, that wasn't gonna work.
WEYLER: This was a social movement.
It wasn't a corporation where the new
president suddenly lays down the law
and everybody goes along with him.
Next thing we know,
Pat Moore started a lawsuit
against our group in San Francisco.
MOORE: We're willing to go through
with it and we're willing to
be candid with people
about the fact that,
even in the environmental movement,
there are corporate takeover bids
and people who are trying to steal our
name and all of the rest of it going on.
That didn't go over well with hippies.
MOORE: It wasn't an easy time
for Eileen and I.
San Francisco, in turn,
sent a bailiff to our house
with a personal lawsuit against us
for a million dollars for defamation.
We lost a lot of friends during that time
because they didn't think
what we were doing was right.
It was enough to make you lose
a fair amount of hair off the front
of your head, as you may notice.
BOBBI: We moved away soon after
into the countryside.
We started a family.
Every time anyone would be speaking
about Greenpeace, I would, you know,
that was it. I said,
"No G word in this house." (CHUCKLES)
(SIGHS) I was tired of it all.
I think Bob was discouraged
We didn't object to the fact
that Greenpeace had to be
organized and managed,
but organizing and managing
should not become the purpose,
that the purpose was still
a cultural revolution.
And Bob felt betrayed by Patrick,
that this deeper ecological purpose
was in danger of being lost.
HUNTER: I realize
I've committed the paramount sin
of quitting my earthly duty.
A hole of guilt has opened in my soul.
It's either time for someone to escort
me away or for one last push for unity.
How can we save the planet
if we cannot save ourselves?
MOORE: Bob got back involved
to pull the organization together.
I said to Bob,
"You know, you said you were leaving,
"you're out of it,
you haven't been part of this,
"so why would you try to dictate
what's going to happen?"
BOBBI: Bob decided that really
the best thing to do
was for Greenpeace to get out of the hands
of the local grassroots
and move into the international arena.
WEYLER: He decided to find
a new leader, essentially.
The most obvious choice
was David McTaggart.
MOORE: David McTaggart,
who was the head of Greenpeace Europe,
had got every other Greenpeace office
in the world to be against us.
I was perceived as the enemy
by all the rest at this time, though.
Uh, all those in favor
of these two flowers
continuing their voyage
along the river of life...
MOORE: I described Bob
as my best friend and my best enemy.
I mean, he fought dirty, uh,
but he was a worthy opponent.
WEYLER: It was not pleasant for any of us,
'cause we were still friends.
But we couldn't let him stay on
in that leadership role.
WALRUS: McTaggart and Rod Marining
and Bob Hunter and a few others
met in my basement in Kitsilano,
and we planned the founding
of Greenpeace International in 1979.
McTaggart came up with a plan
and Bob considered it.
If we internationalized Greenpeace
so that Vancouver is no longer
considered to be the center of it all,
but one of an equal number,
Australia, United States, New Zealand,
they're all gonna be separate
and equally powerful.
Then we'll give Patrick Vancouver
and then all the lawyers involved
with suits against each other
would drop their lawsuits.
Patrick was invited to receive Canada
and give up the world.
MOORE: I gladly signed that agreement.
At that moment, when we created
we made something bigger
out of a bunch of disparate fragments
that had fallen apart, basically.
You know, we had a saying in Greenpeace,
"You can't get off the boat," uh,
which was just to mean
that you don't wanna.
Once you're in it, you're enjoying it
and you're succeeding,
you don't wanna stop, um,
it's not easy to get off that boat.
WEYLER: Trying to cling onto power
is a fundamental mistake.
we learned from The I Ching.
It's such a hard lesson to learn.
Suddenly, Greenpeace was raising millions
of dollars worldwide by this time
and we just gave it away.
We did it.
HUNTER: No matter how big
a movement grows,
its blueprint is found in its seed.
I think of Greenpeace
from the very beginning
as a natural phenomenon.
All of us were involved
because we had to be.
We were part of a reflex,
summoned to action by the Earth itself.
SPONG: I think Greenpeace
is a real force in the world
and that it accomplishes great things.
Uh, but save the planet, you know,
that's the... That's the aim here.
The International Whaling Commission
has imposed at least a partial ban
on factory ship whaling.
SPONG: In 1982, a 10-year moratorium
on commercial whaling
was finally put together.
WEYLER: As far as we're concerned,
it's the conservation event of the decade
in that at least 7,000 whales
have been saved per year,
because that's approximately
what they were killing each year.
WATSON: The important part of that period
was the realization
that a small group of individuals
can make an impact
and that they could do it
without many resources.
I believe that Greenpeace
was more powerful when it had nothing
than it is today with
its hundreds of millions of dollars.
WEYLER: I am very proud of Greenpeace.
The real ecology movement is
a long, multi-generational phenomenon.
It's really a lesson
that nature is going to teach humanity
and we're just trying to help it along.
We made a difference, you know.
It doesn't mean you can stop.
(IN SING-SONG VOICE) Emily.
It's too early in the morning.
I don't wanna go to school.
EMILY HUNTER: When I grew up, my father
moved away from traditional activism
into his media journalism role.
In many ways he really struggled
making this new life with my family.
Anybody who thinks that the warming
trend is just a theory and not a fact
need look no further
than these mountains of salt piling up,
which are all the salt that was not used
on the roads and metro last year
because there was virtually no winter.
EMILY: He really knew that this would
become the defining issue of our time
and it would surpass really
all environmental issues
because they were all interconnected
to this one issue of climate change.
I think he found himself again,
he found his role again,
that he could be that leader again
Planet Earth, I say love it or leave it.
I'm Bob Hunter, covering ecology.
EMILY: He felt like he could actually
use media again as his tool for change.
Hey, skipper! Permission to come aboard!
Permission granted, Bob.
BOBBI: The most exciting
things after Greenpeace
was being with Paul Watson,
and the most meaningful.
I just wonder what keeps the fire
in your belly.
-Anger. You gotta keep angry.
BOBBI: Bob would go out
with Paul's new organization,
the Sea Shepherd Society.
They were both action junkies.
It's 10 after 9:00.
The nearest drifter boat is just off to
our starboard here. We're closing in.
-WATSON: Okay, here we go.
-(SHIP'S HORN BLARES)
WATSON: Sea Shepherd was set up
as an anti-poaching organization.
In 1979, when I hunted down
and rammed the pirate whaler Sierra,
I was brought before the port captain
and accused of, um, negligence.
I said, "Well, there wasn't
anything negligent about it.
"I mean, we hit the ship
exactly where we intended to hit it."
MOORE: People support Paul just like
they cheer for Rambo in the movies.
It's the same kind of thing.
He is trying to create
a real-life action figure image,
which he's done very successfully.
And I see him as a real-life hero
in many aspects.
I was with Greenpeace for 15 years
and helped create it.
It has turned into something
I'm regretful about.
Hi. Are you guys media? Help yourself
to any of this literature here.
BOBBI: You can't become
such an anti-Greenpeace person
and still command any level
of, uh, love and respect, you know?
MOORE: Greenpeace is back
in the Dark Ages somewhere,
against genetic science being used
to make our food and medicine better.
But if they wanna
keep that position, fine.
WATSON: Patrick was able
to turn his former position
into a money-making endeavor,
representing first the salmon farmers
and then miners and loggers
and the nuclear industry,
so he became a PR organization
defending all of the enemies
Bob felt quite betrayed by that
and coined the term Eco-Judas.
REPORTER: You do concede
that human-induced carbon emissions
have contributed to global warming
in the second half of the 20th century?
No, I do not.
We do not have proof
that we are the cause of warming.
It isn't warming much, anyways,
so even if CO2 is a greenhouse gas,
it's not having anywhere near the effect
that people thought it would, but...
This whole anti-globalization,
anti-business, uh, orientation
of the environmental movement
is extremely destructive.
SPEAKER: Our next witness
is Dr. Patrick Moore.
Please proceed with your statement.
In 1971, as a PhD student in ecology,
I joined an activist group in a church
basement in Vancouver, Canada.
We became Greenpeace.
After 15 years in the top committee,
I had to leave,
as Greenpeace began to adopt policies
that I could not accept
from my scientific perspective.
There is no reason to believe
that a warmer climate
would be anything but beneficial
and the majority of other species.
Please see Exhibit 3.
WEYLER: I don't consider Patrick
an active ecologist.
is a public relations specialist,
selling his affiliation to Greenpeace
to his corporate clients.
We live in different worlds now.
EMILY: By the time I realized that I
wanted to be an environmentalist myself,
my father shared the news with me
that he had terminal cancer, um,
and only about a year and a half left.
In that time, I wanted to be
as close to my father as possible,
but he told me he wanted me to go
on my first campaign with Sea Shepherd
rather than just be by his side,
and so I did and it changed my life.
I shared the stories
of every little thing,
every sea-sickness event,
um, every arrest.
At one point I was taken hostage.
I shared everything with him, uh,
in writing and in emails
and our correspondence together,
and I could tell it just gave him
maybe one of those last
little highs in life.
You know, Bob and I could never speak
about his death,
and I can't now, but, um...
Bob was a real global person,
and what I wanted to do to honor him
was to take him
to all four corners of the planet.
EMILY: He had never been able
to go to Antarctica.
He really wanted to fight on that front.
For Paul, it was his way
to get to say goodbye to his brother.
I always thought of it
as my dad's last campaign,
and it was one of my first campaigns,
and it was kind of completing
both of our missions.
(STAMMERING) What I wouldn't give
just for one more day,
you know, just one, you know...
If you could just have Bob back
and go to the pub. (CHUCKLES)
HUNTER: I realize something
I had forgotten,
something I learned
at the height of the '60s,
that my separate existence is an illusion.
Ecology is flow.
You and I are most definitely
part of the flow.
Everything we do affects the flow,
and everything the flow does affects us.
It doesn't really matter
what I read or think or write.
Don't judge me by my words,
which are many,
but by my actions, which are few.
Because if we wait for the meek
to inherit the Earth,
there won't be anything left to inherit.